The 2019 eBird taxonomy update is COMPLETE. At this stage, all major taxonomic changes should be complete. Thank you for your patience.
We do this update once each year, taking into account the past 12 months’ worth of recent taxonomic knowledge on splits, lumps, name changes, and changes in the sequence of the species lists. Your eBird Mobile should have had an “Updating taxonomy…” message that loaded the new version. Search the “full taxonomy” for Swinhoe’s White-eye or Blue-throated Hillstar to confirm that your taxonomy has updated. If you see unfamiliar bird names in the lists as the changes percolate through our system, please refer to the story below to understand the change and why it happened.
If you only have time to take two things away from the taxonomy update, here they are:
- We automatically update your records for you when possible, using known range, your checklist comments, and other information to assign records to a species. However, please review your lists (made simple by the “my records” links below). After the publication of this story, most species should be in the process of changing and these changes should be mostly resolved in a few days. If you need to correct anything, it’s super easy using “Change Species.”
- If you use eBird Mobile on iPhone or Android, please check the App Store or Google Play Store to make sure you have the latest version of the app. After you’ve updated to the new taxonomy (you should see an “Updating Taxonomy…” notification appear when you start the app up) make sure to submit a list from a *new* location near you (i.e., not one of your stored “recent locations”). This step will ensure that the local checklist filter is updated to the newest version and that all your post-update submissions have the correct new entries, such as African Sacred Ibis or Madagascar Sacred Ibis instead of the pre-update “Sacred Ibis.”
2019 eBird Taxonomy Update
This year’s update is v2019 of the eBird/Clements Checklist. The eBird/Clements Checklist is an integrated global taxonomy for the birds of the world, including all species and subspecies, as well as additional taxa useful to field birders to report in eBird. The list of species available in eBird is the eBird Taxonomy (v2019) and includes all species, subspecies groups (which we call identifiable sub-specific forms or ISSF), hybrids, intergrades, spuhs (e.g., scoter sp.), slashes (e.g., Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher), domestics, and forms. The Clements Checklist includes only species and subspecies, along with subspecies groups which are further identified as monotypic (consisting of one subspecies) or polytypic (consisting of more than one subspecies). Read more about the eBird Taxonomy.
A list of all the taxonomic changes is below. Most changes for the AOS-NACC Sixtieth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds are incorporated, as well as AOS-SACC revisions to the South American Check-List through 6 June 2019.
The taxonomic statistics of the final v2019 eBird/Clements taxonomy are:
group (polytypic) 1339
group (monotypic) 2461
TOTAL GROUPS 3800
TOTAL TAXA: 34504
TOTAL SSP.+MONOTYPIC GROUPS 20452
Since this is a long article, here is a short index:
When the taxonomy is updated in eBird, many changes are fairly simple to implement. When a common name changes, a scientific name changes, or when the taxonomic sequence is revised, those changes roll through and quickly appear in eBird output fairly quickly. Staying on top of name changes is a challenge, and consulting Avibase is one of the best ways to keep track. Just type any bird name in Avibase to see the history of that name, and—if it differs from eBird—it will show what the eBird equivalent is for that name. Try it with “Louisiana Heron”, for example.
When species are ‘lumped’ (e.g., two taxonomic entities that used to be considered separate species, but are now one), eBird usually retains the former species as an identifiable group. In these cases, your records may shift to the lumped form and your totals may (or may not) drop by one. The actual entity that you observed and reported has not changed in any way other than being changed from species to subspecies. For example, this year, those who have birded Central America may notice that your previous reports of Orange-bellied Trogon Trogon aurantiiventris and Collared Trogon Trogon collaris have changed to Collared Trogon (Orange-bellied) Trogon collaris aurantiiventris and Collared Trogon (Collared) Trogon collaris collaris.
When splits occur, the process is more complicated. In most cases, we have had subspecies options available for reporting in anticipation of the split. All these records update automatically to the new species. When a bird is reported at the broader species level (without a subspecies listed on your entry), and then that species is split, we update the records in eBird to one of the “daughter” species whenever possible. We try to be very conservative with this. When two species do not overlap in range (i.e., they are allopatric) we go ahead and make the change. When the species do overlap (i.e., are sympatric), and do not have clear seasonal or habitat differences, we usually do not make the change. This results in your records being left as the more conservative “slash” option.
As an example, this year Black-faced Ibis Theristicus melanopis is split into two species: Black-faced Ibis Theristicus melanopis and Andean Ibis Theristicus branickii. The former occurs in southern South America and the Pacific coast of Peru while Andean Ibis occurs at higher elevations in the southern half of Peru, northwestern Bolivia, and in an isolated area of Ecuador. The two are similar but easily identifiable with good looks and are treated in most field guides. In many areas there is only one species (e.g., all are Black-faced Ibis in Argentina), but in northern Chile and parts of Peru both species are possible. In those areas the records would be converted to Black-faced/Andean Ibis Theristicus melanopis/branickii since we won’t be able to tell which species you observed (unless you noted the subspecies in your eBird submission). As always in eBird, when you are unsure, your observation is best listed as the slash option.
If you want to review your records of “Black-faced/Andean Ibis” or of “Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher”, there are a couple ways to do this through the My eBird tools. If you know the checklist it is on, you can find the list in “Manage My Observations” and edit it as needed. If you can find your checklist on the range map of “Black-faced/Andean Ibis” then you can just click on the marker for your list and open it from there. But the best option to review your records is to go to My eBird and then click “Download My Data” from the right side. This downloads your entire eBird database as a CSV file that can be opened in Excel or a similar spreadsheet program. From there, you should easily be able to sort by name or search for “Black-faced/Andean Ibis” to find your records. Then you can scroll to the correct date or just replace the Submission ID in the URL for a checklist view.
This year’s update has a lot of changes, with most of those from Southeast Asia (especially Indonesia, New Guinea, and the South Pacific) and Africa, because of a thorough review of avian taxonomy for those regions. Almost all of these changes also improve alignment with other global taxonomies: the IOC World Bird List and Handbook of the Birds of the World/Birdlife International taxonomies already recognized most of the below splits, so we move ever closer to a unified and agreed-upon global list of birds. We look forward to the day when there is more agreement about species limits and less confusion about different taxonomic treatments between different global authorities on the world’s birds.
We provide birds names in eBird for more than 30 languages, as well as 25 additional regional versions of some languages. For example, Pluvialis squatorola is known as Black-bellied Plover in our taxonomy, but known by its winter dress in some areas such as the United Kingdom, where it’s called Grey Plover. You can access name preferences under “Preferences” from most eBird pages, which is also where you can set the names to shows as common names or scientific names. One option is English (IOC), which gives a full translation of species names into the IOC World Bird List (v8.2) nomenclature. Note that these names are exact taxonomic matches, so they reflect as slashes when a species is split by IOC and not by eBird; similarly, species split by eBird will appear as subspecies groups for IOC. Our Common Name Translations article explains more about regional common name preferences.
The species below were split in eBird. To see a map of the new species, click “map.” Previously we included links to a media gallery, but with the recent release of eBird species pages, the links this year go directly to that page (and from that page, you can easily access the media gallery). To see your personal lists in My eBird, just make sure you are logged in and click “My Records.” If you have seen the species but don’t have any records shown, then please enter your sightings! We encourage all birders to carefully review the below splits and check your personal records and to update them if you think we made an error.
Below are the splits for this update:
Stejneger’s (top) and White-winged Scoter are best separated in male plumage, when White-winged has distinctive brown flanks and a “bumpy” head shape with a concave slope broken up by a knob at the base of the bill. Stejneger’s Scoter has black flanks, an angular “hooked” knob at the bill base (it has sometimes been known as the Hook-billed Scoter), yellow “lips” at the edge of the tip of the bill, and a formidable sloping head shape. Photos by Pavel Parkhaev/Macaulay Library (upper) and Joshua Covill/Macaulay Library (lower).
White-winged Scoter (Melanitta deglandi) is split into two species: White-winged Scoter Melanitta deglandi, which occurs in North America, and Stejneger’s Scoter Melanitta stejnegeri, which occurs in eastern Asia. Last year we split Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca; this year our revision follows the AOS, which also splits these three taxa that were once considered the three subspecies of Melanitta fusca.
We know of only one place on the planet where both species are known to occur regularly, the Gambell seawatch! If you have records from there, you will need to find those lists and parse them to the correct species manually. Vagrant White-winged Scoter may occur in East Asia and western Europe, and vagrant Stejneger’s reach western Europe and have two records so far from the Lower 48 states in USA (Montana and California). So we retain a slash option for conservative reporting:
- White-winged/Stejneger’s Scoter Melanitta deglandi/stejnegeri [map]
In southeast Asia, Long-billed Partridge Rhizothera longirostrisand Dulit Partridge Rhizothera dulitensis are split; the latter is poorly known and highly endangered from highlands of northeastern Borneo.
In east Africa, Chestnut-naped Francolin Pternistis castaneicollis and Black-fronted Francolin Pternistis atrifrons are split; the latter is extremely rare and poorly known from s Ethiopia and n Kenya.
Tibetan Eared-Pheasant Crossoptilon harmani populations in s Tibet and adjacent ne India are recognized as Tibetan Eared-Pheasant Crossoptilon harmani while those in the remainder of the range in western and southern China and ne India are now known as White Eared-Pheasant Crossoptilon crossoptilon
Madagascar Green-Pigeon Treron australis is split into Comoros Green-Pigeon Treron griveaudi, of Mohéli in the Comoros Islands, and Madagascar Green-Pigeon Treron australis, of Madagascar.
Torresian Imperial-Pigeon Ducula spilorrhoa is split into Yellowish Imperial-Pigeon Ducula subflavescens of the Bismarck Archipelago and Admiralty Islands and Torresian Imperial-Pigeon Ducula spilorrhoa of the Aru Is., New Guinea and adjacent islands and n and ne Australia.
Short-tailed Frogmouth Batrachostomus poliolophus is split into two species, each endemic to different islands in Southeast Asia: Sumatran Frogmouth Batrachostomus poliolophus and Bornean Frogmouth Batrachostomus mixtus
In addition to the recognition of a newly described species of hillstar, we also split Andean Hillstar Oreotrochilus estella in to Green-headed Hillstar Oreotrochilus stolzmanni, occurring in the Andes from s Ecuador to central Peru, and Andean Hillstar Oreotrochilus estella from s Peru to Argentina and Chile.
The widely disjunct range of Steely-vented Hummingbird was curious, so it is probably not surprising to have the Central American population recognized as a new species: Blue-vented Hummingbird. Although the two look very similar, they aren’t actually sister species. Steely-vented and Blue-vented Hummingbirds by Peter Hawrylyshyn/Macaulay Library and Thomas Barbin/Macaulay Library.
Genetic studies showed that, despite phenotypic similarities, the widely-separated populations of Steely-vented Hummingbird Amazilia saucerottei in South America and Central America are not even each other’s closest relatives. They are split as Steely-vented Hummingbird Amazilia saucerottei, from northern Colombia and Venezuela, and Blue-vented Hummingbird Amazilian hoffmanni which occurs from southern Honduras to Costa Rica.
Tristan Moorhen Gallinula nesiotis is split into two island-endemic daughter species: Tristan Moorhen Gallinula nesiotis and Gough Moorhen Gallinula comeri.
Hottentot Buttonquail Turnix hottentottus was a widespread African bird, occurring through much of sub-Saharan Africa. With this year’s split, the widespread form is now known as Black-rumped Buttonquail Turnix nanus while Hottentot Buttonquail Turnix hottentottus is restricted to coastal areas in southernmost South Africa.
Tropical Shearwater Puffinus bailloni was considered a widespread species of warmer areas of the Indian and Pacific Oceans and had multiple different subspecies. With this year’s update the form breeding around Bonin Island, Japan, (and not known to disperse widely away from those islands) is split as a separate species, Bannerman’s Shearwater Puffinus bannermani which is not even the closest relative of Tropical Shearwater Puffinus bailloni. There are lots of difficult to identify small Puffinus shearwaters globally (many of which have recently been split) and this year makes seabirding even more challenging and fun.
Since these species almost overlap, we retain the slash option for individuals of uncertain identity.
- Bannerman’s/Tropical Shearwater Puffinus bannermani/bailloni [map]
Making small shearwater identification even more challenging (and fun?), a distinctive subspecies of Little Shearwater Puffinus assimilis is split as Subantarctic Shearwater Puffinus elegans. Little Shearwater is mostly restricted to waters around Australia and northern New Zealand, while Subantarctic occurs around New Zealand, southern Africa, and southern South America.
As always with seabirds, acknowledging uncertainty in identification is often prudent, so we retain a Little/Subantarctic option:
- Little/Subantarctic Shearwater Puffinus assimilis/elegans [map]
South American birders have long paid attention to the two forms of Black-faced Ibis, which are distinctive in shape and plumage and usually separate out by habitat. Andean Ibis is a highland species that is shorter-legged, has less prominent white in the wings, and just a small black area of skin at the base of the bill, while Black-faced occurs mostly in lowland areas and has longer legs, more white in the wings visible in flight, and a distinctive black wattle. The two may occur in the same area (same flocks even) in parts of Peru and Chile though, so careful separation is important. Andean (left) and Black-faced Ibis by Jacob Drucker/Macaulay Library and Dominic Garcia-Hall/Macaulay Library.
Two similar South American ibises have subtle plumage and structural differences and segregate fairly completely by range and habitat. Formerly lumped as Black-faced Ibis Theristicus melanopis, these are now segregated as Black-faced Ibis Theristicus melanopis and Andean Ibis Theristicus branickii
We know of a couple areas in n Chile and s Peru where both species occur together, so please be cautious about identifications in those regions as well as in areas where neither species is regular, and we have a slash option to allow for that conservative reporting.
- Black-faced/Andean Ibis Theristicus melanopis/branickii [map]
African Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopicus is split into African Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopicus and Madagascar Sacred Ibis Threskiornis bernieri, but note that African Sacred Ibis also occurs in Europe, the Middle East, and Taiwan (where it is introduced) and Madagascar Sacred Ibis also nests in the Seychelles.
Although we aren’t aware of any cases of sympatry (occurring in the same area), ibis move around quite a bit so it seemed prudent to retain a slash option in case a vagrant Sacred Ibis turned up somewhere on an Indian Ocean island and was viewed at a distance too far to assess the iris color, which is the best field mark for separating these two species. Also, African Sacred Ibis is widely introduced, but it might be prudent to identify escapees or introduced birds with care.
- African/Madagascar Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopicus/bernieri [map]
Barred Honey-buzzard Pernis celebensis is split into Sulawesi Honey-buzzard Pernis celebensis and Philippine Honey-buzzard Pernis steerei, with each occurring where you’d expect: Sulawesi (Indonesia) and the Philippines, respectively.
Eastern Marsh-Harrier Circus spilonotus is a widespread and migratory harrier of east Asia and this year we split the resident population of New Guinea as a separate species, Papuan Marsh-Harrier Circus spilothorax.
Since Eastern Marsh-Harrier is migratory, the two could theoretically co-occur or turn up in an area outside of normal range were conservative reporting would be needed; we retain a slash for these two, just in case:
Reunion Harrier Circus maillardi is split into Reunion Harrier Circus maillardi and Madagascar Harrier Circus macrosceles; the former is restricted to Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean while the latter occurs both on Madagascar and the nearby Comoros Islands.
Two island endemic scops-owls are split from Sulawesi Scops-Owl Otus manadensis and named for their home islands: Siau Scops-Owl Otus siaoensis and Sula Scops-Owl Otus sulaensis.
Like many owls, Southern Boobook and Morepork are very similar visually but have distinctive voices. Expect more splits within Southern Boobook in coming years! Southern Boobook and Morepork by Owen Lishmund/Macaulay Library and Jesse Gibson/Macaulay Library.
Southern Boobook Ninox boobook and Morepork Ninox novaeseelandiae are separated at the species level (formerly known as Southern Boobook Ninox boobook). Southern Boobook is widespread in Australia, New Guinea, Timor, and Indonesia, while Morepork is restricted to Tasmania, New Zealand, and Norfolk Island (a Lord Howe Island subspecies is extinct). We expect more splits in Southern Boobook in the future, since the subspecies groups Southern Boobook (Alor) Ninox boobook plesseni, Southern Boobook (Rote) Ninox boobook rotiensis, and Southern Boobook (Timor) Ninox boobook fusca each probably deserve species status. Stay tuned!
The two can both occur in southern Victoria, Australia, where it seems that some Tasmanian Moreporks (sometimes separated as a species in their own right) seem to move to the mainland in winter. For this reason, we retain a slash option to promote conservative reporting.
Buff-breasted Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera sylvia is split into two species, with Buff-breasted Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera sylvia occurring widely in Australia and New Guinea (some populations migrate from Australia to New Guinea!) while Black-capped Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera nigriceps is restricted to Bismarck Archipelago off eastern New Guinea.
New studies indicate that Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis consists of two species that differ subtly but consistently in plumage: Indochinese Roller Coracias affinis from eastern India (roughly from West Bengal east) through s China, much of Southeast Asia including the Thai-Malay Peninsula, and Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis throughout most of the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka, and into the Middle East as far west as Turkey.
Golden-throated Barbet Psilopogon franklinii populations from southern Vietnam and a small corner of adjacent Laos are recognized as a distinct species Necklaced Barbet Psilopogon auricularis.
Black-rumped Flameback Dinopium benghalense is widespread in south Asia and this year the population of southern Sri Lanka is split as Red-backed Flameback Dinopium psarodes.
Please note that both species come in contact, and may hybridize, in northern Sri Lanka so we have these two options as well:
- Black-rumped/Red-backed Flameback Dinopium benghalense/psarodes [map]
- Black-rumped x Red-backed Flameback Dinopium benghalense x psarodes [map]
The most significant split in Europe is the recognition of Iberian Green Woodpecker Picus sharpei, which has a distinctive voice and subtle head pattern differences from the widespread Eurasian Green Woodpecker Picus viridis. Iberian Green Woodpecker occurs throughout Portugal, Spain, and Andorra, and ekes into westernmost France in the Pyrenees.
Since the two woodpeckers come in contact in western France and are very similar, especially in quick or distant views, we retain a slash version. Although some of your records may appear as the slash early in the process, we will gradually switch those over to the correct species in all areas except the portions of France where one would have had to specifically identified the subspecies at the time in order to know what species to apply it to (please note that this same philosophy for record conversion is used widely in eBird during taxonomy update time).
- Eurasian/Iberian Green Woodpecker Picus viridis/sharpei [map]
Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus moluccanus is split into six species as listed below with their ranges:
- Sunset Lorikeet Trichoglossus forsteni [map] [species page] [my records]
- Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa (Lesser Sundas), and Tanahjampea and Kalaotoa Islands (Flores Sea)
- Leaf Lorikeet Trichoglossus weberi [map] [species page] [my records]
- Flores Island (Lesser Sundas)
- Marigold Lorikeet Trichoglossus capistratus [map] [species page] [my records]
- Sumba, Timor and E Lesser Sundas (Wetar and Romang)
- Coconut Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus [map] [species page] [my records]
- New Guinea and adjacent islands (including some off s New Guinea administered by Queensland, Australia), Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu,New Caledonia, and Loyalty Islands; introduced and established in Singapore
- Red-collared Lorikeet Trichoglossus rubritorquis [map] [species page] [my records]
- norhern Australia from w. Queensland to n. West Australia
- Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus moluccanus [map] [species page] [my records]
- Widespread in eastern Australia, including Tasmania; introduced and established around Perth, Western Australia
Although these various lorikeets do not overlap in range, all might be found in captivity and introduced populations occur in some areas. We retain a spuh that could apply to any of the above species (all formerly known as Rainbow Lorikeet) to allow conservative reporting for escapees and other cases of uncertainty.
- rainbow lorikeet sp. Trichoglossus sp. (rainbow lorikeet complex) [map]
The widespread African species Brown-necked Parrot Poicephalus fuscicollis is split with the recognition of Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus, restricted to coastal areas of southeastern South Africa. Brown-necked Parrot Poicephalus fuscicollis occupies the remainder of the wide range in sub-Saharan Africa.
Socorro Island is a small, remote island off the west coast of Mexico that is renowned for its endemism, so it should come as no surprise that the parakeet there, previously considered as subspecies of Green Parakeet Psittacara holochlorus has always deserved recognition as its own species, now known as Socorro Parakeet Psittacara brevipes.
The extent of species-level diversity in Brazil is far from completely known. One of the latest splits, supported by genetics and voice, is the separation of Ceara and Lesser Woodcreepers. Ceara and Lesser Woodcreepers by Yuri Raia/Macaulay Library and Eden Fontes/Macaulay Library.
Northeasterly populations of Lesser Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus fuscus are now recognized as Ceara Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus atlanticus, which occurs in the Brazilian state of Ceara and several adjacent states.
Highland Elaenia Elaenia obscura is split into two species, Highland Elaenia Elaenia obscura from the Andes of s Ecuador to n Argentina and Small-headed Elaenia Elaenia sordida in se Brazil, extreme nw Argentina (e.g., Misiones), and Paraguay. The two are widely separated by range, though Argentina listers can get both.
Sierran Elaenia Elaenia pallatangae is split into two species, not considered sister taxa. Tepui Elaenia Elaenia olivina, occurs in the tepui region of se Venezuela, s Guyana and n Brazil, while the Andean species retains the name Sierran Elaenia Elaenia pallatangae and can be found in the Andes from Colombia to Bolivia. If you loved learning the subtle vocal differences among elaenia species, then South American birding just got even more fun for you!
These two take the award, hands down, for the most striking and beautiful birds of this taxonomic update. Even their bowers are beautiful, if you agree with the female bowerbirds that bright blue pieces of litter are beautiful. They also represent New Guinea, which has more than its fair share of splits with this update. Flame (left) and Masked Bowerbirds by Nick Athanas/Macaulay Library and Arco Huang/Macaulay Library.
Two striking bowerbirds from New Guinea are split as the former Flame Bowerbird Sericulus ardens is divided into Flame Bowerbird Sericulus ardens, of lowland and foothill areas in southern New Guinea and the Masked Bowerbird Sericulus aureus of southern New Guinea mountains (Toricelli and Prince Alexander mountains)
Black-faced Friarbird Philemon moluccensis is split into Buru Friarbird Philemon moluccensis, endemic to Buru Island, and Tanimbar Friarbird Philemon plumigenis, which occurs on the Tanimbar Islands on Larat and Yamdena and in the Kai Islands on Kai Kecil and Kai Besar.
Rufous Fieldwren Calamanthus campestris is split into a widespread Rufous Fieldwren Calamanthus campestris found across much of Australia and a range-restricted Western Fieldwren Calamanthus montanellus restricted to just the southwestern corner of Western Australia.
In New Guinea, Dimorphic Jewel-babbler Ptilorrhoa geislerorum of eastern New Guinea, which is distinctive for its brownish female plumage as well as voice and elevation, is split from the more widespread Blue Jewel-babbler Ptilorrhoa caerulescens in which males and females are not sexually dimorphic.
These two species come into close contact so we also have a slash option for cases of uncertainty; if you see a male of either species or a female Ptilorrhoa caerulescens, you may need this option; but if it is a female geislerorum you are in luck–they are uniquely distinctive in color!
From these photos it seems hard to believe that White-bellied and Jerdon’s Minivets were ever considered the same species. Myanmar does not have a large number of endemics, so Jerdon’s Minivet does improve that country’s score on endemics! White-bellied and Jerdon’s Minivets by Balaji P B/Macaulay Library and Michael Hurben/Macaulay Library.
Endemic to the plains of central Myanmar, Jerdon’s Minivet Pericrocotus albifrons had been considered a striking form of White-bellied Minivet Pericrocotus erythropygius but is now recognized as its own species; the range of White-bellied Minivet Pericrocotus erythropygius is now restricted to India.
The two distinctive subspecies groups of Ashy Cuckooshrike Coracina cinerea are now split as different species, with Madagascar Cuckooshrike Coracina cinerea restricted to Madagascar and Comoros Cuckooshrike Coracina cucullata found only on Grand Comoro and Mohéli in the Comoros archipelago between Madagascar and mainland Africa.
Varied Sittella Daphoenositta chrysoptera is split into an Australian species, which retains the name Varied Sittella Daphoenositta chrysoptera and a species endemic to New Guinea now known as Papuan Sittella Daphoenositta papuensis.
In perhaps the most surprising taxonomic revision for this update, subspecies melanorhyncha, previously classified as a subspecies of Little Shrikethrush Colluricincla megarhyncha (in the group Little Shrikethrush (Arafura) Colluricincla megarhyncha [megarhyncha Group]), in fact is a whistler (Pachycephala)So the genus was not even right! Correcting this taxonomic issue, we now recognize melanorhyncha as a species, Biak Whistler Pachycephala melanorhyncha.
Variable Pitohui Pitohui kirhocephalus has undergone a three-way split with all the new species still occurring in New Guinea and adjacent islets: Northern Variable Pitohui Pitohui kirhocephalus occurs across much of northern New Guinea while Southern Variable Pitohui Pitohui uropygialis occurs across much of southern New Guinea, including the westernmost end known as the Vogelkop (“Bird’s Head) Peninsula. Raja Ampat Pitohui Pitohui cerviniventris, known also as the Waigeo Pitohui (e.g., by Birdlife/HBW) is the most range-restricted, occurring only on the Papuan Islands off the west tip of the Vogelkop Peninsula, including Waigeo, Gemien, Sagewin and Batanta islands.
in Africa, the Black-headed Batis Batis erlangeri is divided in the Western Black-headed Batis Batis erlangeri, which is widespread in Africa from Eritrea and Ethiopia south and west to se. Nigeria and Cameroon and south to n. Angola and extreme nw. Tanzania. The Eastern Black-headed Batis Batis minor has a range mostly hugs the coast from southern Somalia to Tanzania.
African drongos are heavily revised and split with this update (see “Complicated splits and shuffles below”. Among the simpler changes, Velvet-mantled Drongo Dicrurus modestus is split into Fanti Drongo Dicrurus atactus and Velvet-mantled Drongo Dicrurus modestus.
These species may come in contact, and are virtually identical (although genetic reveal they for distinct evolutionary lineages), so reporting as the slash may be prudent in some areas:
A northwestern population of Black-throated Shrikebill Clytorhynchus nigrogularisis recognized as Santa Cruz Shrikebill Clytorhynchus sanctaecrucis, endemic to the Santa Cruz island group in the eastern Solomon Islands, while the name Black-throated Shrikebill Clytorhynchus nigrogularisis retained for the birds living on the larger islands in Fiji.
Slender-billed Crow Corvus enca is widespread in southeast Asia, occurring in the Philippines, the southern Thai-Malay Peninsula, and throughout much of Indonesia. A highly range-restricted population is split as Violet Crow Corvus violaceus, which can be found only in the southern Moluccas on Seram, Buru and Ambon islands.
In addition to their distinct geographic ranges, North Island and South Island Robins are quite distinct in plumage. South Island and North Island Robins by Cameron Eckert/Macaulay Library and Jason Vassallo/Macaulay Library
The New Zealand Robin South Island Robin Petroica australis is now recognized to involve two species: North Island Robin Petroica longipes which occurs on New Zealand’s North Island and South Island Robin Petroica australis in the south.
Pacific Robin Petroica pusilla is fairly widespread in the south Pacific, but the population on Norfolk Island has always stood out as having a distinctive plumage. It is now split as Norfolk Robin Petroica multicolor and is no longer thought to be most closely related to Pacific Robin.
Blanford’s Lark Calandrella blanfordi has the distinction of being both lumped and split with this update. We formerly recognized Erlanger’s Lark Calandrella erlangeri, from the highlands of Ethiopia, but that is now lumped within Blanford’s Lark (and retained as a subspecies group). At the same time, Rufous-capped Lark Calandrella eremica–the population from the Arabian Peninsula–is recognized as a species. With these changes, Blanford’s Lark Calandrella blanfordi is now found in Somalia and Ethiopia.
Miombo Wren-Warbler Calamonastes undosus is split into two species: Miombo Wren-Warbler Calamonastes undosus and Stierling’s Wren-Warbler Calamonastes stierlingi.
Both species are widespread but are similar in the field and their ranges come close to touching or even may overlap slightly, so we retain a slash option to promote conservative reporting when uncertainty exists.
Green-backed Camaroptera Camaroptera brachyura is a well-known and widespread African bird. With this update we split the highly range-restricted population on the escarpment in s. Gabon and n. Angola as Hartert’s Camaroptera Camaroptera harterti withGreen-backed Camaroptera Camaroptera brachyura remaining throughout the rest of the species’ wide range in sub-Saharan Africa.
Since these species are nearly or actually parapatric (ranges are adjacent), we retain a slash option for conservative reporting.
Bar-throated Apalis Apalis thoracica is split into four species, three of which are highly range-restricted: Taita Apalis Apalis fuscigularis is endemic to the Taita Hills of Kenya; Yellow-throated Apalis Apalis flavigularis occurs in extreme se. Malawi east of the Nyasa-Shire Rift, and parts of adjacent Mozambique; Namuli Apalis Apalis lynesi is even more range-restricted, known only from Namuli Mountain in Mozambique; while Bar-throated Apalis Apalis thoracica is widespread in the southeastern quadrant of Africa, occurring from s. Kenya to South Africa.
Chestnut-throated Apalis Apalis porphyrolaema with the recognition of Kabobo Apalis Apalis kaboboensis as a distinct species restricted to mountain forest around Mt. Kabobo in the democratic Republic of Congo, while Chestnut-throated Apalis Apalis porphyrolaema is more widespread in mountain forests of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania.
As if Cisticola identification was not already challenging enough, Winding Cisticola Cisticola marginatus is split into five species. Fortunately, these five mostly separate out cleanly by range: Ethiopian Cisticola Cisticola lugubris is endemic to Ethiopia and the only “Winding Cisticola” found there; Coastal Cisticola Cisticola haematocephalus occupies coastal areas from Somalia south to n. Tanzania; Luapula Cisticola Cisticola luapula is centered on sw Africa, from n and ne Namibia, e Angola, se Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia (except the northeast), n Botswana, and nw Zimbabwe; Rufous-winged Cisticola is centered on se Africa, from s Malawi, Mozambique, and extreme se Zimbabwe to s Mozambique and the east coast of South Africa. Finally, the bird that retains the name Winding Cisticola Cisticola marginatus is one widespread through west Africa (Senegal to Nigeria) and east through sub-Saharan Africa to central Sudan, w Ethiopia, and n Uganda and south to central and e Democratic Republic of the Congo, n Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique.
Ethiopian and Rufous-winged are pretty well separated from the others, but we have a slash that covers potential overlap in the remaining species:
In Southeast Asia, the Tawny Grassbird Cincloramphus timoriensis is split into Papuan Grassbird Cincloramphus macrurus, which is widespread in New Guinea except for the southern coastal plain. The other species retains the name Tawny Grassbird Cincloramphus timoriensis., is also found on New Guinea (but restricted to the southern coastal plain in Papua, Indonesia and the country of New Guinea), northern and eastern Australia, the Philippines, and also occurs throughout much of Indonesia.
Eastern Mountain-Greenbul Arizelocichla nigriceps is split into four species: Eastern Mountain Greenbul Arizelocichla nigriceps which is widespread in the forests of central Africa from northern Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of Congo to Uganda and w Kenya; Uluguru Mountain Greenbul Arizelocichla neumanni of the Uluguru Mountains in northern Tanzania; Yellow-throated Mountain Greenbul Arizelocichla chlorigula of the Nguru Mountains and highlands of Iringa District in eastern Tanzania; Black-browed Mountain Greenbul Arizelocichla fusciceps of the mountains of sw Tanzania, ne Zambia, Malawi and ne Mozambique. If you go to Tanzania and hit all four corners of the country you can find all four species!
There is one other change to the taxonomy of Eastern Mountain Greenbul though, since subspecies kungwensis, previously included within the group Eastern Mountain Greenbul (Mountain) Arizelocichla nigriceps [nigriceps Group], instead belongs with Shelley’s Greenbul Arizelocichla masukuensis and is added to the group Shelley’s Greenbul (Kakamega) now known as Arizelocichla masukuensis kakamegae/kungwensis. This subspecies is restricted to western Tanzania in the Mount Kungwe area, which is pretty remote, so the chances are good that this won’t affect your eBird lists much!
Orange-spotted Bulbul Pycnonotus bimaculatus is one of many species of songbird highly imperiled by the rampant songbird trapping in Indonesia (see this article from Birdlife International, for example) and has been a Sensitive Species in eBird, but we now have two heavily trapped species to worry about with the split of Aceh Bulbul Pycnonotus snouckaerti, of western Sumatra, from Orange-spotted Bulbul Pycnonotus bimaculatus of eastern Sumatra, Java, and Bali.
Ashy Bulbul Hemixos flavala is split, with Cinereous Bulbul Hemixos cinereus representing the birds of the southern Thai-Malay Peninsula (north to Surat Thani in Thailand), Sumatra, and Borneo, and the birds from the Himalaya to Indochina, including much of the rest of Thailand, retaining the name Ashy Bulbul Hemixos flavala. Only in Thailand can you find both species and the ranges are well-separated in Thailand as well.
Rwenzori Hill Babbler Sylvia atriceps is split from African Hill Babbler Sylvia abyssinica. African Hill Babbler is patchily distributed in forests of east Africa from Ethiopia to Malawi and Mozambique, with isolated populations in Angola, on Mt. Cameroon, and on Bioko Island in the Gulf of Guinea; Rwenzori Hill Babbler does not overlap in range, but occurs in both forests of western Uganda, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Burundi as well as in w Cameroon and s Nigeria.
Abyssinian White-eye Zosterops abyssinicus is split into two species: Abyssinian White-eye Zosterops abyssinicus is the more northerly one, occurring on the Arabian Peninsula and also n Sudan, Eritrea, and much of Ethiopia; Pale White-eye Zosterops flavilateralis occurs from se Ethiopia and extreme sw Ethopia s through Somalia and much of Kenya to central Tanzania.
Broad-ringed White-eye Zosterops poliogastrus is split into six species. Below are their ranges:
- Mbulu White-eye Zosterops mbuluensis [map] [species page] [my records]
- SE Kenya (Chyulu Mts.) and n Tanzania (North Pare Mts.)
- Taita White-eye Zosterops silvanus [map] [species page] [my records]
- South Pare White-eye Zosterops winifredae [map] [species page] [my records]
- NE Tanzania (South Pare Mts.)
- Heuglin’s White-eye Zosterops poliogastrus [map] [species page] [my records]
- Heuglin’s White-eye (Ethiopian) Zosterops poliogastrus poliogastrus [map]
- Mts. of Eritrea and Ethiopia
- Heuglin’s White-eye (Kaffa) Zosterops poliogastrus kaffensis [map]
- Highlands of w and s Ethiopia (s of Lake Tana, w of Omo River)
- Heuglin’s White-eye (Kulal) Zosterops poliogastrus kulalensis [map]
- Kikuyu White-eye Zosterops kikuyuensis [map] [species page] [my records]
- Central Kenya (Aberdare Mts. and Mt. Kenya)
- Kilimanjaro White-eye Zosterops eurycricotus [map] [species page] [my records]
- N Tanzania (Mt. Kilimanjaro, Mt. Meru and Arusha regions)
and, as we often do, in case conservative reporting is needed we have retained an option for that:
In Southeast Asia, Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler Napothera danjoui is split from the Myanmar endemic Naung Mung Scimitar-Babbler Napothera naungmungensis.
Mount Victoria Babax Ianthocincla woodi nearly makes another Myanmar endemic, since it only occurs on the slopes of Mount Victoria in sw Myanmar, but a few birds sneak into the Lushai Hills of Assam, India. Otherwise, Chinese Babax Ianthocincla lanceolata remains widespread in central and southern China and in n and central Myanmar.
Vocal differences reveal that Chattering Gnatwren Ramphocaenus sticturus, of Amazonian Peru, w Brazil, and n Bolivia is a distinct species that has a strong preference for bamboo. Its song is quite distinctive and totally unlike Long-billed Gnatwren, with a chatter followed by some loud musical notes. Long-billed Gnatwren could be known as Trilling Gnatwren, which might help keep the calls straight if you have a chance to tick off both of these species. Long-billed Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus occurs from s Mexico south through much of the rest of the northern half of South America, and has a lot of subspecific diversity that could also deserve further study.
Since contact zones are not well understood, some gnatwrens should be reported as a slash, especially if they are not heard or audio recorded:
Recent genetic work reveals that the two allopatric (widely separated) populations of White-lored Gnatcatcher represent different species: Yucatan Gnatcatcher Polioptila albiventris only on the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula (and a Mexico endemic) and White-lored Gnatcatcher Polioptila albiloris in dry forests from Michoacán and Guerrero, Mexico, south to Costa Rica.
Guianan Gnatcatcher Polioptila guianensis is split into four species, with their ranges below:
- Guianan Gnatcatcher Polioptila guianensis [map] [species page] [my records]
- The Guianas (Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana) south to the Amazon
- Inambari Gnatcatcher Polioptila attenboroughi [map] [species page] [my records]
- western Amazonian Brazil south of the Amazon, and west of the Madeira River
- Rio Negro Gnatcatcher Polioptila facilis [map] [species page] [my records]
- S Venezuela (Amazonas) to extreme ne Brazil (upper Rio Negro)
- Klage’s Gnatcatcher Polioptila paraensis [map] [species page] [my records]
- eastern Amazonian Brazil south of the Amazon, and east of the Rio Madeira
We retain two slash options to cover gnatcatchers with uncertain identities:
The Scaly Thrush Zoothera dauma complex has gone through quite a bit of taxonomic revision recently, including the split of White’s Thrush Zoothera aurea, Nilgiri Thrush Zoothera neilgherriensis and Sri Lanka Thrush Zoothera imbrica recently. We continue that trend, and align with othert taxonomies (e.g., IOC and Birdlife/HBW) in recognizing Amami Thrush Zoothera major as distinct from Scaly Thrush Zoothera dauma. Amami Thrush can be found on Amami-O-Shima in n Ryukyu Islands of Japan.
Three very similar South American thrushes are split this year, in part because of revelations that populations of Black-billed Thrush Turdus ignobilis the co-occur (i.e., are sympatric) without interbreeding. There is still much to be learned about these three species now that their status as distinct species is more widely recognized. Pantepui Thrush Turdus murinus occurs in Guyana and se Venezuela, while Campina Thrush Turdus arthuri is endemic to white sands forest, a distinct habitat in Amazonia, in much of the same range extending to se Colombia and central Amazonian Brazil, from the east bank of the Rio Madeira to the east bank of the Rio Tapajós. Black-billed Thrush Turdus ignobilis is a bit more widespread, and is the only form to occur west of the eastern Andes in Colombia. It also ranges well south through nw Brazil, e Peru and n Bolivia.
We retain two slash options to account for uncertain identification of birds in areas of sympatry:
White-tailed Alethe Alethe diademata, ranging in west Africa from Senegambia to Togo is split from Fire-crested Alethe Alethe castanea which occurs from S Nigeria through Cameroon to Gabon and east to n and central Democratic Republic of the Congo, sw South Sudan, w Uganda, and extreme nw Tanzania (also on Bioko).
Although they don’t overlap in range, focus on the extent or orange color below to separate Tickell’s and Indochinese Blue Flycatchers. The genus Cyornis contains some of the tricker species to identify in east Asia and Southeast Asia, and some more splits are expected in the near future. Stay tuned! Tickell’s (left) and Indochinese Blue Flycatchers by Rahul Singh/Macaulay Library and Tim Avery/Macaulay Library.
Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae is split into Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae and Indochinese Blue Flycatcher Cyornis sumatrensis. Tickell’s occurs mostly on the Indian subcontinent, east to Bangledesh, n Myanmar, and Yunnan, China while Indochinese occurs from Myanmar to Vietnam and south through Thailand and Malaysia to ne Sumatra, Indonesia.
Three monotypic groups, previously included in White-browed Shortwing Brachypteryx montana, now are recognized as separate, monotypic species: Himalayan Shortwing Brachypteryx cruralis; Chinese Shortwing Brachypteryx sinensis; and Taiwan Shortwing Brachypteryx goodfellowi. See below for ranges:
Himalayan and Chinese may overlap, or come close, so we retain a slash for uncertain records:
As adult males Persian and Kurdish Wheatears are very distinctive, but immature plumages can be a major ID challenge. Please check your records carefully in the Middle East, since both species occur together in migration and winter and some will have been left as the slash option–Kurdish/Persian Wheatear–if the identification was not clear by range and date. Persian (left) and Kurdish Wheatears by Oded Ovadia/Macaulay Library and Christoph Moning/Macaulay Library.
Other taxonomies have long considered the two subspecies of Red-tailed Wheatear Oenanthe xanthoprymna to be species in their own right and we follow suit this year. Kurdish Wheatear Oenanthe xanthoprymna occurs from se Turkey through the mountains of s Iran and winters in eastern Egypt (in the Nile Valley and near the Red Sea), northeastern Sudan, and on the western Arabian Peninsula, locally also in southern Israel. It has a distinctive male plumage with an extensive black throat, but females can be tough to separate from both sexes of Persian Wheatear Oenanthe chrysopygia, which breeds from breeds from ne Turkey, s Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran east to s Turkmenistan, s Tajikistan (Pamir range), Afghanistan, and extreme nw Pakistan; it winters from the southern Arabian Peninsula and southern Iraq east to Pakistan and northwestern India. Persian Wheatear is sometimes known as Afghan Wheatear.
Females of Kurdish look almost identical to Persian Wheatears, and the two do occur out of range as vagrants and overlap in some areas in migration and winter, so we retain a slash option for conservative reporting:
- Kurdish/Persian Wheatear (Red-tailed Wheatear) Oenanthe xanthoprymna/chrysopygia [map]
Brown-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis and Gray-throated Sunbird Anthreptes griseigularis are split. Brown-throated is widespread in Southeast Asia, occurring from S Myanmar to peninsular Thailand, Indochina, Sumatra and s Borneo, as well as on many islands in Indonesia. Gray-throated is limited to the Philippines, but Brown-throated also occurs there, although the two do not tend to occur in the same areas. Gray-throated is on Luzon, Mindoro, Catanduanes, Samar, Leyte, Sakuyok, Camiguin Sur, and ne Mindanao while Brown-throated is on Cebu, Masbate, Negros, Panay, Sibuyan, Tablas, Romblon, Ticao, Basilan, w and central Mindanao, Talicod, Mapun, Balabac, Culion, Palawan and Calauit, Sibutu, and Sitanki.
We do retain a slash for areas where the two may come in contact or the local population is uncertain:
- Brown-throated/Gray-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis/griseigularis [map]
Miombo Sunbird Cinnyris manoensis is split into Western Miombo Sunbird Cinnyris gertrudis and Eastern Miombo Sunbird Cinnyris manoensis which segregate by range. Western Miombo Sunbird occurs from Central Angola to se Democratic Republic of the Congo and w Zambia while Eastern Miombo Sunbird occurs from s Tanzania to se Zambia, Zimbabwe and n Mozambique, as well as on Mt. Gorongoza. Mozambique.
The two may overlap, so we retain a slash option, just in case:
- Western/Eastern Miombo Sunbird Cinnyris gertrudis/manoensis [map]
Eastern Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris mediocris is split into three species as follows:
- Eastern Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris mediocris [map] [species page] [my records]
- Highlands of Kenya and n Tanzania
- Usambara Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris usambaricus [map] [species page] [my records]
- Highlands of se Kenya (Taita Hills) and ne Tanzania
- Forest Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris fuelleborni [map] [species page] [my records]
- Highlands of Tanzania to Malawi, ne Zambia and n Mozambique
Red-headed Fody Foudia eminentissima is split with the recognition of Aldabra Fody Foudia aldabrana as a single-island endemic on the world’s second largest coral atoll of Aldabra, part of the Outer Islands of the Seychelles. Red-headed Fody is found in the Comoros, including the islands of Grand Comoro, Anjouan, Mohéli, and Mayotte.
Please note also that we have seen lots of erroneous data submissions of Red-headed Fody from the main islands of the Seychelles. All of these birds must refer to introduced populations of Red Fody Foudia madagascariensis so we will be making this correction to existing eBird submissions as well. Please be careful with your eBird submissions here!
Swee Waxbill Coccopygia melanotis is split with the recognition of a disjunct westerly population as Angola Waxbill Coccopygia bocagei, which gives Angola another endemic species. Swee Waxbill Coccopygia melanotis can be found in Zimbabwe, South Africa, Lesotho, and Eswatini (formerly Swaziland).
In our taxonomy, Desert Sparrow Passer simplex previously had two highly disjunct subspecies groups. These are now recognized as separate species, with Zarudny’s Sparrow Passer zarudnyi in deserts of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and Desert Sparrow Passer simplex widespread in the deserts of north Africa.
Blue Chaffinch Fringilla teydea was known from two islands in the Canaries, but these are now each recognized as single-island endemics: Tenerife Blue Chaffinch Fringilla teydea and Gran Canaria Blue Chaffinch Fringilla polatzeki, further highlighting the important and vulnerable biodiversity on islands.
Golden-winged Grosbeak Rhynchostruthus percivali is split into two species, Arabian Grosbeak Rhynchostruthus percivali which is widespread on the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra Grosbeak Rhynchostruthus socotranus which is endemic to Socotra Island.
Streaky-headed Seedeater Crithagra gularis is split into West African Seedeater Crithagra canicapilla from Guinea to the Central African Republic, South Sudan, ne Democratic Republic of the Congo, n Uganda, and extreme w Kenya and Streaky-headed Seedeater Crithagra gularis, from Angola and Zambia south to South Africa.
COMPLICATED SPLITS and MAJOR REORGANIZATIONS
Fork-tailed Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis is split into two species. One species, Glossy-backed Drongo Dicrurus divaricatus, is based on the monotypic group Fork-tailed Drongo (Glossy-backed) Dicrurus adsimilis divaricatus. There are two genetic lineages within divaricatus, however. Revise the range of nominate divaricatus from “southwestern Mauritania, Senegal, and Gambia east to northern Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, southern Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, northern Uganda, and northern Kenya” to “southwestern Mauritania south to Guinea, east to southeastern Niger and northeastern Nigeria (Lake Chad)”. The name lugubris, previously considered to be a junior synonym of divaricatus, now is applied to the populations from “southwestern Chad (Lake Chad) east to Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, south to northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, northern Uganda, and northern Kenya”. The second species, Fork-tailed Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis, contains the subspecies apivorus, jubaensis (newly recognized), fugax, and adsimilis. Subspecies jubaensis, previously not recognized, has range “Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia”.
Square-tailed Drongo Dicrurus ludwigii is split into three species (one of which is newly described). Subspecies sharpei, with range “Senegal to northwestern Angola, northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, southern South Sudan, Uganda and western Kenya”, represents two distinct lineages. The western lineage is described as a new species, Western Square-tailed Drongo Dicrurus occidentalis with range “Senegal to Nigeria (west of the Niger River)”. The populations in the remainder of the range of sharpei are recognized as Sharpe’s Drongo Dicrurus sharpei, with range “central Africa, from Nigeria (east of the Niger River, south of the Benue River) east to Uganda, South Sudan, and western Kenya, and south to northwestern Angola and southeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo”.
With all this complexity, these two options will probably be needed:
Asian Zosterops have undergone a comprehensive, extensive, and confusing (make that, confusing as as hell!) reorganization. Much of this is based on several studies that include an extensive genetic phylogeny for the taxa in south and east Asia. Here’s a quick and dirty attempt to summarize and simplify:
JAPANESE WHITE-EYE SPLIT and REORGANIZATION
Big reorganization here! Here’s the recipe for the new species:
- Mix the full population of Mountain White-eye Zosterops montanus, which used to be a Philippine endemic, in a large mixing bowl with the full population of Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus.
- Add a heaping tablespoon, accounting for the full population of the Indonesian endemic Enganno White-eye Zosterops salvadorii
- Carefully separate the subspecies williamsoni (southern Thailand and east coast of northern and central Thai-Malay Peninsula) from the remainder of the Oriental White-eye population. Add to the mix.
- Then take the birds from coastal forests of the western and southeastern Thai-Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, the Riau Islands, Bangka, and the Natuna Islands, and coastal western Borneo. Slap the name erwini on those birds.
- Mix thoroughly.
- Divide the mixture, which we’ll call Zosterops japonicus based on the the rules of nomenclatural priority, roughly in half based on range. Bake for millenia and you have:
- One species, Warbling White-eye Zosterops japonicus, centered on Japan and the Philippines (including Palawan), including southernmost Sakhalin Peninsula of Russia, most of the Japanese islands, and certain Indonesian islands including the Ternate, Bacan and Seram (Moluccas), central and S Sumatra, Java, Bali, Sulawesi, Sula Is., Buru, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, S Sumatra.
- Another other (partially migratory) species ranging across much of eastern China (including Hainan Island), Taiwan, ne. Vietnam, and the former range of Enggano White-eye which includes Enggano and Mega islands (off w Sumatra), as well as coastal areas of Thailand, Malaysia, and Borneo (areas formerly thought to have the species Oriental White-eye Z. palpebrosus…but see below). The new name for this species is Swinhoe’s White-eye Zosterops simplex
- Almost done. But wait, there is one fleck in there that doesn’t belong. Is it an eggshell? Fish out the subspecies gilli, endemic to Marinduque (Phillippines) and formerly part of Mountain White-eye, and we are going to add that to the existing species Lowland White-eye Zosterops meyeni. They were actually the same thing. Who knew?
Your new species in Japan, the Philippines (all of the former Mountain White-eye subspecies), and much of Indonesia is:
and the one in China, Taiwan, ne. Vietnam, and coastal habitats in Thailand, Malaysia, and Borneo is, including the Enggano White-eye locales, is:
and, with gilli synonymized with meyeni:
ORIENTAL WHITE-EYE SPLIT and REORGANIZATION
Not much simpler with Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus. Here’s the recipe for that one:
- Two subspecies of Everett’s White-eye Zosterops everetti don’t really belong with that species. We’ll start our recipe in a small side bowl with subspecies wetmorei and tahanensis, occurring in “southern Thailand and the northern Thai-Malay Peninsula” and “southern Thai-Malay Peninsula”, respectively.
- Add two subspecies from Oriental White-eye that are basically the same ingredient as the two subspecies above–auriventer (a poorly known for from s. Myanmar, after we split erwini from it above!) and medius (Borneo).
- Bake and give the new name Hume’s White-eye Zosterops auriventer to this new mixture.
Then start on what’s left of Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus. We’ve already removed auriventer (and erwini), medius, and williamsoni, representing coastal populations in Thailand, Malaysia, and Borneo. We split what’s left into different into a few different species.
- Pull out subspecies melanurus and buxtoni, from Java, Sumatra (?), and Bali and split those as Sangkar White-eye Zosterops melanurus
- There is one contaminant left in the dish. Subspecies unicus, previously classified as a subspecies of Zosterops palpebrosus , is closely related to Ashy-bellied White-eye Zosterops citrinella. Transfer to that species.
- Everything that remains can be clumped in the same species. Give this species a new name, reflecting its more restricted range: Indian White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus
So for this one, take Oriental White-eye, without williamsoni or populations we named erwini above. Split melanurus and buxtoni as:
A couple slashes are prudent here too:
- Hume’s/Swinhoe’s White-eye Zosterops auriventer/simplex [map]
Here’s the formal list of the new species, with subspecies and ranges; the subspecies with an asterisk have undergone a name change because of reorganization under a different species; all the below species are reconstituted, but the ones that have a change to the English name associated with the scientific name have two asterisks
- ††Indian White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus
- Zosterops palpebrosus occidentis northeastern Afghanistan east to western Himalayas, and northern and central India
- Zosterops palpebrosus palpebrosus central and eastern Himalayas east to southern China (Sichuan, Yunnan) and Myanmar; isolated populations on Mahawt Island, Oman, and in southern Iran have been assigned to nominate palpebralis, although this requires confirmation
- Zosterops palpebrosus nilgiriensis western India (Western Ghats); most populations elsewhere in southern peninsular India are more or less similar
- Zosterops palpebrosus salimalii SE India (se Hyderabad)
- Zosterops palpebrosus egregius Sri Lanka
- Zosterops palpebrosus siamensis southern Myanmar east through Indochina
- Zosterops palpebrosus nicobaricus Andaman and Nicobar islands
- †Hume’s White-eye Zosterops auriventer
- *Zosterops auriventer auriventer poorly known; documented only from southeastern Myanmar
- *Zosterops auriventer tahanensis southern Thai-Malay Peninsula
- *Zosterops auriventer wetmorei southern Thailand and the northern Thai-Malay Peninsula
- *Zosterops auriventer medius Borneo
- †Sangkar White-eye Zosterops melanurus
- *Zosterops melanurus buxtoni western Java; a population on Sumatra also has been assigned to buxtoni, but the identification of Sumatran birds as buxtoni has been questioned
- *Zosterops melanurus melanurus Mts. of central and e Java and Bali
- ††Warbling White-eye Zosterops japonicus
- Zosterops japonicus japonicus southern Sakhalin Island, Japan, and the southern Korean Peninsula; partially migratory, withdrawing from Sakhalin Island and northern Japan in the nonbreeding season
- Zosterops japonicus stejnegeri Izu Is. (s Japan); introduced to Bonin Is.
- Zosterops japonicus insularis Ryukyu Is. (Tanegashima and Yakushima)
- Zosterops japonicus loochooensis Iriomote (Ryukyu Is.)
- Zosterops japonicus alani Volcano Is. (Iwo Jima and Minami-iwo-Jima)
- *Zosterops japonicus daitoensis Daito Is. (Philippine Sea)
- *Zosterops japonicus obstinatus Moluccas (Ternate, Bacan and Seram)
- *Zosterops japonicus montanus central Sumatra, Java, Bali, Sulawesi, Sula Is., Buru, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor
- Zosterops japonicus difficilis S Sumatra
- *Zosterops japonicus parkesi SW Philippines (Palawan)
- *Zosterops japonicus whiteheadi N Philippines (n Luzon)
- *Zosterops japonicus diuatae S Philippines (n Mindanao)
- *Zosterops japonicus vulcani S Philippines (Mt. Apo and Mt. Katanglad on Mindanao)
- *Zosterops japonicus pectoralis Philippines (n Negros)
- *Zosterops japonicus halconensis Philippines (Mindoro)
- ††Swinhoe’s White-eye Zosterops simplex
- *Zosterops simplex simplex breeds in eastern China (from extreme southern Gansu east to Jiangsu, south to eastern Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong and Fujian), Taiwan, and northeastern Vietnam; northern populations migratory, wintering from southeastern China to Thailand and central Indochina
- *Zosterops simplex hainanus Hainan (s China)
- *Zosterops simplex williamsoni southern Thailand and east coast of northern and central Thai-Malay Peninsula
- *Zosterops simplex erwini coastal forests of the western and southeastern Thai-Malay Peninsula, of Sumatra, the Riau Islands, Bangka, and the Natuna Islands; population of coastal western Borneo provisionally assigned here, but possibly a distinct taxon
- *Zosterops simplex salvadorii Enggano and Mega islands (off w Sumatra)
- Lowland White-eye Zosterops meyeni
- Zosterops meyeni batanis Lüdao (Green) and Lanyu (Orchid) Islands (southeast of Taiwan) and Batan Islands (Philippines, north of Luzon)
- Zosterops meyeni meyeni Philippines (Calayan, Luzon, Lubang, Verde, Marinduque, Banton, and Caluya)
- Everett’s White-eye Zosterops everetti
- Zosterops everetti everetti Philippines (Cebu)
- Zosterops everetti basilanicus Philippines (Basilan, Dinagat, Mindanao, Siargao, Camiguin Sur)
- Zosterops everetti boholensis Philippines (Bohol, Leyte, Samar, Calicoan and Biliran)
- Zosterops everetti siquijorensis Philippines (Siquijor)
- Zosterops everetti mandibularis Sulu Archipelago (Sulu, Tawitawi, Jolo, Bongao, Sanga Sanga)
- Zosterops everetti babelo Talaud Is. (Karakelong and Salebabu) and n Sulawesi
- Ashy-bellied White-eye Zosterops citrinella
- *Zosterops citrinella unicus W Lesser Sundas (Sumbawa and Flores)
- Zosterops citrinella citrinella Lesser Sundas (Timor, Rote, Sawu and Sumba)
- Zosterops citrinella albiventris Tanimbar Is. and islands off n Queensland south to Lizard I.
- Zosterops citrinella harterti Alor (e Lesser Sundas)
- Indian/Swinhoe’s White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus/simplex
- Hume’s/Swinhoe’s White-eye Zosterops auriventer/simplex
NOTE ON UNITED STATES WHITE-EYES
Identification of introduced white-eye populations is somewhat tentative and incompletely known at this stage. If more than one taxon had been released in an area, it might need genetics or a very astute birder to figure it out. Based on current knowledge, our best understanding is:
Hawaii – These white-eyes are thought to be Z. j. japonicus, so the name for Hawaii changes from Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus to Warbling White-eye Zosterops japonicus.
Southern California (2006 to present) – White-eyes released in Costa Mesa, Orange county, California have spread rapidly and occur to Ventura and San Diego Counties now and may continue to spread. Based on one specimen so far, we believe these refer to Zosterops simplex simplex, and thus change from Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus to Swinhoe’s White-eye Zosterops simplex with this update. These are expanded rapidly and we will be surprised if they are not soon added to the official Califronia and United states list as a fully established exotic.
Southern California (1970s and 1980s) – White-eyes released and briefly established near Balboa Park, San Diego, were considered Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus and number of extant specimens. These were never considered established because they were eradicated before they could be established (since exotic white-eyes are known to be a pest species). The are thought to refer to nominate palbebrosus, which is now part of Indian White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus.
So the United States has records of exotic/introduced white-eyes of three species now.
YOUR LIFE LIST’s EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In one more attempt to help this all make sense, or for those who don’t like cooking, below is a chart of how your records may have changed by country:
- If you had reported Japanese White-eye Z. japonicus from Russia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, or Hawaii, USA, those records will now show as Warbling White-eye Zosterops japonicus
- If you had reported Japanese White-eye (Z. japonicus) from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, or Thailand, or introduced populations from California, USA* or Singapore, those records will now show as Swinhoe’s White-eye Zosterops simplex [* note – California records from San Diego County from prior to 2006 pertain to Indian White-eye Z. palpebrosus).
- If you had reported Mountain White-eye Z. montanus from anywhere, it will now show as Warbling White-eye (Zosterops japonicus)
- If you had reported Oriental White-eye Z. palpebrosus) from anywhere west of Thailand (e.g., India, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Myanmar, Bangladesh etc.) those will now appear as Indian White-eye Z. palpebrosus.
- If you had seen Oriental White-eyes Z. palpebrosus) in mangrove or coastal habitat in s. Thailand, s. Myanmar, Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, or on Borneo, those will now appear as Swinhoe’s White-eyes Z. simplex. Note that these birds have a yellow ventral stripe, while inland, migratory Swinhoe’s do not.
- If you had Oriental White-eye from Java, Sumatra (inland areas, not coastal ones), or Bali, then those are now Sangkar White-eye Z. melanurus melanurus
- If you had reported Everett’s White-eye Z. everetti from either of two popular parks in Thailand–Khao Yai NP or Kaeng Krachan NP–these will now appear as Hume’s White-eye Zosterops auriventer, as will any others from peninsular Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, or Borneo. Please note also that many observers also seem to have reported Oriental White-eye Z. palpebrosus from those areas; it was only recently discovered (in 2004, see the paper here) that subspecies wetmorei was the predominant white-eye in Khao Yai (other than Chestnut-flanked) and no other similar species have been found in either area before or since. Because of this, we have converted all reports of Oriental White-eye to Hume’s White-eye from those areas as well.
- If you had any of the following:
- Any Oriental White-eyes from Sumbawa and Flores in the Lesser Sundas, this would be subspecies unicus, which is now moved to Ashy-bellied White-eye Z. citrinella
- Any sightings of Enggano White-eye Z. salvadorii then these are now Swinhoe’s White-eye Z. simplex.
- Mountain White-eye from Marinduque (Phillippines), then these are subspecies gilli which is now Lowland White-eye Z.
Note that inherent in all the above changes is an assumption that the eBirder identified his or her white-eye correctly in the first place. In this and ALL cases for this taxonomy update, we hope that birders will check their records, add documentation where needed, and be able to vouch for their records as they move through a taxonomic update. In the end, eBird counts on eBirders to curate your own bird records.
These are some of the toughest identifications on the planet, and the reorganization above shows how wrong we all could have been for so long. Please review your Asian white-eyes and change them as needed. Opt for conservative reporting options like Indian/Swinhoe’s White-eye or even Zosterops sp. (covering the whole genus) if you are unsure or there seems to be any doubt in what is known, especially in areas of overlap between Indian White-eye and Swinhoe’s White-eye. Be sure to check out an excellent ID article on Warbling (ssp. japonicus) vs. Swinhoe’s (ssp. simplex) by Nial Moores of Birds Korea, who is also on our review team for the Koreas.
LUMPS and INVALID SPECIES
In eBird’s taxonomic revisions, lumps are very easy to deal with. Usually the taxa become subspecies groups, so there is no changing of records necessary, just a recalculation of lists as the species drop to identifiable subspecies. Whenever possible, we encourage birders to continue reporting at the subspecies level, but whenever you select these options, be sure you understand the taxa that you are using; do not try to guess at the subspecies based on the name! This section also includes invalid species descriptions: these are rare but occur when an original description of a species or subspecies is proven to be a hybrid, rare variant, or other form of natural variation that does not represent a species. Full details for can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page.
A vocal analysis helped to clarify that Chaco Nothura Nothura chacoensis, described from the chaco habitat of nw Paraguay, is not really distinctive at the species level and is demoted to Nothura maculosa chacoensis, a subspecies of Spotted Nothura Nothura maculosa. We don’t even consider it distinctive enough to retain as an identifiable subspecies group.
The extinct Norfolk Pigeon Hemiphaga spadicea is lumped with the extant New Zealand Pigeon Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae. The two are retained as identifiable subspecies groups, even if your chance to identify a New Zealand Pigeon (Norfolk) in the field sadly has long since passed.
- New Zealand Pigeon Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae [map] [species page] [my records]
- New Zealand Pigeon (Norfolk) Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea [map]
- New Zealand Pigeon (New Zealand) Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae [map]
Two subtly different gulls, the Red-billed Gull Chroicocephalus scopulinus and Silver Gull Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae are lumped as a single species known as Silver Gull Chroicocephalus scopulinus. The two are retained as identifiable subspecies groups, but as is the case with many subspecies of gulls, the two are barely identifiable and only the extreme “larophiles” claim they can separate them reliably.
- Silver Gull Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae [map] [species page] [my records]
- Silver Gull (Silver) Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae novaehollandiae/forsteri [map]
- Silver Gull (Red-billed) Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae scopulinus [map]
Crested Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus cirrhatus and Changeable Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus limnaeetus are now lumped as Changeable Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus cirrhatus, which brings our taxonomy into alignment with other global authorities such as the IOC and HBW/Birdlife. The two former species are retained as identifiable subspecies groups.
- Changeable Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus cirrhatus [map] [species page] [my records]
- Changeable Hawk-Eagle (Crested) Nisaetus cirrhatus cirrhatus/ceylanensis [map]
- Changeable Hawk-Eagle (Changeable) Nisaetus cirrhatus [limnaeetus Group] [map]
In a long-anticipated lump, the Orange-bellied Trogon Trogon aurantiiventris is merged with Collared Trogon Trogon collaris. It is retained as an identifiable subspecies group, since its more orangey belly is distinctive even if there is little else that sets it apart. Collared Trogon subspecies groups are revised slightly as well (subspecies extimus is moved from the “Bar-tailed” group to the “Collared” group and the more restricted Bar-tailed group is now known as Xalapa.
- Collared Trogon Trogon collaris [map] [species page] [my records]
- Collared Trogon (Xalapa) Trogon collaris puella
- Collared Trogon (Orange-bellied) Trogon collaris aurantiiventris/underwoodi [map]
- Collared Trogon (Collared) Trogon collaris [collaris Group]
Although we recently split them in 2014, Gold-whiskered Barbet Psilopogon chrysopogon and Gold-faced Barbet Psilopogon chrysopsis are again lumped as Gold-whiskered Barbet Psilopogon chrysopogon, although both are retained as identifiable subspecies groups.
Three species of Epinecrophylla, now known as Stipplethroats (formerly just one of the many “antwrens”), are lumped as Rufous-backed Stipplethroat now. Here are there former names Rio Negro Antwren Epinecrophylla pyrrhonota, Yasuni Antwren Epinecrophylla fjeldsaai, and Rufous-backed Antwren Epinecrophylla haematonota. All are recognized as identifiable subspecies groups still.
- Rufous-backed Stipplethroat Epinecrophylla haematonota [map] [species page] [my records]
- Rufous-backed Stipplethroat (Rio Negro) Epinecrophylla haematonota pyrrhonota
- Rufous-backed Stipplethroat (Yasuni) Epinecrophylla haematonota fjeldsaai
- Rufous-backed Stipplethroat (Rufous-backed) Epinecrophylla haematonota haematonota
As noted above under “Splits”, Erlanger’s Lark Calandrella erlangeri is lumped into Blanford’s Lark Calandrella blanfordi even as Rufous-capped Lark is split from Blanford’s.
- Blanford’s Lark Calandrella blanfordi [map] [species page] [my records]
- Blanford’s Lark (Blandford’s) Calandrella blanfordi blanfordi [map]
- Blanford’s Lark (Erlanger’s) Calandrella blanfordi erlangeri [map]
The taxonomy of the Lesser Whitethroat complex has been complicated and unsettled. This year is no exception. With this update, three previously-recognized species are now lumped within Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca: Desert Whitethroat Sylvia minula; Margelanic Whitethroat Sylvia margelanica; and Hume’s Whitethroat Sylvia althaea. The below subspecies groups match the taxa formerly recognized as species in our taxonomy
- Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca [map] [species page] [my records]
- Lesser Whitethroat (Lesser) Sylvia curruca curruca/blythi/halimodendri [map]
- Lesser Whitethroat (Desert) Sylvia curruca minula [map]
- Lesser Whitethroat (Gansu) Sylvia curruca margelanica [map]
- Lesser Whitethroat (Hume’s) Sylvia curruca althaea [map]
But since we also had some additional slash options for conservative reporting, these have taken on some fairly complicated names to help keep straight what taxa are possibly involved with each option:
- Lesser Whitethroat (curruca/blythi) Sylvia curruca curruca/blythi
- Lesser Whitethroat (halimodendri) Sylvia curruca halimodendri
- Lesser Whitethroat (Lesser/Desert) Sylvia curruca curruca/minula
- Lesser Whitethroat (Desert/Gansu) Sylvia curruca minula/margelanica
- Lesser Whitethroat (Lesser/Hume’s) Sylvia curruca curruca/althaea
- Lesser Whitethroat (Lesser/Desert/Hume’s) Sylvia curruca curruca/minula/althaea
Whew! Good luck if you try to sort your Lesser Whitethroats by subspecies!
Enggano White-eye Zosterops salvadorii is embedded within what now is recognized as Swinhoe’s White-eye Zosterops simplex (see complicated splits and lumps above). We no longer recognize it as an identifiable form, so it is now reduced to a subspecies of Swinhoe’s White-eye as Zosterops simplex salvadorii. See Swinhoe’s White-eye above for more info.
The Lord Howe White-eye Zosterops tephropleurus is now considered to be “just” a subspecies of Silvereye Zosterops lateralis, now Zosterops lateralis tephropleurus. It is not even considered distinctive enough to be retained as an identifiable subspecies group, so is addition to the loss of a Lord Howe Island endemic the main result is a tiny expansion in the range of Silvereye to include Lord Howe Island.
The former species Kivu Ground-Thrush Geokichla tanganjicae is now lumped within Abyssinian Ground-Thrush Geokichla piaggiae, but the two forms are retained as identifiable subspecies groups.
The former species African Scrub-Robin Cercotrichas minor is now lumped within Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin Cercotrichas galactotes, but the two forms are retained as identifiable subspecies groups.
- Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin Cercotrichas galactotes [map] [species page] [my records]
- Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin (Rufous-tailed) Cercotrichas galactotes [galactotes Group] [map]
- Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin (African) Cercotrichas galactotes minor/hamertoni [map]
We formerly recognized three species of Quailfinch: Black-faced Quailfinch Ortygospiza atricollis, Black-chinned Quailfinch Ortygospiza gabonensis, and African Quailfinch Ortygospiza fuscocrissa. These are all now lumped under a single species, but the forms are retained as identifiable subspecies groups.
- Quailfinch Ortygospiza atricollis [map] [species page] [my records]
- Quailfinch (Black-faced) Ortygospiza atricollis [atricollis Group] [map]
- Quailfinch (Black-chinned) Ortygospiza atricollis [gabonensis Group] [map]
- Quailfinch (Spectacled) Ortygospiza atricollis [fuscocrissa Group] [map]
African Pipit is widespread and diverse, with 13 subspecies divided among four subspecies groups in the eBird taxonomy (try searching “ANCI” , the four-letter code for the scientific name for this species, on the eBird Species Maps). This year we lump Jackson’s Pipit Anthus latistriatus as a 14th subspecies and fifth group in African Pipit.
The former species Damara Canary Serinus leucolaemus is now lumped within Black-headed Canary Serinus alario, but the two forms are retained as identifiable subspecies groups.
- Black-headed Canary Serinus alario [map] [species page] [my records]
- Black-headed Canary (Black-headed) Serinus alario alario [map]
- Black-headed Canary (Damara) Serinus alario leucolaemus [map]
Each year, a few newly described species or populations newly recognized for their distinctiveness are named and added to the eBird/Clements taxonomy. This just goes to show how much remains to be learned about the birds of the World! Full details be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page.
An interesting new species of Oreotrochilus hillstar was described from Ecuador and ratified as a species by the AOS-SACC. It apparently has a very small range and is believed to be highly imperiled.
In Borneo, Cream-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus simplex has long been known to have variation in eye color, and in Borneo it has been known to have pale-eyed and dark-eyed forms. However, a genetic study of these two forms on Borneo has revealed that one is actually a very distinctive and not particularly closely related species, Cream-eyed Bulbul Pycnonotus pseudosimplex.
NOTE: These records are basically impossible for us to change on your behalf, since the two species overlap and must be identified by eye color. All records are currently left as Cream-vented Bulbul, which is the commoner and more widespread species. Please help us by changing your records to the correct form, adding notes about the eye color and habitat for each, and changing to our slash form when appropriate:
- Cream-vented/Cream-eyed Bulbul Pycnonotus simplex/pseudosimplex [map]
In Indonesia, the Rote Leaf Warbler was previously recognized as an undescribed species, but is now ratified as Rote Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus rotiensis.
A few miscellaneous errors, including typos from 2018, revisions to our understanding of populations in certain areas, and other issues deserve special mention. We explain each below.
Based on a couple of genetic studies, it is now known that the Falkland Islands just have one species of steamer-duck. Since that species includes birds capable of flight and others that cannot fly, it had been thought that both Falkland Steamer-Duck (flightless) and Flying Steamer-Duck (flighted) occurred there. However, the genes reveal that this species is perhaps in the process of losing the ability to fly, with some birds still able to fly and others that do not. As a result, all steamer-duck records from the falklands are now ascribed to Falkland Steamer-Duck Tachyeres brachypterus.
When Ruddy Duck and Andean Duck were split last year, we failed to revise the common and scientific names for the slash option that is useful in southern South America. This of course was intended for cases where you can’t tell if you saw an Andean Duck or Lake Duck, since the two overlap in range and are very similar; Ruddy Duck is a North American species that does not overlap in range and doesn’t really resemble Lake Duck anyway!
- Ruddy/Lake Duck Oxyura ferruginea/vittata –> Andean/Lake Duck Oxyura andina/vittata [map]
We are never happy about it, but we do make occasional typos in our taxonomy update. One of these was listing a New Zealand hybrid as Pied x Variable Oystercatcher Haematopus longirostris x unicolor when we always intended for it to refer to occasional instances of hybridization between South Island Oystercatcher Haematopus finschi x unicolor and Variable Oystercatcher Haematopus unicolor. Check out the records of these hybrids on the map. We have that typo fixed now.
- South Island x Variable Oystercatcher (hybrid) Haematopus finschi x unicolor [map]
The slash Bianchi’s/Marten’s WarblerPhylloscopus valentini/omeiensis always should have included the very similar Alström’s Warbler Phylloscopus soror, so we have revised this option to include that species as well.
Our New Zealand team has reviewed the taxonomy of the introduced and established redpolls in New Zealand. Although there may be some hybridization in their past, New Zealand editors now consider the population to pertain to Lesser Redpoll Acanthis cabaret and does not consider Common Redpoll Acanthis flammea to occur in New Zealand (and nearby areas). We have updated the records accordingly in eBird.
When we added two new slashes last year we reversed the scientific names for each of them, so that Grasshopper/Baird’s Sparrow carried the scientific names for Grasshopper/Henslow’s, and vice versa. Ooops! If you have reported any of these, please make sure that you did so based on the English name–if you used the scientific name, your records may have ended up in the wrong option. The names are now corrected.
When subspecies move around between species, this can have effects like splits or lumps. Thus, for a certain population within a species, the movement of the subspecies from one to another has important data quality implications and can significantly change the range of both species.
Subspecies approximans is the common vireo on Providencia Island in the Caribbean (off the coast of Nicaragua, but governed by Colombia). Some authorities (e.g., IOC) treat is as a species in its own right (Providencia Vireo Vireo approximans), but when it is not recognized as a species it is usually considered a subspecies of Mangrove Vireo Vireo pallens. Our treatment, however, deferred to the AOS-NACC, which treated it as a subspecies of Thick-billed Vireo Vireo crassirostris, until a review of other taxonomies and vocal differences (the voice sounds much more like Mangrove Vireo than thick-billed) revealed it is better treated as a subspecies of Mangrove Vireo. We retain it as a distinctive subspecies group, though the names have changed as the parent species has changed.
Newly recognized subspecies manengubae is added to Evergreen-forest Warbler Bradypterus lopezi with range “Mt. Manenguba (southwestern Cameroon).” This subspecies had been considered a junior synonym of Bangwa Warbler Bradypterus bangwaensis, but Bangwa Warbler and manengubae are sympatric on Mt. Manenguba, however, and so we in recognizing manengubae as a valid taxon. All this is complicated and tricky, but it does result in a minor change to our understanding of the range for both species.
Subspecies canturians, previously included in Japanese Bush Warbler Horornis diphone, instead belongs with Manchurian Bush Warbler, which then must change from Horornis borealis to Horornis canturians. The range of subspecies canturians is “breeds eastern China (Gansu and Sichuan east to Anhui and Zhejiang); winters to southern China, Taiwan, northeastern India (Assam), northwestern Thailand, Indochina, and the northern Philippines.”
Subspecies clarki belongs with Burmese Yuhina Yuhina humilis, not with Whiskered Yuhina Yuhina flavicollis. Its range is “Mountains of e Myanmar (S Shan State and Karenni State)” so this adjustment makes a minor change to the range of both species.
Subspecies aenigmaticus, with range “SW Colombia (Nariño)”, indeed is enigmatic. Originally described as a subspecies of Thrush-like Wren Campylorhynchus turdinus, it now is considered to represent hybrids between White-headed Wren and Band-backed Wren Campylorhynchus zonatus. This results in a minor change in the range of White-headed Wren and necessitates the addition of the hybrid, which we did not previously have in our taxonomy.
- White-headed Wren Campylorhynchus albobrunneus [map] [species page] [my records]
- White-headed x Band-backed Wren Campylorhynchus albobrunneus x zonatus [map]
Subspecies rubronigra with range “N India (Haryana to n Bihar) and lowlands of Nepal” is moved from Tricolored Munia Lonchura malacca to Chestnut Munia Lonchura atricapilla, which means that the native range of Tricolored Munia is restricted to the southern half of India and Sri Lanka, although it has also been introduced widely including in northern India.
Two subspecies, saphiroi and goodsoni, that we have treated within Buffy Pipit Anthus vaalensis are transferred to Plain-backed Pipit Anthus leucophrys. The new names and ranges are Anthus leucophrys saphiroi from “SE Ethiopia and nw Somalia” and Anthus leucophrys goodsoni with range “C and sw Kenya to extreme n Tanzania”.
SHUFFLES OF OTHER TAXA and SUBSPECIES GROUP LUMPS
Revisions to eBird subspecies groups, and occasionally other taxa (like spuhs or slashes), can happen in our taxonomic update as well. This effectively changes the definition for these taxa and also changes how you should use them in reporting. To review your records of any of the subspecies groups below, simply open your Life List on eBird and use a browser search to search for the species name in question. Click the species to open all reports for that species; your subspecies reports will appear in this list and you can review those for accuracy. Selected revisions are listed below; for a complete listing of these changes see the Clements updates.
Subspecies aphanes, which we have considered to be a junior synonym of Vaux’s Swift (Ashy-tailed) Chaetura vauxi andrei since Clements Checklist 6.4 (2009), is reinstated; genetic evidence shows that andrei and aphanes are separate taxa. We recognize aphanes as a new monotypic group, Vaux’s Swift (aphanes) Chaetura vauxi aphanes, with range “northern Venezuela (coastal ranges, from Lara and Yaracuy east to Sucre and Monagas)”.
Collared Inca Coeligena torquata: Collared Inca (Green) Coeligena torquata conradii and Collared Inca (Vilcabamba) Coeligena torquata eisenmanni are split out from Collared Inca (Collared) Coeligena torquata [torquata Group]. We retain Collared Inca (Gould’s) Coeligena torquata inca/omissa as the fourth identifiable subspecies group.
Amazilia Hummingbird Amazilia amazilia: Amazilia Hummingbird (Loja) Amazilia amazilia alticola is no longer recognized as a group and is “lumped” with Amazilia Hummingbird (Amazilia) Amazilia amazilia [amazilia Group]. At the same time, we recognize two new groups; thew White-throated group includes subspecies dumerilii, azuay, alticola, and leucophoea. Here are the groups we have now:
- Amazilia Hummingbird (White-throated) Amazilia amazilia [dumerilii Group]
- Amazilia Hummingbird (Green-throated) Amazilia amazilia amazilia
- Amazilia Hummingbird (Blue-throated) Amazilia amazilia caeruleigularis
Crested Serpent-Eagle (Andaman) Spilornis cheela: We add new subspecies group Crested Serpent-Eagle (Andaman) Spilornis cheela davisoni which is split out from Crested Serpent-Eagle (Crested) Spilornis cheela [cheela Group].
Roadside Hawk (Southern) Rupornis magnirostris: We erred last year by including subspecies occiduus, with range “W Amazonian Brazil, e Peru and n Bolivia” in the polytypic group Roadside Hawk (Southern) Rupornis magnirostris [pucherani Group] and this year add it to Roadside Hawk (Northern) Rupornis magnirostris [magnirostris Group]; this significantly extends the range of the Northern group and restricts the range of the Southern group.
Collared Trogon Trogon collaris: See “Lumps and Unrecognized species” for these revisions.
Orange-breasted Fig-Parrot (Creamy-breasted) Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii amabilis/ramuensis is split from Orange-breasted Fig-Parrot (Black-fronted) Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii nigrifrons N New Guinea. Both occur in New Guinea, with Creamy-breasted in the Northeast and Black-fronted in the North.
Maroon-tailed Parakeet (Huila) Pyrrhura melanura chapmani of the Subtropical e slope of Central Andes of s Colombia is split from Maroon-tailed Parakeet (Maroon-tailed) Pyrrhura melanura [melanura Group] which extends from s Colombia to e Ecuador, n Peru, s Venezuela and nw Brazil
Subspecies scapularis removed from the polytypic group Rufous-winged Antwren (Northern) Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus [scapularis Group] and now is transferred to the group Rufous-winged Antwren (Southern). Below are the ranges with subspecies:
- Rufous-winged Antwren (Northern) Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus frater/exiguus
- Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus exiguus
- Pacific slope of e Panama (e Darién)
- Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus frater
- base of Andes from Colombia south to northern Bolivia, east to southwestern Amazonian Brazil (Rondônia and northern Mato Grosso); Venezuela; southern Guyana, central Suriname, and northern Brazil (northern Roraima);northeastern Brazil (southern Pará and western Maranhão, also Paraíba south to Alagoas
- Rufous-winged Antwren (Southern) Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus/scapularis
- Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus scapularis
- northeastern Brazil (Bahia to Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais)
- Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus
- SE Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) to e Paraguay and ne Argentina
Creamy-breasted Canastero (Huancavelica) Asthenes dorbignyi huancavelicae from Huancavelica in the arid Andes of sw Peru is split out from Creamy-breasted Canastero (Pale-tailed) Asthenes dorbignyi usheri from the arid Andes of s-c Peru in Ancash to Apurímac.
Green-backed Becard (Green-cheeked) Pachyramphus viridis griseigularis from SE Venezuela (e Bolívar) and lower Amazonian Brazil and Green-backed Becard (Green-backed) Pachyramphus viridis viridis E Bolivia to n Argentina, e Uruguay, Paraguay and e Brazil are split; they were formerly considered part of the same group, but each is distinctive.
Bran-colored Flycatcher (Mouse-gray) Myiophobus fasciatus crypterythrus from the Pacific slope of South America (Colombia south to northern Peru) is split from the widespread Central and South American group Bran-colored Flycatcher (Bran-colored) Myiophobus fasciatus [fasciatus Group], which occurs east of the Andes in the countries where both forms occur (s. Colombia, Ecuador, Peru).
Rufous-naped Ground-Tyrant (Chestnut-naped) Muscisaxicola rufivertex occipitalis from the Andes of Peru and n Bolivia (La Paz and Cochabamba) is split from Rufous-naped Ground-Tyrant (Rufous-naped) Muscisaxicola rufivertex rufivertex, which occurs from Andes of s Chile and s Argentina; winters north to Antofagasta.
Subspecies goodsoni, with range S New Guinea (Merauke District), is removed from the polytypic group Little Shrikethrush (Arafura) Colluricincla megarhyncha [megarhyncha Group], and is placed in the polytypic group Little Shrikethrush (Rufous) Colluricincla megarhyncha [rufogaster Group]. See Clements Checklist for full details.
A new subspecies Dicrurus adsimilis jubaensis from Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia is added to the Fork-tailed Drongo (adsimilis Group) Dicrurus adsimilis [adsimilis Group].
Eurasian Skylark (Asian) Alauda arvensis [pekinensis Group] and Eurasian Skylark (Far Eastern) Alauda arvensis japonica/intermedia are divided into two groups (formerly Eurasian Skylark (Asian) Alauda arvensis [japonicus Group]). Differences in display, flight call, and song suggest there could be species-level differences here and we recommend supporting any records with audio recordings or detailed notes.
Rock-loving Cisticola (Huambo) Cisticola aberrans bailunduensis of central Angola is split from the Rock-loving Cisticola (Rock-loving) Cisticola aberrans [emini Group] of which occurs from Guinea to Sierra Leone, Mali and s Ghana south and east to ne Democratic Republic of the Congo, s South Sudan, and n Tanzania
Two additional groups are split from Zitting Cisticola (Zitting) Cisticola juncidis [juncidis Group]:
- Zitting Cisticola (tinnabulans Group) Cisticola juncidis [tinnabulans Group]
- S China to Indochina, Hainan, Taiwan and Philippines, Indonesian islands, New Guinea and Australia
- Zitting Cisticola (Eastern) Cisticola juncidis brunniceps
- Japan (Honshu to Ryukyu, Izu and Cheju-Do is.) to n Philippines
In earlier treatments, we erroneously placed subspecies stuarti with Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Northern) Stelgidopteryx serripennis [serripennis Group] but correctly place it with the distinctive Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Ridgway’s) Stelgidopteryx serripennis ridgwayi/stuarti now.
Shelley’s Greenbul Arizelocichla masukuensis: See “Splits” above for the changes in this species and Eastern Mountain Greenbul.
Eastern Mountain Greenbul Arizelocichla nigriceps: See “Splits” above for the changes in this species and Shelley’s Greenbul.
Subspecies remotus is removed from the polytypic group Ashy Bulbul (Ashy) Hemixos flavala [flavala Group] and now is recognized as a new monotypic group, Ashy Bulbul (Brown-backed) Hemixos flavala remotus, occurring in an area of endemism in S Vietnam (Bolavens and Langbian plateaux)
Abyssinian White-eye (Socotra) Zosterops abyssinicus socotranus, which occurs on Socotra and also n Somalia, is split from Abyssinian White-eye (Abyssinian) Zosterops abyssinicus [abyssinicus Group].
Our Capuchin Babbler (Capuchin) Turdoides atripennis atripennis/rubiginosus group is split into Capuchin Babbler (Gray-hooded) Turdoides atripennis atripennis of the Gambia to Ivory Coast and Capuchin Babbler (Black-crowned) Turdoides atripennis rubiginosus which occurs from Ivory Coast to s Nigeria.
Meves’s Starling (Cunene) Lamprotornis mevesii violacior from N Namibia and sw Angola is split from Meves’s Starling (Meves’s) Lamprotornis mevesii mevesii, which occurs in Angola and n Namibia to Botswana, s Malawi and ne S Africa
Subspecies rudolfi, which we previously included as Moorland Chat (Rudolf’s) Pinarochroa sordida rudolfi with range “N Kenya (Mt. Elgon moorlands) and adjacent e Uganda”, is considered to be a junior synonym of ernesti and is deleted. This population thus becomes part of our Moorland Chat (Mt. Kenya) Pinarochroa sordida ernesti subspecies group with the revised range “highlands of extreme eastern Uganda and of western and central Kenya”.
Red-headed Fody (Grand Comoro) Foudia eminentissima consobrina of Grand Comoro I. (Comoro Islands) is split from
Red-headed Fody (Southern Comoros) Foudia eminentissima [eminentissima Group] of Anjouan, Mohéli, Mayotte
We recognize a new “Caribbean” group in Grayish Saltator and revise the subspecies involved with all three groups. The Middle American group is restricted to Mexico and Central America, the Caribbean group occurs in Caribbean lowlands of Colombia (a few recent records from eastern Panama), Venezuela, Trinidad, the Guianas, and Brazil, and the Amazonian group occurs in…Amazonia. The Clements Checklist v2019 will give more details on the subspecies and ranges involved.
- Grayish Saltator (Middle American) Saltator coerulescens [grandis Group] [map]
- Grayish Saltator (Caribbean) Saltator coerulescens [olivascens Group] [map]
- Grayish Saltator (Amazonian) Saltator coerulescens [coerulescens Group] [map]
NEW SUBSPECIES GROUPS
The following new subspecies groups are now available for data entry. When you are certain you have seen representatives of these groups, and ideally have identified them critically based on their field marks, please report them to eBird. Please do not guess based on the name, such as “Northern” and “Southern” or “African” and “Asian”; make sure you understand the differences being represented before reporting at so specific a level. Many new subspecies groups were added this year, largely because of additional review of the work by Nigel Collar and the Birdlife International team, who have assessed a large number of avian taxa based on morphological and acoustic information and scored their relative distinctiveness (also known as the Tobias criteria). While we don’t necessarily follow the species-level splits from Handbook of the Birds of the World, these were useful for helping identify additional distinctive subspecies groups, resulting in a good number of additions this year.
- Scaly-breasted Partridge (Tonkin) Arborophila chloropus tonkinensis
- Scaly-breasted Partridge (Green-legged) Arborophila chloropus [chloropus Group]
- Black Francolin (Western) Francolinus francolinus francolinus/arabistanicus
- Black Francolin (Eastern) Francolinus francolinus [henrici Group]
- Lined Quail-Dove (linearis) Zentrygon linearis linearis
- Lined Quail-Dove (trinitatis) Zentrygon linearis trinitatis
- Green Imperial-Pigeon (Enggano) Ducula aenea oenothorax
- New Zealand Pigeon (New Zealand) Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae
- Vaux’s Swift (aphanes) Chaetura vauxi aphanes
- Amethyst-throated Sunangel (Merida) Heliangelus amethysticollis spencei
- Collared Inca (Green) Coeligena torquata conradii
- Collared Inca (Vilcabamba) Coeligena torquata eisenmanni
- Amazilia Hummingbird (Green-throated) Amazilia amazilia amazilia
- Amazilia Hummingbird (Blue-throated) Amazilia amazilia caeruleigularis
- Northern Fulmar (Atlantic) Fulmarus glacialis glacialis/auduboni
- Stewart Island Shag (Otago) Phalacrocorax chalconotus chalconotus
- Stewart Island Shag (Foveaux) Phalacrocorax chalconotus stewarti
- Crested Serpent-Eagle (Andaman) Spilornis cheela davisoni
- Great Black Hawk (Northern) Buteogallus urubitinga ridgwayi
- Great Black Hawk (Southern) Buteogallus urubitinga urubitinga
- Pacific Screech-Owl (lambi) Megascops cooperi lambi
- Pacific Screech-Owl (cooperi) Megascops cooperi cooperi
- Northern Saw-whet Owl (acadicus) Aegolius acadicus acadicus
- Northern Saw-whet Owl (Haida Gwaii) Aegolius acadicus brooksi
- White-headed Woodhoopoe (bollei/jacksoni) Phoeniculus bollei bollei/jacksoni
- White-headed Woodhoopoe (Oku) Phoeniculus bollei okuensis
- Forest Woodhoopoe (Western) Phoeniculus castaneiceps castaneiceps
- Forest Woodhoopoe (Eastern) Phoeniculus castaneiceps brunneiceps
- Sulawesi Dwarf-Kingfisher (Sangihe) Ceyx fallax sangirensis
- Sulawesi Dwarf-Kingfisher (Sulawesi) Ceyx fallax fallax
- Blue-breasted Bee-eater (Blue-breasted) Merops variegatus [variegatus Group]
- Blue-breasted Bee-eater (Ethiopian) Merops variegatus lafresnayii
- Golden-throated Barbet (Himalayan) Psilopogon franklinii franklinii
- Golden-throated Barbet (Malaysian) Psilopogon franklinii ramsayi
- Lesser Vasa Parrot (Comoro) Coracopsis nigra sibilans
- Lesser Vasa Parrot (Black) Coracopsis nigra nigra/libs
- Eclectus Parrot (Moluccan) Eclectus roratus roratus/vosmaeri
- Eclectus Parrot (Sumba) Eclectus roratus cornelia
- Eclectus Parrot (Tanimbar) Eclectus roratus riedeli
- Eclectus Parrot (Papuan) Eclectus roratus [polychloros Group]
- Singing Parrot (Northern) Geoffroyus heteroclitus heteroclitus
- Singing Parrot (Rennell) Geoffroyus heteroclitus hyacinthinus
- Painted Tiger-Parrot (Snow Mountains) Psittacella picta lorentzi
- Painted Tiger-Parrot (Eastern) Psittacella picta picta/excelsa
- Orange-breasted Fig-Parrot (Creamy-breasted) Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii amabilis/ramuensis
- Papuan Lorikeet (Vogelkop) Charmosyna papou papou
- Papuan Lorikeet (Stella’s) Charmosyna papou [stellae Group]
- Coconut Lorikeet (Coconut) Trichoglossus haematodus [haematodus Group]
- Maroon-tailed Parakeet (Huila) Pyrrhura melanura chapmani
- Scarlet-fronted Parakeet (Scarlet-fronted) Psittacara wagleri wagleri/transilis
- Scarlet-fronted Parakeet (Cordilleran) Psittacara wagleri frontatus/minor
- Scaled Antpitta (guatimalensis Group) Grallaria guatimalensis [guatimalensis Group]
- Scaled Antpitta (princeps/chocoensis) Grallaria guatimalensis princeps/chocoensis
- Scaled Antpitta (aripoensis) Grallaria guatimalensis aripoensis
- Scaled Antpitta (roraimae) Grallaria guatimalensis roraimae
- Scaled Antpitta (regulus/carmelitae) Grallaria guatimalensis regulus/carmelitae
- Scaled Antpitta (sororia) Grallaria guatimalensis sororia
- Northern Barred-Woodcreeper (Western) Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae [sanctithomae Group]
- Northern Barred-Woodcreeper (Eastern) Dendrocolaptes sanctithomae punctipectus
- Creamy-breasted Canastero (Huancavelica) Asthenes dorbignyi huancavelicae
- Buff-throated Purpletuft (Northern) Iodopleura pipra leucopygia
- Buff-throated Purpletuft (Southern) Iodopleura pipra pipra
- Green-backed Becard (Green-cheeked) Pachyramphus viridis griseigularis
- Common Tody-Flycatcher (cinereum Group) Todirostrum cinereum [cinereum Group]
- Common Tody-Flycatcher (sclateri) Todirostrum cinereum sclateri
- Yellow-margined Flycatcher (neglectus) Tolmomyias assimilis neglectus
- Yellow-margined Flycatcher (examinatus) Tolmomyias assimilis examinatus
- Yellow-margined Flycatcher (obscuriceps) Tolmomyias assimilis obscuriceps
- Yellow-margined Flycatcher (assimilis Group) Tolmomyias assimilis [assimilis Group]
- Yellow-margined Flycatcher (paraensis) Tolmomyias assimilis paraensis
- Sooty-headed Tyrannulet (griseiceps) Phyllomyias griseiceps griseiceps
- Sooty-headed Tyrannulet (cristatus) Phyllomyias griseiceps cristatus
- Sooty-headed Tyrannulet (caucae) Phyllomyias griseiceps caucae
- Sooty-headed Tyrannulet (pallidiceps) Phyllomyias griseiceps pallidiceps
- Bran-colored Flycatcher (Mouse-gray) Myiophobus fasciatus crypterythrus
- Rufous-naped Ground-Tyrant (Chestnut-naped) Muscisaxicola rufivertex occipitalis
- Graceful Honeyeater (gracilis) Meliphaga gracilis gracilis
- Graceful Honeyeater (imitatrix) Meliphaga gracilis imitatrix
- Common Cicadabird (Slender-billed) Edolisoma tenuirostre [tenuirostre Group]
- Common Cicadabird (Obi) Edolisoma tenuirostre obiense/pelingi
- Common Cicadabird (Moluccan) Edolisoma tenuirostre grayi
- Common Cicadabird (Geelvink) Edolisoma tenuirostre meyerii/numforanum
- Common Cicadabird (Rossel) Edolisoma tenuirostre rostratum
- Common Cicadabird (Melanesian) Edolisoma tenuirostre [erythropygium Group]
- Yellow-throated Whistler (Moluccan) Pachycephala macrorhyncha [macrorhyncha Group]
- Yellow-throated Whistler (Timor) Pachycephala macrorhyncha calliope
- Yellow-throated Whistler (Banda Sea) Pachycephala macrorhyncha par/compar
- Yellow-throated Whistler (Damar) Pachycephala macrorhyncha dammeriana
- Yellow-throated Whistler (Babar) Pachycephala macrorhyncha sharpei
- Dark Newtonia (amphichroa) Newtonia amphichroa amphichroa
- Dark Newtonia (lavarambo) Newtonia amphichroa lavarambo
- Rufous Vanga (rufa) Schetba rufa rufa
- Rufous Vanga (occidentalis) Schetba rufa occidentalis
- White-headed Vanga (viridis) Artamella viridis viridis
- White-headed Vanga (annae) Artamella viridis annae
- Chestnut-bellied Monarch (Chestnut-bellied) Monarcha castaneiventris castaneiventris/obscurior
- Chestnut-bellied Monarch (Makira) Monarcha castaneiventris megarhynchus
- Chestnut-bellied Monarch (Ugi) Monarcha castaneiventris ugiensis
- Pacific Robin (Solomons) Petroica pusilla [polymorpha Group]
- Pacific Robin (Vanuatu) Petroica pusilla [pusilla Group]
- Pacific Robin (Samoan) Petroica pusilla pusilla
- Eurasian Skylark (Far Eastern) Alauda arvensis japonica/intermedia
- Stripe-throated Jery (Stripe-throated) Neomixis striatigula striatigula/sclateri
- Stripe-throated Jery (Subdesert) Neomixis striatigula pallidior
- Olive-green Camaroptera (Olive-green) Camaroptera chloronota [chloronota Group]
- Olive-green Camaroptera (Tawny-breasted) Camaroptera chloronota toroensis/kamitugaensis
- Rock-loving Cisticola (Huambo) Cisticola aberrans bailunduensis
- Zitting Cisticola (tinnabulans Group) Cisticola juncidis [tinnabulans Group]
- Zitting Cisticola (Eastern) Cisticola juncidis brunniceps
- Papuan Grassbird (interscapularis/mayri) Cincloramphus macrurus interscapularis/mayri
- Papuan Grassbird (macrurus Group) Cincloramphus macrurus [macrurus Group]
- Rock Martin (Red-throated) Ptyonoprogne fuligula fusciventris/bansoensis
- Rock Martin (Large) Ptyonoprogne fuligula [fuligula Group]
- Pacific Swallow (Pacific) Hirundo tahitica [javanica Group]
- Pacific Swallow (Tahiti) Hirundo tahitica tahitica
- Cream-vented Bulbul (White-eyed) Pycnonotus simplex simplex/halizonus
- Cream-vented Bulbul (Red-eyed) Pycnonotus simplex perplexus/prillwitzi
- Ashy Bulbul (Brown-backed) Hemixos flavala remotus
- Abyssinian White-eye (Socotra) Zosterops abyssinicus socotranus
- Lemon-bellied White-eye (Lemon-bellied) Zosterops chloris [chloris Group]
- Lemon-bellied White-eye (Wakatobi) Zosterops chloris flavissimus
- Capuchin Babbler (Black-crowned) Turdoides atripennis rubiginosus
- Common Hill Myna (Common) Gracula religiosa [religiosa Group]
- Common Hill Myna (Tenggara) Gracula religiosa venerata
- Meves’s Starling (Cunene) Lamprotornis mevesii violacior
- White-breasted Thrasher (Martinique) Ramphocinclus brachyurus brachyurus
- White-breasted Thrasher (St. Lucia) Ramphocinclus brachyurus sanctaeluciae
- Scaly Thrush (Iriomotejima) Zoothera dauma iriomotensis
- Abyssinian Ground-Thrush (Abyssinian) Geokichla piaggiae [piaggiae Group]
- Hill Blue Flycatcher (Hill) Cyornis banyumas [whitei Group]
- Hill Blue Flycatcher (Javan) Cyornis banyumas banyumas/ligus
- Hill Blue Flycatcher (Dayak) Cyornis banyumas montanus
- Sulawesi Blue Flycatcher (Tanahjampea) Cyornis omissus djampeanus
- Sulawesi Blue Flycatcher (Kalao) Cyornis omissus kalaoensis
- East Coast Akalat (Montane) Sheppardia gunningi alticola
- East Coast Akalat (Benson’s) Sheppardia gunningi bensoni
- East Coast Akalat (Gunning’s) Sheppardia gunningi gunningi
- Arnot’s Chat (Angola) Myrmecocichla arnotti harterti
- Arnot’s Chat (Arnot’s) Myrmecocichla arnotti arnotti
- Olive-backed Sunbird (Rand’s) Cinnyris jugularis idenburgi
- Red-headed Fody (Grand Comoro) Foudia eminentissima consobrina
- Red Avadavat (Red-bellied) Amandava amandava amandava/punicea
- Red Avadavat (Yellow-bellied) Amandava amandava flavidiventris
- Paramo Pipit (meridae) Anthus bogotensis meridae
- Paramo Pipit (bogotensis Group) Anthus bogotensis [bogotensis Group]
- Gray-hooded Sierra-Finch (minor) Phrygilus gayi minor
- Gray-hooded Sierra-Finch (gayi/caniceps) Phrygilus gayi gayi/caniceps
- Grayish Saltator (Caribbean) Saltator coerulescens [olivascens Group]
NEW HYBRIDS and INTERGRADES
eBird has a long list of field identifiable hybrids. These are always listed in taxonomic order (the species that comes first sequentially is listed first) and are always followed by “hybrid”. If you identified a hybrid, especially any of the below, please do report it to eBird (hopefully with photos)! eBird also maintains a much shorter lists of intergrades (hybrids between subspecies groups); these always list the species name followed by a parenthetical notation that shows what two subspecies groups have hybridized (e.g., Northern Flicker (Yellow-shafted x Red-shafted) and also can be identified from the scientific name by the structure of the names which indicates that it is a subspecies. Hybrids and intergrades are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.
With Change Species, eBirders can quickly update their lists if you already have an entry of any of these (e.g., under duck sp. or hummingbird sp.).
- White-faced x Fulvous Whistling-Duck (hybrid) Dendrocygna viduata x bicolor
- Greater White-fronted x Red-breasted Goose (hybrid) Anser albifrons x Branta ruficollis
- Common Shelduck x Wood Duck (hybrid) Tadorna tadorna x Aix sponsa
- American Wigeon x American Black Duck (hybrid) Mareca americana x Anas rubripes
- Spectacled x King Eider (hybrid) Somateria fischeri x spectabilis
- Tibetan x White Eared-Pheasant (hybrid) Crossoptilon harmani x crossoptilon
- Long-tailed Sylph x Tyrian Metaltail (hybrid) Aglaiocercus kingii x Metallura tyrianthina
- Purple-throated x White-throated Mountain-gem (hybrid) Lampornis calolaemus x castaneoventris
- Lucifer x Black-chinned Hummingbird (hybrid) Calothorax lucifer x Archilochus alexandri
- Rufous-tailed x Cinnamon Hummingbird (hybrid) Amazilia tzacatl x rutila
- King x Clapper Rail (hybrid) Rallus elegans x crepitans
- Sarus Crane x Brolga (hybrid) Antigone antigone x rubicunda
- Blue-footed x Brown Booby (hybrid) Sula nebouxii x leucogaster
- White-barred x Ochre-collared Piculet (hybrid) Picumnus cirratus x temminckii
- White-barred x White-wedged Piculet (hybrid) Picumnus cirratus x albosquamatus
- Galah x Little Corella (hybrid) Eolophus roseicapilla x Cacatua sanguinea
- Red-winged Parrot x Australian King-Parrot (hybrid) Alisterus scapularis x Aprosmictus erythropterus
- Slaty-headed x Plum-headed Parakeet (hybrid) Psittacula himalayana x cyanocephala
- Crimson x Pale-headed Rosella (hybrid) Platycercus elegans x adscitus
- Red-collared x Rainbow Lorikeet (hybrid) Trichoglossus rubritorquis x moluccanus
- Red-crowned x Lilac-crowned Parrot (hybrid) Amazona viridigenalis x finschi
- Green x Crimson-fronted Parakeet (hybrid) Psittacara holochlorus x finschi
- Helmeted x Swallow-tailed Manakin (hybrid) Antilophia galeata x Chiroxiphia caudata
- Regent x Satin Bowerbird (hybrid) Sericulus chrysocephalus x Ptilonorhynchus violaceus
- Masked x White-browed Woodswallow (hybrid) Artamus personatus x superciliosus
- Black-faced x Black-winged Monarch (hybrid) Monarcha melanopsis x frater
- Steller’s Jay x California Scrub-Jay (hybrid) Cyanocitta stelleri x Aphelocoma californica
- Eurasian Blue x Azure Tit (hybrid) Cyanistes caeruleus x cyanus
- Miombo x Stierling’s Wren-Warbler (hybrid) Calamonastes undosus x stierlingi
- Red-vented x Sooty-headed Bulbul (hybrid) Pycnonotus cafer x aurigaster
- Orange River x Cape White-eye (hybrid) Zosterops pallidus x virens
- White-headed x Band-backed Wren (hybrid) Campylorhynchus albobrunneus x zonatus
- Moustached x Coraya Wren (hybrid) Pheugopedius genibarbis x coraya
- Curve-billed x Long-billed Thrasher (hybrid) Toxostoma curvirostre x longirostre
- Eastern x Western Bluebird (hybrid) Sialia sialis x mexicana
- Dusky x Naumann’s Thrush (hybrid) Turdus eunomus x naumanni
- Italian x Spanish Sparrow (hybrid) Passer italiae x hispaniolensis
- Cinnamon-breasted x Gosling’s Bunting (hybrid) Emberiza tahapisi x goslingi
- Chipping x Field Sparrow (hybrid) Spizella passerina x pusilla
- Boat-tailed x Great-tailed Grackle (hybrid) Quiscalus major x mexicanus
- Magnolia x Black-throated Blue Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga magnolia x caerulescens
- Magnolia x Palm Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga magnolia x palmarum
- Cape May x Yellow-rumped Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga tigrina x coronata
- Black-throated x Gray-bellied Flowerpiercer (hybrid) Diglossa brunneiventris x carbonaria
NEW EXTINCT SPECIES
The eBird/Clements taxonomy did not previously have a formal policy regarding extinct species, but this year we adopt the same standard that is used by other global bird lists, namely the Birdlife International/Handbook of the Birds of the World (HBW) taxonomy and the International Ornithological Committee (IOC). Our taxonomy is now expanded to include all species that were known to persist beyond the year 1500, which results in the following additions to our taxonomy. We don’t expect many eBird reports of these species, sadly, but we do plan to have new species accounts available for them soon to help understand the avian biodiversity that has already been lost. Most of these were island endemics that disappeared as Europeans first arrived on remote islands.
- Mauritius Shelduck Alopochen mauritiana
- Reunion Shelduck Alopochen kervazoi
- Finsch’s Duck Chenonetta finschi
- Amsterdam Duck Mareca marecula
- Mauritius Duck Anas theodori
- Mauritius Wood-Pigeon Columba thiriouxi
- Reunion Pigeon Nesoenas duboisi
- Mauritius Turtle-Dove Nesoenas cicur
- Rodrigues Turtle-Dove Nesoenas rodericanus
- Rodrigues Blue-Pigeon Alectroenas payandeei
- St. Helena Cuckoo Nannococcyx psix
- Reunion Rail Dryolimnas augusti
- Red Rail Aphanapteryx bonasia
- Rodrigues Rail Erythromachus leguati
- St. Helena Crake Atlantisia podarces
- Ascension Crake Mundia elpenor
- Hawkins’s Rail Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi
- Hodgen’s Waterhen Tribonyx hodgenorum
- Mascarene Coot Fulica newtonii
- Marquesan Swamphen Porphyrio paepae
- New Caledonian Gallinule Porphyrio kukwiedei
- Reunion Gallinule Porphyrio caerulescens
- St. Helena Rail Zapornia astrictocarpus
- Miller’s Rail Zapornia nigra
- Large St. Helena Petrel Pterodroma rupinarum
- Small St. Helena Petrel Bulweria bifax
- Reunion Night-Heron Nycticorax duboisi
- Mauritius Night-Heron Nycticorax mauritianus
- Rodrigues Night-Heron Nycticorax megacephalus
- Bermuda Night-Heron Nyctanassa carcinocatactes
- Bermuda Hawk Bermuteo avivorus
- Reunion Scops-Owl Otus grucheti
- Rodrigues Scops-Owl Otus murivorus
- Mauritius Scops-Owl Otus sauzieri
- Bermuda Saw-whet Owl Aegolius gradyi
- St. Helena Hoopoe Upupa antaios
- Bermuda Flicker Colaptes oceanicus
- Reunion Kestrel Falco duboisi
- Oceanic Parrot Eclectus infectus
- Mauritius Gray Parrot Lophopsittacus bensoni
- Broad-billed Parrot Lophopsittacus mauritianus
- Rodrigues Parrot Necopsittacus rodricanus
- Martinique Parrot Amazona martinicana
- Guadeloupe Parrot Amazona violacea
- Guadeloupe Parakeet Psittacara labati
- Raiatea Starling Aplonis ulietensis
- Reunion Fody Foudia delloni
- Bermuda Towhee Pipilo naufragus
Within eBird, we also have forms for taxa that are field identifiable (or likely potential species) and worth tracking, but are not formally described. These include undescribed species and undescribed subspecies groups (both noted with “undescribed form”), slashes at a level between subspecies group and species (e.g., “Whimbrel (White-rumped)” below) and miscellaneous other options. This year’s update includes an enigmatic steamer-duck from Chiloe Island, tentatively placed within the Flightless Steamer-Duck Tachyeres pteneres, two poorly known taxa represented by just one or two specimens, and a new reporting option for Lesser Black-backed Gull for birds that can be narrowed to one of two very similar subspecies. Forms are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.
- Flightless Steamer-Duck (Chiloe form) Tachyeres pteneres [undescribed form]
- Guanacaste Hummingbird (unrecognized species) Amazilia alfaroana [unrecognized species]
- Lesser Black-backed Gull (intermedius/graellsii) Larus fuscus intermedius/graellsii
- White-tailed Tityra (unrecognized species) Tityra leucura [unrecognized species]
eBird has certain domesticated species that are regularly seen in a feral or wild state. The distinction between a “Domestic” and a wild type bird of the same species is in its appearance, and domestics are always identifiable as having domestic ancestry, often in their white, yellow, or otherwise abnormal plumage, or less often, in their size or shape (e.g., Graylag Goose (Domestic type) is larger and more pot-bellied than wild Graylag Geese). Domestics are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist. We have not added any domestics for 2019.
NEW SLASHES AND SPUHS
As with hybrids, eBird has a long list of “slashes” and “spuhs”. These are useful in the field if you get a good enough look at a bird to know it, for example, a scoter, but not to tell if it was a Common Scoter, Black Scoter, Surf Scoter, Velvet Scoter, White-winged Scoter, or Stejneger’s Scoter. You can use “scoter sp.”, in such instances. If you are able to narrow it down to two (or in rare cases, three or four) species options, we have “slashes”, which mention the full common name (and scientific name) for the species that are potential species for your observation (e.g., Surf/Black Scoter). This list is being regularly updated as observers let us know what field identification problems they encounter. Slashes and spuhs are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.
- Mallard/Pacific Black Duck Anas platyrhynchos/superciliosa
- Mallard/Hawaiian Duck Anas platyrhynchos/wyvilliana
- Mallard/Indian Spot-billed Duck Anas platyrhynchos/poecilorhyncha
- Mallard/Eastern Spot-billed Duck Anas platyrhynchos/zonorhyncha
- Fork-tailed/Violet-capped Woodnymph Thalurania furcata/glaucopis
- Lepidopyga sp. Lepidopyga sp.
- Pied/Black Stilt Himantopus leucocephalus/novaezelandiae
- Arctic/Antarctic Tern Sterna paradisaea/vittata
- Juan Fernandez/White-necked Petrel Pterodroma externa/cervicalis
- Pseudobulweria sp. Pseudobulweria sp.
- Milky/Painted Stork Mycteria cinerea/leucocephala
- Collared/Sunda Scops-Owl Otus lettia/lempiji
- Ferruginous/Austral Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium brasilianum/nana
- Spotted/Barred Owl Strix occidentalis/varia
- White-barred/Ochre-collared Piculet Picumnus cirratus/temminckii
- White-barred/White-wedged Piculet Picumnus cirratus/albosquamatus
- Red-collared/Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus rubritorquis/moluccanus
- Plain-winged/Mouse-colored Antshrike Thamnophilus schistaceus/murinus
- Heterocercus sp. Heterocercus sp.
- Ash-throated/Nutting’s Flycatcher Myiarchus cinerascens/nuttingi
- Red-eyed/Yellow-green Vireo Vireo olivaceus/flavoviridis
- Red-eyed/Black-whiskered Vireo Vireo olivaceus/altiloquus
- vireo sp. (Red-eyed Vireo complex) Vireo sp. (Red-eyed Vireo complex)
- Northern/Southern Variable Pitohui Pitohui kirhocephalus/uropygialis
- Eurasian Blue/Azure Tit Cyanistes caeruleus/cyanus
- Bridled/Juniper Titmouse Baeolophus wollweberi/ridgwayi
- Green-backed/Hartert’s Camaroptera Camaroptera brachyura/harterti
- Cream-eyed/Cream-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus pseudosimplex/simplex
- Sulphur-bellied/Tickell’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus griseolus/affinis
- Mountain Tailorbird/Broad-billed Warbler Phyllergates cucullatus/Tickellia hodgsoni
- old world warbler sp. Passeriformes sp. (Old World warbler sp.)
- Orange River/Cape White-eye Zosterops pallidus/virens
- Hume’s/Swinhoe’s White-eye Zosterops auriventer/simplex
- Guianan/Rio Negro Gnatcatcher Polioptila guianensis/facilis
- Inambari/Klage’s Gnatcatcher Polioptila attenboroughi/paraensis
- Scaly-breasted/Pearly-eyed Thrasher Allenia fusca/Margarops fuscatus
- Pantepui/Campina Thrush Turdus murinus/arthuri
- Black-billed/Campina Thrush Turdus ignobilis/arthuri
- Himalayan/Chinese Shortwing Brachypteryx cruralis/sinensis
- Pied/Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe pleschanka/hispanica
- Baya/Finn’s Weaver Ploceus philippinus/megarhynchus
- Tricolored/Chestnut Munia Lonchura malacca/atricapilla
- LeConte’s/Nelson’s Sparrow Ammospiza leconteii/nelsoni
- Black-crowned/Gray-crowned Palm-Tanager Phaenicophilus palmarum/poliocephalus
- Yellow-headed/Oriente Warbler Teretistris fernandinae/fornsi
- Golden-fronted/Spectacled Redstart Myioborus ornatus/melanocephalus
- Red-capped/Crimson-fronted Cardinal Paroaria gularis/baeri
- Rufous-headed/Yellow-backed Tanager Hemithraupis ruficapilla/flavicollis
- Yellow-bellied/Dubois’s Seedeater Sporophila nigricollis/ardesiaca
COMMON NAME CHANGES
See the Clements Checklist updates (here) for the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, if a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia is split into unique species on each continent, the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash). Other name changes may be driven by changes in taxonomic sequence (as with hybrids and slashes, where the first-listed species always comes first), an attempt to follow an emerging consensus in local usage, or a taxonomic revision that affects hyphenation rules. Other general changes, including corrections and decisions to use an alternate common name, have been made here.
- Green-winged Teal (intergrade) –> Green-winged Teal (Eurasian x American)
- White-winged Scoter (North American) –> White-winged Scoter
- White-winged Scoter (Siberian) –> Stejneger’s Scoter
- Velvet/White-winged Scoter –> Velvet/White-winged/Stejneger’s Scoter
- White-winged Scoter –> White-winged/Stejneger’s Scoter
- Long-billed Partridge (Long-billed) –> Long-billed Partridge
- Long-billed Partridge (Hose’s) –> Dulit Partridge
- Chestnut-naped Francolin (Chestnut-naped) –> Chestnut-naped Francolin
- Chestnut-naped Francolin (Black-fronted) –> Black-fronted Francolin
- White Eared-Pheasant (Tibetan) –> Tibetan Eared-Pheasant
- White Eared-Pheasant (White) –> White Eared-Pheasant
- White Eared-Pheasant –> Tibetan/White Eared-Pheasant
- Pale-backed Pigeon –> Yellow-eyed Pigeon
- Wetar Ground-Dove –> Wetar Ground Dove
- Shy Ground-Dove –> Shy Ground Dove
- Santa Cruz Ground-Dove –> Santa Cruz Ground Dove
- Thick-billed Ground-Dove –> Thick-billed Ground Dove
- Tanna Ground-Dove –> Tanna Ground Dove
- Bronze Ground-Dove –> Bronze Ground Dove
- Bronze Ground-Dove (Western) –> Bronze Ground Dove (Western)
- Bronze Ground-Dove (Eastern) –> Bronze Ground Dove (Eastern)
- Palau Ground-Dove –> Palau Ground Dove
- White-bibbed Ground-Dove –> White-bibbed Ground Dove
- Marquesas Ground-Dove –> Marquesas Ground Dove
- Caroline Islands Ground-Dove –> Caroline Islands Ground Dove
- Polynesian Ground-Dove –> Polynesian Ground Dove
- White-throated Ground-Dove –> White-throated Ground Dove
- Norfolk Ground-Dove –> Norfolk Ground Dove
- Common Ground-Dove –> Common Ground Dove
- Plain-breasted Ground-Dove –> Plain-breasted Ground Dove
- Ruddy Ground-Dove –> Ruddy Ground Dove
- Common/Ruddy Ground-Dove –> Common/Ruddy Ground Dove
- Ecuadorian Ground-Dove –> Ecuadorian Ground Dove
- Picui Ground-Dove –> Picui Ground Dove
- Croaking Ground-Dove –> Croaking Ground Dove
- Blue-eyed Ground-Dove –> Blue-eyed Ground Dove
- ground-dove/Inca Dove sp. –> ground dove/Inca Dove sp.
- Blue Ground-Dove –> Blue Ground Dove
- Maroon-chested Ground-Dove –> Maroon-chested Ground Dove
- Purple-winged Ground-Dove –> Purple-winged Ground Dove
- Bare-faced Ground-Dove –> Bare-faced Ground Dove
- Bare-eyed Ground-Dove –> Bare-eyed Ground Dove
- Black-winged Ground-Dove –> Black-winged Ground Dove
- Golden-spotted Ground-Dove –> Golden-spotted Ground Dove
- Long-tailed Ground-Dove –> Long-tailed Ground Dove
- Sulawesi Ground-Dove –> Sulawesi Ground Dove
- Cinnamon Ground-Dove –> Cinnamon Ground Dove
- Pink-necked Pigeon –> Pink-necked Green-Pigeon
- Cinnamon-headed Pigeon –> Cinnamon-headed Green-Pigeon
- Orange-breasted Pigeon –> Orange-breasted Green-Pigeon
- Thick-billed Pigeon –> Thick-billed Green-Pigeon
- Thick-billed Pigeon (Thick-billed) –> Thick-billed Green-Pigeon (Thick-billed)
- Thick-billed Pigeon (Barusan) –> Thick-billed Green-Pigeon (Barusan)
- Gray-cheeked Pigeon –> Gray-cheeked Green-Pigeon
- Yellow-footed Pigeon –> Yellow-footed Green-Pigeon
- Madagascar Green-Pigeon (Comoros) –> Comoros Green-Pigeon
- Madagascar Green-Pigeon (Madagascar) –> Madagascar Green-Pigeon
- Yellow-vented Pigeon –> Yellow-vented Green-Pigeon
- Pin-tailed Pigeon –> Pin-tailed Green-Pigeon
- Green-spectacled Pigeon –> Green-spectacled Green-Pigeon
- Wedge-tailed Pigeon –> Wedge-tailed Green-Pigeon
- White-bellied Pigeon –> White-bellied Green-Pigeon
- Treron sp. –> green-pigeon sp.
- Torresian Imperial-Pigeon (Yellowish) –> Yellowish Imperial-Pigeon
- Torresian Imperial-Pigeon (Torresian) –> Torresian Imperial-Pigeon
- Norfolk Island Pigeon –> New Zealand Pigeon (Norfolk)
- Indian Bustard –> Great Indian Bustard
- Short-tailed Frogmouth (Short-tailed) –> Sumatran Frogmouth
- Short-tailed Frogmouth (Bornean) –> Bornean Frogmouth
- Malaysian Nightjar –> Malaysian Eared-Nightjar
- Maranhao Hermit –> Maranhao Hermit (unrecognized species)
- White-throated Wedgebill –> Choco Daggerbill
- Geoffroy’s Wedgebill –> Geoffroy’s Daggerbill
- Wedge-billed Hummingbird- –> Choco/Geoffroy’s Daggerbill
- Racket-tailed Coquette –> Racket-tipped Thorntail
- Andean Hillstar (Green-headed) –> Green-headed Hillstar
- Andean Hillstar (Andean) –> Andean Hillstar
- White-tailed Hillstar –> Green-backed Hillstar
- Amethyst-throated Hummingbird –> Amethyst-throated Mountain-gem
- Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Amethyst-throated) –> Amethyst-throated Mountain-gem (Amethyst-throated)
- Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Violet-throated) –> Amethyst-throated Mountain-gem (Violet-throated)
- Blue-throated Hummingbird –> Blue-throated Mountain-gem
- Chilean Woodstar x Peruvian Sheartail (hybrid) –> Peruvian Sheartail x Chilean Woodstar (hybrid)
- Amazilia Hummingbird (Amazilia) –> Amazilia Hummingbird (White-throated)
- Bogota Sunangel –> Bogota Sunangel (hybrid)
- Tristan Moorhen (Tristan) –> Tristan Moorhen
- Tristan Moorhen (Gough) –> Gough Moorhen
- Rufous-tailed Bush-hen –> Pale-vented Bush-hen
- Pied x Variable Oystercatcher (hybrid) –> South Island x Variable Oystercatcher (hybrid)
- Hottentot Buttonquail (Black-rumped) –> Black-rumped Buttonquail
- Hottentot Buttonquail (Hottentot) –> Hottentot Buttonquail
- Silver Gull –> Silver Gull (Silver)
- Red-billed Gull –> Silver Gull (Red-billed)
- Northern Fulmar (rodgersii) –> Northern Fulmar (Pacific)
- Tropical Shearwater (Bannerman’s) –> Bannerman’s Shearwater
- Little Shearwater (Subantarctic) –> Subantarctic Shearwater
- Little Shearwater –> Little/Subantarctic Shearwater
- Tropical Shearwater –> Bannerman’s/Tropical Shearwater
- Brown Pelican (Galapagpos) –> Brown Pelican (Galapagos)
- Black-faced Ibis (melanopis) –> Black-faced Ibis
- Black-faced Ibis (branickii) –> Andean Ibis
- Black-faced Ibis –> Black-faced/Andean Ibis
- Sacred Ibis (African) –> African Sacred Ibis
- Sacred Ibis (Malagasy) –> Madagascar Sacred Ibis
- Sacred Ibis –> African/Madagascar Sacred Ibis
- Barred Honey-buzzard (Barred) –> Sulawesi Honey-buzzard
- Barred Honey-buzzard (Steere’s) –> Philippine Honey-buzzard
- Black-breasted Snake-Eagle –> Black-chested Snake-Eagle
- Changeable/Crested Hawk-Eagle –> Changeable Hawk-Eagle
- Crested Hawk-Eagle –> Changeable Hawk-Eagle (Crested)
- Changeable Hawk-Eagle –> Changeable Hawk-Eagle (Changeable)
- Eastern Marsh-Harrier (Eastern) –> Eastern Marsh-Harrier
- Eastern Marsh-Harrier (Papuan) –> Papuan Marsh-Harrier
- Eastern Marsh-Harrier –> Eastern/Papuan Marsh-Harrier
- Reunion Harrier (Reunion) –> Reunion Harrier
- Reunion Harrier (Malagasy) –> Madagascar Harrier
- Crested Sparrowhawk/Besra –> Crested Goshawk/Besra
- Rufous-chested Sparrowhawk –> Rufous-breasted Sparrowhawk
- Rufous-chested Sparrowhawk (Ethiopian) –> Rufous-breasted Sparrowhawk (Ethiopian)
- Rufous-chested Sparrowhawk (Rufous-chested) –> Rufous-breasted Sparrowhawk (Rufous-breasted)
- Sulawesi Scops-Owl (Siau) –> Siau Scops-Owl
- Sulawesi Scops-Owl (Sula) –> Sula Scops-Owl
- European/Pallid Scops-Owl –> Eurasian/Pallid Scops-Owl
- Southern Boobook (Roti) –> Southern Boobook (Rote)
- Southern Boobook (Tasmanian) –> Morepork (Tasmanian)
- Southern Boobook (Morepork) –> Morepork (novaeseelandiae Group)
- Southern Boobook –> Southern Boobook/Morepork
- Collared Trogon (Bar-tailed) –> Collared Trogon (Xalapa)
- Orange-bellied Trogon –> Collared Trogon (Orange-bellied)
- Buff-breasted Paradise-Kingfisher (Buff-breasted) –> Buff-breasted Paradise-Kingfisher
- Buff-breasted Paradise-Kingfisher (Black-capped) –> Black-capped Paradise-Kingfisher
- Indian Roller (Indian) –> Indian Roller
- Indian Roller (Black-billed) –> Indochinese Roller
- Indian Roller (Indian x Black-billed) –> Indian x Indochinese Roller (hybrid)
- Indian Roller –> Indian/Indochinese Roller
- Golden-throated Barbet (White-eared) –> Golden-throated Barbet
- Golden-throated Barbet (Violet-eared) –> Necklaced Barbet
- Gold-whiskered Barbet –> Gold-whiskered Barbet (Gold-whiskered)
- Gold-faced Barbet –> Gold-whiskered Barbet (Gold-faced)
- Black-rumped Flameback (Black-rumped) –> Black-rumped Flameback
- Black-rumped Flameback (Red-backed) –> Red-backed Flameback
- Black-rumped Flameback (Black-rumped x Red-backed) –> Black-rumped x Red-backed Flameback (hybrid)
- Black-rumped Flameback –> Black-rumped/Red-backed Flameback
- Eurasian Green Woodpecker (Iberian) –> Iberian Green Woodpecker
- Eurasian Green Woodpecker (Eurasian x Iberian) –> Eurasian x Iberian Green Woodpecker (hybrid)
- Eurasian Green Woodpecker –> Eurasian/Iberian Green Woodpecker
- Northern Flicker (intergrade) –> Northern Flicker (Yellow-shafted x Red-shafted)
- Long-tailed Parakeet (Enganno) –> Long-tailed Parakeet (Enggano)
- Orange-breasted Fig-Parrot (Orange-breasted) –> Orange-breasted Fig-Parrot (Blue-fronted)
- Rainbow Lorikeet (Sunset) –> Sunset Lorikeet
- Rainbow Lorikeet (Leaf) –> Leaf Lorikeet
- Rainbow Lorikeet (Marigold) –> Marigold Lorikeet
- Rainbow Lorikeet (Coconut) –> Coconut Lorikeet
- Rainbow Lorikeet (Biak) –> Coconut Lorikeet (Biak)
- Rainbow Lorikeet (Red-collared) –> Red-collared Lorikeet
- Rainbow Lorikeet (Rainbow) –> Rainbow Lorikeet
- Rainbow Lorikeet –> rainbow lorikeet sp.
- lorikeet sp. (hybrid) –> lorikeet sp. (Musk/Rainbow/Scaly-breasted Lorikeet hybrid)
- Brown-necked Parrot (Cape) –> Cape Parrot
- Green Parakeet (Socorro) –> Socorro Parakeet
- Checker-throated Antwren –> Checker-throated Stipplethroat
- Brown-bellied Antwren –> Brown-bellied Stipplethroat
- White-eyed Antwren –> White-eyed Stipplethroat
- Fulvous-throated Antwren –> Rufous-backed Stipplethroat (Rio Negro)
- Brown-backed Antwren –> Rufous-backed Stipplethroat (Yasuni)
- Rufous-backed Antwren –> Rufous-backed Stipplethroat (Rufous-backed)
- Rufous-backed x Brown-backed Antwren (hybrid) –> Rufous-backed Stipplethroat (Yasuni x Rufous-backed)
- Madeira Antwren –> Rio Madeira Stipplethroat
- Madeira Antwren (Madeira) –> Rio Madeira Stipplethroat (Madeira)
- Madeira Antwren (Roosevelt) –> Rio Madeira Stipplethroat (Roosevelt)
- Rufous-backed/Madeira Antwren –> Rufous-backed/Rio Madeira Stipplethroat
- Foothill Antwren –> Foothill Stipplethroat
- Ornate Antwren –> Ornate Stipplethroat
- Ornate Antwren (Western) –> Ornate Stipplethroat (Western)
- Ornate Antwren (Eastern) –> Ornate Stipplethroat (Eastern)
- Rufous-tailed Antwren –> Rufous-tailed Stipplethroat
- Epinecrophylla sp. –> stipplethroat sp.
- Lesser Woodcreeper (Northern) –> Ceara Woodcreeper
- Lesser Woodcreeper (Lesser) –> Lesser Woodcreeper
- Creamy-breasted Canastero (Creamy-breasted) –> Creamy-breasted Canastero (Rusty-vented)
- Sulphur-throated Spinetail –> Sulphur-bearded Reedhaunter
- Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Yellow-margined) –> Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Yellow-winged)
- Highland Elaenia (Brazilian) –> Small-headed Elaenia
- Highland Elaenia (Highland) –> Highland Elaenia
- White-crested/Small-billed Elaenia –> Small-billed/White-crested Elaenia
- Sierran Elaenia (Andean) –> Sierran Elaenia
- Sierran Elaenia (Roraiman) –> Tepui Elaenia
- Flame Bowerbird (Masked) –> Masked Bowerbird
- Flame Bowerbird (Flame) –> Flame Bowerbird
- Western Grasswren (Gawler Range) –> Western Grasswren (Gawler Ranges)
- Black-faced Friarbird (Black-faced) –> Buru Friarbird
- Black-faced Friarbird (Tanimbar) –> Tanimbar Friarbird
- Rufous Fieldwren (Rufous) –> Rufous Fieldwren
- Rufous Fieldwren (Western) –> Western Fieldwren
- Rufous Fieldwren –> Rufous/Western Fieldwren
- Blue Jewel-babbler (Blue) –> Blue Jewel-babbler
- Blue Jewel-babbler (Brown-headed) –> Dimorphic Jewel-babbler
- Blue Jewel-babbler –> Blue/Dimorphic Jewel-babbler
- White-bellied Minivet (White-bellied) –> White-bellied Minivet
- White-bellied Minivet (Jerdon’s) –> Jerdon’s Minivet
- Ashy Cuckooshrike (Comoros) –> Comoros Cuckooshrike
- Ashy Cuckooshrike (Madagascar) –> Madagascar Cuckooshrike
- Varied Sittella (Papuan) –> Papuan Sittella
- Thick-billed Vireo (Old Providence) –> Mangrove Vireo (Providencia)
- Variable Pitohui (Raja Ampat) –> Raja Ampat Pitohui
- Variable Pitohui (Northern) –> Northern Variable Pitohui
- Variable Pitohui (Southern) –> Southern Variable Pitohui
- Black-headed Batis (Western) –> Western Black-headed Batis
- Black-headed Batis (Eastern) –> Eastern Black-headed Batis
- Black-headed Batis –> Western/Eastern Black-headed Batis
- Square-tailed Drongo –> square-tailed drongo sp.
- Fork-tailed Drongo (adsimilis/fugax) –> Fork-tailed Drongo (adsimilis Group)
- Fork-tailed Drongo (Glossy-backed) –> Glossy-backed Drongo
- Fork-tailed Drongo –> Fork-tailed/Glossy-backed Drongo
- Velvet-mantled Drongo (Fanti) –> Fanti Drongo
- Velvet-mantled Drongo –> Fanti/Velvet-mantled Drongo
- Black-throated Shrikebill (Black-throated) –> Black-throated Shrikebill
- Black-throated Shrikebill (Santa Cruz) –> Santa Cruz Shrikebill
- Slender-billed Crow (Violet) –> Violet Crow
- New Zealand Robin (North I.) –> North Island Robin
- New Zealand Robin (South I.) –> South Island Robin
- Pacific Robin (Norfolk) –> Norfolk Robin
- Pacific Robin (Pacific) –> Pacific Robin
- Black-breasted Tit –> Rufous-naped Tit
- Black-breasted/Rufous-vented Tit –> Rufous-naped/Rufous-vented Tit
- Blanford’s Lark (blanfordi) –> Blanford’s Lark (Blanford’s)
- Erlanger’s Lark –> Blanford’s Lark (Erlanger’s)
- Blanford’s Lark (eremica/daaroodensis) –> Rufous-capped Lark
- Miombo Wren-Warbler (Miombo) –> Miombo Wren-Warbler
- Miombo Wren-Warbler (Stierling’s) –> Stierling’s Wren-Warbler
- Miombo Wren-Warbler –> Miombo/Stierling’s Wren-Warbler
- Green-backed Camaroptera (Hartert’s) –> Hartert’s Camaroptera
- Bar-throated Apalis (Bar-throated) –> Bar-throated Apalis
- Bar-throated Apalis (Taita) –> Taita Apalis
- Bar-throated Apalis (Yellow-throated) –> Yellow-throated Apalis
- Bar-throated Apalis (Namuli) –> Namuli Apalis
- Chestnut-throated Apalis (Kabobo) –> Kabobo Apalis
- Chestnut-throated Apalis (Chestnut-throated) –> Chestnut-throated Apalis
- Winding Cisticola (Winding) –> Winding Cisticola
- Winding Cisticola (Ethiopian) –> Ethiopian Cisticola
- Winding Cisticola (Coastal) –> Coastal Cisticola
- Winding Cisticola (Luapula) –> Luapula Cisticola
- Winding Cisticola (Rufous-winged) –> Rufous-winged Cisticola
- Winding Cisticola –> Winding/Coastal/Luapula Cisticola
- Fernbird –> New Zealand Fernbird
- Fernbird (New Zealand) –> New Zealand Fernbird (New Zealand)
- Fernbird (Snares) –> New Zealand Fernbird (Snares)
- Long-legged Warbler –> Long-legged Thicketbird
- Tawny Grassbird (Tawny) –> Tawny Grassbird
- Tawny Grassbird (Papuan) –> Papuan Grassbird
- Tawny Grassbird –> Tawny/Papuan Grassbird
- Megalurus sp. –> Poodytes/Cincloramphus/Megalurus sp.
- Eurasian River Warbler –> River Warbler
- Western Mountain-Greenbul –> Western Mountain Greenbul
- Eastern Mountain-Greenbul –> Eastern Mountain Greenbul
- Eastern Mountain-Greenbul (Olive-breasted) –> Eastern Mountain Greenbul (Olive-breasted)
- Eastern Mountain-Greenbul (Mountain) –> Eastern Mountain Greenbul (Mountain)
- Eastern Mountain-Greenbul (Uluguru) –> Uluguru Mountain Greenbul
- Eastern Mountain-Greenbul (Yellow-throated) –> Yellow-throated Mountain Greenbul
- Eastern Mountain-Greenbul (Black-browed) –> Black-browed Mountain Greenbul
- Orange-spotted Bulbul (Aceh) –> Aceh Bulbul
- Orange-spotted Bulbul (Orange-spotted) –> Orange-spotted Bulbul
- Orange-spotted Bulbul –> Aceh/Orange-spotted Bulbul
- Ashy Bulbul (Cinereous) –> Cinereous Bulbul (Cinereous)
- Ashy Bulbul (Green-winged) –> Cinereous Bulbul (Green-winged)
- Pale-rumped Warbler –> Lemon-rumped Warbler
- Pale-rumped/Sichuan Leaf Warbler –> Lemon-rumped/Sichuan Leaf Warbler
- Golden-spectacled Warbler –> Green-crowned Warbler
- Golden-spectacled/Whistler’s Warbler –> Green-crowned/Whistler’s Warbler
- Bianchi’s/Martens’s Warbler –> Bianchi’s/Martens’s/Alström’s Warbler
- Rote Leaf Warbler (undescribed form) –> Rote Leaf Warbler
- African Hill Babbler (Rwenzori) –> Rwenzori Hill Babbler
- Rufous-vented Warbler –> Chestnut-vented Warbler
- Lesser Whitethroat –> Lesser Whitethroat (Lesser)
- Desert Whitethroat –> Lesser Whitethroat (Desert)
- Desert/Lesser Whitethroat –> Lesser Whitethroat (Lesser/Desert)
- Margelanic Whitethroat –> Lesser Whitethroat (Gansu)
- Desert/Margelanic Whitethroat –> Lesser Whitethroat (Desert/Gansu)
- Hume’s Whitethroat –> Lesser Whitethroat (Hume’s)
- Hume’s/Lesser Whitethroat –> Lesser Whitethroat (Lesser/Hume’s)
- Desert/Hume’s/Lesser Whitethroat –> Lesser Whitethroat (Lesser/Desert/Hume’s)
- Broad-ringed White-eye (Mbulu) –> Mbulu White-eye
- Abyssinian White-eye (Kenya) –> Pale White-eye
- Broad-ringed White-eye (Taita) –> Taita White-eye
- Broad-ringed White-eye (South Pare) –> South Pare White-eye
- Broad-ringed White-eye (Ethiopian) –> Heuglin’s White-eye (Ethiopian)
- Broad-ringed White-eye (Kaffa) –> Heuglin’s White-eye (Kaffa)
- Broad-ringed White-eye (Kulal) –> Heuglin’s White-eye (Kulal)
- Broad-ringed White-eye (Kikuyu) –> Kikuyu White-eye
- Broad-ringed White-eye (Kilimanjaro) –> Kilimanjaro White-eye
- Broad-ringed White-eye –> broad-ringed white-eye sp.
- Meratus White-eye (undescribed Meratus form) –> Meratus White-eye (undescribed form)
- Oriental/Japanese White-eye –> Indian/Swinhoe’s White-eye
- Silver-eye –> Silvereye
- Layard’s White-eye/Silver-eye –> Layard’s White-eye/Silvereye
- Rufous-vented Prinia –> Rufous-vented Grass Babbler
- Swamp Prinia –> Swamp Grass Babbler
- Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler (Short-tailed) –> Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler
- Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler (Naung Mung) –> Naung Mung Scimitar-Babbler
- Capuchin Babbler (Capuchin) –> Capuchin Babbler (Gray-hooded)
- Wynaad Laughingthrush –> Wayanad Laughingthrush
- Chinese Babax (Chinese) –> Chinese Babax
- Chinese Babax (Mt. Victoria) –> Mount Victoria Babax
- Long-billed Gnatwren (Chattering) –> Chattering Gnatwren
- Long-billed Gnatwren –> Long-billed/Chattering Gnatwren
- White-lored Gnatcatcher (White-lored) –> White-lored Gnatcatcher
- White-lored Gnatcatcher (Yucatan) –> Yucatan Gnatcatcher
- Guianan Gnatcatcher (Guianan) –> Guianan Gnatcatcher
- Guianan Gnatcatcher (Inambari) –> Inambari Gnatcatcher
- Guianan Gnatcatcher (Rio Negro) –> Rio Negro Gnatcatcher
- Guianan Gnatcatcher (Para) –> Klage’s Gnatcatcher
- Scaly Thrush (Amami) –> Amami Thrush
- Kivu Ground-Thrush –> Abyssinian Ground-Thrush (Kivu)
- Black-billed Thrush (Pantepui) –> Pantepui Thrush
- Black-billed Thrush (Campina) –> Campina Thrush
- Dusky-brown Flycatcher –> African Dusky Flycatcher
- Grayish Flycatcher –> African Gray Flycatcher
- Grayish Flycatcher (Ethiopian) –> African Gray Flycatcher (Ethiopian)
- Grayish Flycatcher (Grayish) –> African Gray Flycatcher (African Gray)
- Fire-crested Alethe (White-tailed) –> White-tailed Alethe
- Fire-crested Alethe (Fire-crested) –> Fire-crested Alethe
- Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin –> Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin (Rufous-tailed)
- African Scrub-Robin –> Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin (African)
- Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher (Tickell’s) –> Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher
- Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher (Indochinese) –> Indochinese Blue Flycatcher
- White-browed Shortwing (Himalayan) –> Himalayan Shortwing
- White-browed Shortwing (Chinese) –> Chinese Shortwing
- White-browed Shortwing (Taiwan) –> Taiwan Shortwing
- Korean/Green-backed/Narcissus Flycatcher –> Yellow-rumped/Green-backed/Narcissus Flycatcher
- Buff-streaked Bushchat –> Buff-streaked Chat
- Sicklewing Chat –> Sickle-winged Chat
- Congo Moorchat –> Congo Moor Chat
- White-headed Black-Chat –> Arnot’s Chat
- Sombre Chat –> Sombre Rock Chat
- Indian Chat –> Brown Rock Chat
- Red-tailed Wheatear (Kurdistan) –> Kurdish Wheatear
- Red-tailed Wheatear (Red-tailed) –> Persian Wheatear
- Red-tailed Wheatear –> Kurdish/Persian Wheatear (Red-tailed Wheatear)
- Plain-throated Sunbird (Brown-throated) –> Brown-throated Sunbird
- Plain-throated Sunbird (Gray-throated) –> Gray-throated Sunbird
- Plain-throated Sunbird –> Brown-throated/Gray-throated Sunbird
- Miombo Sunbird (Western) –> Western Miombo Sunbird
- Miombo Sunbird (Eastern) –> Eastern Miombo Sunbird
- Miombo Sunbird –> Western/Eastern Miombo Sunbird
- Eastern Double-collared Sunbird (Eastern) –> Eastern Double-collared Sunbird
- Eastern Double-collared Sunbird (Usambara) –> Usambara Double-collared Sunbird
- Eastern Double-collared Sunbird (Forest) –> Forest Double-collared Sunbird
- Long-billed Sunbird –> Loten’s Sunbird
- Gould’s Sunbird –> Mrs. Gould’s Sunbird
- Gould’s Sunbird (Yellow-breasted) –> Mrs. Gould’s Sunbird (Yellow-breasted)
- Gould’s Sunbird (Scarlet-breasted) –> Mrs. Gould’s Sunbird (Scarlet-breasted)
- Gould’s Sunbird (Purple-rumped) –> Mrs. Gould’s Sunbird (Purple-rumped)
- Yellow Weaver –> Finn’s Weaver
- Bengal Weaver –> Black-breasted Weaver
- Streaked/Bengal Weaver –> Streaked/Black-breasted Weaver
- Red-headed Fody (Aldabra) –> Aldabra Fody
- Red-headed Fody (Comoros) –> Red-headed Fody (Southern Comoros)
- Swee Waxbill (Angola) –> Angola Waxbill
- Swee Waxbill (Swee) –> Swee Waxbill
- Black-faced Quailfinch –> Quailfinch (Black-faced)
- Black-chinned Quailfinch –> Quailfinch (Black-chinned)
- African Quailfinch –> Quailfinch (Spectacled)
- Papuan/Blue-faced Parrotfinch –> Blue-faced/Papuan Parrotfinch
- Himalayan Accentor –> Altai Accentor
- Desert Sparrow (Desert) –> Desert Sparrow
- Desert Sparrow (Zarudny’s) –> Zarudny’s Sparrow
- Yellow-spotted Petronia –> Yellow-spotted Bush Sparrow
- Chestnut-shouldered Petronia –> Yellow-throated Sparrow
- Yellow-throated Petronia –> Yellow-throated Bush Sparrow
- Bush Petronia –> Sahel Bush Sparrow
- Jackson’s Pipit –> African Pipit (Jackson’s)
- Blue Chaffinch (Tenerife) –> Tenerife Blue Chaffinch
- Blue Chaffinch (Gran Canaria) –> Gran Canaria Blue Chaffinch
- Golden-winged Grosbeak (Arabian) –> Arabian Grosbeak
- Golden-winged Grosbeak (Socotra) –> Socotra Grosbeak
- Streaky-headed Seedeater (West African) –> West African Seedeater
- Streaky-headed Seedeater (Streaky-headed) –> Streaky-headed Seedeater
- Black-headed Canary –> Black-headed Canary (Black-headed)
- Damara Canary –> Black-headed Canary (Damara)
- Chestnut-breasted Bunting –> White-capped Bunting
- Yellow-thighed Finch –> Yellow-thighed Brushfinch
- Yellow-green Finch –> Yellow-green Brushfinch
- Oreothlypis sp. –> Leiothlypis sp.
- Tangara sp. –> Tangara/Stilpnia sp.
- Tangara/Ixothraupis sp. –> small tanager sp. (former Tangara sp.)
- Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch- –> Black-and-chestnut/Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch
- Grayish Saltator (Grayish) –> Grayish Saltator (Amazonian)
SCIENTIFIC NAME CHANGES
See the Clements Checklist updates (to be posted soon here) for full discussion of the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, if a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia that is split into unique species on each continent, the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash). We display the primary English name as well, using the 2019 name (thus, the English name would match the revised Scientific Name in instances of a split).
- Green-winged Teal (Eurasian) Anas crecca crecca/nimia –> Anas crecca crecca
- Green-winged Teal (Eurasian x American) Anas crecca crecca/nimia x carolinensis –> Anas crecca crecca x carolinensis
- White-winged Scoter Melanitta deglandi deglandi –> Melanitta deglandi
- Stejneger’s Scoter Melanitta deglandi stejnegeri –> Melanitta stejnegeri
- Velvet/White-winged/Stejneger’s Scoter Melanitta fusca/deglandi –> Melanitta fusca/deglandi/stejnegeri
- White-winged/Stejneger’s Scoter Melanitta deglandi –> Melanitta deglandi/stejnegeri
- Andean/Lake Duck Oxyura jamaicensis/vittata –> Oxyura ferruginea/vittata
- Long-billed Partridge Rhizothera longirostris longirostris –> Rhizothera longirostris
- Dulit Partridge Rhizothera longirostris dulitensis –> Rhizothera dulitensis
- Chestnut-naped Francolin Pternistis castaneicollis castaneicollis –> Pternistis castaneicollis
- Black-fronted Francolin Pternistis castaneicollis atrifrons –> Pternistis atrifrons
- Tibetan Eared-Pheasant Crossoptilon crossoptilon harmani –> Crossoptilon harmani
- White Eared-Pheasant Crossoptilon crossoptilon [crossoptilon Group] –> Crossoptilon crossoptilon
- Tibetan/White Eared-Pheasant Crossoptilon crossoptilon –> Crossoptilon harmani/crossoptilon
- Maroon-chested Ground Dove Claravis mondetoura –> Paraclaravis mondetoura
- Purple-winged Ground Dove Claravis geoffroyi –> Paraclaravis geoffroyi
- Comoros Green-Pigeon Treron australis griveaudi –> Treron griveaudi
- Madagascar Green-Pigeon Treron australis australis/xenius –> Treron australis
- Yellowish Imperial-Pigeon Ducula spilorrhoa subflavescens –> Ducula subflavescens
- Torresian Imperial-Pigeon Ducula spilorrhoa spilorrhoa –> Ducula spilorrhoa
- New Zealand Pigeon (Norfolk) Hemiphaga spadicea –> Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea
- Sumatran Frogmouth Batrachostomus poliolophus poliolophus –> Batrachostomus poliolophus
- Bornean Frogmouth Batrachostomus poliolophus mixtus –> Batrachostomus mixtus
- Timor Nightjar (undescribed form) Caprimulgus sp. [undescribed Timor form] –> Caprimulgus [undescribed Timor form]
- Maranhao Hermit (unrecognized species) Phaethornis maranhaoensis –> Phaethornis maranhaoensis [unrecognized species]
- Choco/Geoffroy’s Daggerbill Schistes geoffroyi- –> Schistes albogularis/geoffroyi
- Amethyst-throated Sunangel (Longuemare’s) Heliangelus amethysticollis [clarisse Group] –> Heliangelus amethysticollis clarisse/violiceps
- Green-headed Hillstar Oreotrochilus estella stolzmanni –> Oreotrochilus stolzmanni
- Andean Hillstar Oreotrochilus estella estella/bolivianus –> Oreotrochilus estella
- Buffy Helmetcrest Oxypogon stubelii –> Oxypogon stuebelii
- Peruvian Sheartail x Chilean Woodstar (hybrid) Eulidia yarrellii x Thaumastura cora –> Thaumastura cora x Eulidia yarrellii
- Magenta-throated Woodstar Calliphlox bryantae –> Philodice bryantae
- Purple-throated Woodstar Calliphlox mitchellii –> Philodice mitchellii
- Bahama Woodstar Calliphlox evelynae –> Nesophlox evelynae
- Inagua Woodstar Calliphlox lyrura –> Nesophlox lyrura
- Amazilia Hummingbird (White-throated) Amazilia amazilia [amazilia Group] –> Amazilia amazilia [dumerilii Group]
- Bogota Sunangel (hybrid) Heliangelus zusii –> Aglaiocercus kingii x Trochilidae sp. (Bogota Sunangel)
- Madagascar Wood-Rail Canirallus kioloides –> Mentrocrex kioloides
- Tsingy Wood-Rail Canirallus beankaensis –> Mentrocrex beankaensis
- Lesser Moorhen Gallinula angulata –> Paragallinula angulata
- Tristan Moorhen Gallinula nesiotis nesiotis –> Gallinula nesiotis
- Gough Moorhen Gallinula nesiotis comeri –> Gallinula comeri
- South Island x Variable Oystercatcher (hybrid) Haematopus longirostris x unicolor –> Haematopus finschi x unicolor
- Kentish Plover (Kentish) Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus –> Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus/nihonensis
- Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmea –> Calidris pygmaea
- Black-rumped Buttonquail Turnix hottentottus nanus –> Turnix nanus
- Hottentot Buttonquail Turnix hottentottus hottentottus –> Turnix hottentottus
- Silver Gull (Silver) Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae –> Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae novaehollandiae/forsteri
- Silver Gull (Red-billed) Chroicocephalus scopulinus –> Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae scopulinus
- Bannerman’s Shearwater Puffinus bailloni bannermani –> Puffinus bannermani
- Subantarctic Shearwater Puffinus assimilis elegans –> Puffinus elegans
- Little/Subantarctic Shearwater Puffinus assimilis –> Puffinus assimilis/elegans
- Bannerman’s/Tropical Shearwater Puffinus bailloni –> Puffinus bannermani/bailloni
- Lesser Frigatebird (Lesser) Fregata ariel ariel/iredaeli –> Fregata ariel ariel/iredalei
- Pygmy Cormorant Microcarbo pygmeus –> Microcarbo pygmaeus
- Black-faced Ibis Theristicus melanopis melanopis –> Theristicus melanopis
- Andean Ibis Theristicus melanopis branickii –> Theristicus branickii
- Black-faced/Andean Ibis Theristicus melanopis –> Theristicus melanopis/branickii
- African Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopicus aethiopicus –> Threskiornis aethiopicus
- Madagascar Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopicus bernieri/abbotti –> Threskiornis bernieri
- African/Madagascar Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopicus –> Threskiornis aethiopicus/bernieri
- Sulawesi Honey-buzzard Pernis celebensis celebensis –> Pernis celebensis
- Philippine Honey-buzzard Pernis celebensis steerei –> Pernis steerei
- Changeable Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus limnaeetus/cirrhatus –> Nisaetus cirrhatus
- Changeable Hawk-Eagle (Crested) Nisaetus cirrhatus –> Nisaetus cirrhatus cirrhatus/ceylanensis
- Changeable Hawk-Eagle (Changeable) Nisaetus limnaeetus –> Nisaetus cirrhatus [limnaeetus Group]
- Eastern Marsh-Harrier Circus spilonotus spilonotus –> Circus spilonotus
- Papuan Marsh-Harrier Circus spilonotus spilothorax –> Circus spilothorax
- Eastern/Papuan Marsh-Harrier Circus spilonotus –> Circus spilonotus/spilothorax
- Reunion Harrier Circus maillardi maillardi –> Circus maillardi
- Madagascar Harrier Circus maillardi macrosceles –> Circus macrosceles
- Siau Scops-Owl Otus manadensis siaoensis –> Otus siaoensis
- Sula Scops-Owl Otus manadensis sulaensis –> Otus sulaensis
- Southern Boobook (Alor) Ninox novaeseelandiae plesseni –> Ninox boobook plesseni
- Southern Boobook (Rote) Ninox novaeseelandiae rotiensis –> Ninox boobook rotiensis
- Southern Boobook (Timor) Ninox novaeseelandiae fusca –> Ninox boobook fusca
- Southern Boobook (Boobook) Ninox novaeseelandiae [boobook Group] –> Ninox boobook [boobook Group]
- Southern Boobook (Red) Ninox novaeseelandiae lurida –> Ninox boobook lurida
- Southern Boobook/Morepork Ninox novaeseelandiae –> Ninox boobook/novaeseelandiae
- Collared Trogon (Xalapa) Trogon collaris puella/extimus –> Trogon collaris puella
- Collared Trogon (Orange-bellied) Trogon aurantiiventris –> Trogon collaris aurantiiventris/underwoodi
- Northern Silvery-Kingfisher Ceyx flumenicolus –> Ceyx flumenicola
- Buff-breasted Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera sylvia sylvia/salvadoriana –> Tanysiptera sylvia
- Black-capped Paradise-Kingfisher Tanysiptera sylvia nigriceps/leucura –> Tanysiptera nigriceps
- Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis benghalensis/indicus –> Coracias benghalensis
- Indochinese Roller Coracias benghalensis affinis –> Coracias affinis
- Indian x Indochinese Roller (hybrid) Coracias benghalensis benghalensis/indicus x affinis –> Coracias benghalensis x affinis
- Indian/Indochinese Roller Coracias benghalensis –> Coracias benghalensis/affinis
- Golden-throated Barbet Psilopogon franklinii franklinii/ramsayi –> Psilopogon franklinii
- Necklaced Barbet Psilopogon franklinii auricularis –> Psilopogon auricularis
- Gold-whiskered Barbet (Gold-whiskered) Psilopogon chrysopogon –> Psilopogon chrysopogon chrysopogon/laetus
- Gold-whiskered Barbet (Gold-faced) Psilopogon chrysopsis –> Psilopogon chrysopogon chrysopsis
- Darjeeling/Crimson-breasted Woodpecker Dryobates darjellensis/cathpharius –> Dendrocopos darjellensis/Dryobates cathpharius
- Black-rumped Flameback Dinopium benghalense [benghalense Group] –> Dinopium benghalense
- Red-backed Flameback Dinopium benghalense psarodes –> Dinopium psarodes
- Black-rumped x Red-backed Flameback (hybrid) Dinopium benghalense puncticolle x psarodes –> Dinopium benghalense x psarodes
- Black-rumped/Red-backed Flameback Dinopium benghalense –> Dinopium benghalense/psarodes
- Iberian Green Woodpecker Picus viridis sharpei –> Picus sharpei
- Eurasian x Iberian Green Woodpecker (hybrid) Picus viridis viridis x sharpei –> Picus viridis x sharpei
- Eurasian/Iberian Green Woodpecker Picus viridis –> Picus viridis/sharpei
- Black-bodied Woodpecker Dryocopus schulzi –> Dryocopus schulzii
- Lineated x Black-bodied Woodpecker (hybrid) Dryocopus lineatus x schulzi –> Dryocopus lineatus x schulzii
- Orange-breasted Fig-Parrot (Black-fronted) Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii [nigrifrons Group] –> Cyclopsitta gulielmitertii nigrifrons
- Sunset Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus [forsteni Group] –> Trichoglossus forsteni
- Leaf Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus weberi –> Trichoglossus weberi
- Marigold Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus [capistratus Group] –> Trichoglossus capistratus
- Coconut Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus [haematodus Group] –> Trichoglossus haematodus
- Red-collared Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus rubritorquis –> Trichoglossus rubritorquis
- Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus moluccanus –> Trichoglossus moluccanus
- rainbow lorikeet sp. Trichoglossus haematodus –> Trichoglossus sp. (rainbow lorikeet complex)
- Brown-necked Parrot Poicephalus robustus –> Poicephalus fuscicollis
- Brown-necked Parrot (Brown-necked) Poicephalus robustus fuscicollis –> Poicephalus fuscicollis fuscicollis
- Brown-necked Parrot (Gray-headed) Poicephalus robustus suahelicus –> Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus
- Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus robustus –> Poicephalus robustus
- Socorro Parakeet Psittacara holochlorus brevipes –> Psittacara brevipes
- Stephens Island Wren Traversia lyall –> Traversia lyalli
- Rufous-backed Stipplethroat (Rio Negro) Epinecrophylla pyrrhonota –> Epinecrophylla haematonota pyrrhonota
- Rufous-backed Stipplethroat (Yasuni) Epinecrophylla fjeldsaai –> Epinecrophylla haematonota fjeldsaai
- Rufous-backed Stipplethroat (Rufous-backed) Epinecrophylla haematonota –> Epinecrophylla haematonota haematonota
- Rufous-backed Stipplethroat (Yasuni x Rufous-backed) Epinecrophylla haematonota x fjeldsaai –> Epinecrophylla haematonota fjeldsaai x haematonota
- Rufous-winged Antwren (Northern) Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus [scapularis Group] –> Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus frater/exiguus
- Rufous-winged Antwren (Southern) Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus –> Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus/scapularis
- Ceara Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus fuscus atlanticus –> Xiphorhynchus atlanticus
- Lesser Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus fuscus [fuscus Group] –> Xiphorhynchus fuscus
- Tawny Tit-Spinetail Leptasthenura yanacensis –> Sylviorthorhynchus yanacensis
- Creamy-breasted Canastero (Pale-tailed) Asthenes dorbignyi huancavelicae/usheri –> Asthenes dorbignyi usheri
- Sulphur-bearded Reedhaunter Cranioleuca sulphurifera –> Limnoctites sulphuriferus
- Green-backed Becard (Green-backed) Pachyramphus viridis viridis/griseigularis –> Pachyramphus viridis viridis
- Small-headed Elaenia Elaenia obscura sordida –> Elaenia sordida
- Highland Elaenia Elaenia obscura obscura –> Elaenia obscura
- Small-billed/White-crested Elaenia Elaenia albiceps/parvirostris –> Elaenia parvirostris/albiceps
- Sierran Elaenia Elaenia pallatangae [pallatangae Group] –> Elaenia pallatangae
- Tepui Elaenia Elaenia pallatangae olivina/davidwillardi –> Elaenia olivina
- Rufous-naped Ground-Tyrant (Rufous-naped) Muscisaxicola rufivertex rufivertex/occipitalis –> Muscisaxicola rufivertex rufivertex
- Masked Bowerbird Sericulus aureus aureus –> Sericulus aureus
- Flame Bowerbird Sericulus aureus ardens –> Sericulus ardens
- Buru Friarbird Philemon moluccensis moluccensis –> Philemon moluccensis
- Tanimbar Friarbird Philemon moluccensis plumigenis –> Philemon plumigenis
- Rufous Fieldwren Calamanthus campestris [campestris Group] –> Calamanthus campestris
- Western Fieldwren Calamanthus campestris montanellus –> Calamanthus montanellus
- Rufous/Western Fieldwren Calamanthus campestris –> Calamanthus campestris/montanellus
- Blue Jewel-babbler Ptilorrhoa caerulescens [caerulescens Group] –> Ptilorrhoa caerulescens
- Dimorphic Jewel-babbler Ptilorrhoa caerulescens geislerorum –> Ptilorrhoa geislerorum
- Blue/Dimorphic Jewel-babbler Ptilorrhoa caerulescens –> Ptilorrhoa caerulescens/geislerorum
- White-bellied Minivet Pericrocotus erythropygius erythropygius –> Pericrocotus erythropygius
- Jerdon’s Minivet Pericrocotus erythropygius albifrons –> Pericrocotus albifrons
- Comoros Cuckooshrike Coracina cinerea cucullata –> Coracina cucullata
- Madagascar Cuckooshrike Coracina cinerea cinerea/pallida –> Coracina cinerea
- Black Cicadabird Edolisoma melan –> Edolisoma melas
- Papuan Sittella Daphoenositta chrysoptera [papuensis Group] –> Daphoenositta papuensis
- Mangrove Vireo (Providencia) Vireo crassirostris approximans –> Vireo pallens approximans
- Raja Ampat Pitohui Pitohui kirhocephalus cerviniventris/pallidus –> Pitohui cerviniventris
- Northern Variable Pitohui Pitohui kirhocephalus [kirhocephalus Group] –> Pitohui kirhocephalus
- Southern Variable Pitohui Pitohui kirhocephalus [uropygialis Group] –> Pitohui uropygialis
- Western Black-headed Batis Batis minor erlangeri –> Batis erlangeri
- Eastern Black-headed Batis Batis minor minor/suahelica –> Batis minor
- Western/Eastern Black-headed Batis Batis minor –> Batis erlangeri/minor
- square-tailed drongo sp. Dicrurus ludwigii –> Dircurus occidentalis/sharpei/ludwigii
- Fork-tailed Drongo (adsimilis Group) Dicrurus adsimilis adsimilis/fugax –> Dicrurus adsimilis [adsimilis Group]
- Glossy-backed Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis divaricatus –> Dicrurus divaricatus
- Fork-tailed/Glossy-backed Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis –> Dicrurus adsimilis/divaricatus
- Fanti Drongo Dicrurus modestus atactus –> Dicrurus atactus
- Fanti/Velvet-mantled Drongo Dicrurus modestus –> Dicrurus atactus/modestus
- Black-throated Shrikebill Clytorhynchus nigrogularis nigrogularis –> Clytorhynchus nigrogularis
- Santa Cruz Shrikebill Clytorhynchus nigrogularis sanctaecrucis –> Clytorhynchus sanctaecrucis
- Violet Crow Corvus enca violaceus –> Corvus violaceus
- Collared Crow Corvus torquatus –> Corvus pectoralis
- North Island Robin Petroica australis longipes –> Petroica longipes
- South Island Robin Petroica australis australis/rakiura –> Petroica australis
- Norfolk Robin Petroica multicolor multicolor –> Petroica multicolor
- Pacific Robin Petroica multicolor [pusilla Group] –> Petroica pusilla
- Blanford’s Lark (Erlanger’s) Calandrella erlangeri –> Calandrella blanfordi erlangeri
- Rufous-capped Lark Calandrella blanfordi eremica/daaroodensis –> Calandrella eremica
- Eurasian Skylark (Asian) Alauda arvensis [japonica Group] –> Alauda arvensis [pekinensis Group]
- Black-collared Apalis Oreolais pulchra –> Oreolais pulcher
- Miombo Wren-Warbler Calamonastes undosus [undosus Group] –> Calamonastes undosus
- Stierling’s Wren-Warbler Calamonastes undosus [stierlingi Group] –> Calamonastes stierlingi
- Miombo/Stierling’s Wren-Warbler Calamonastes undosus –> Calamonastes undosus/stierlingi
- Hartert’s Camaroptera Camaroptera brachyura harterti –> Camaroptera harterti
- Bar-throated Apalis Apalis thoracica [thoracica Group] –> Apalis thoracica
- Taita Apalis Apalis thoracica fuscigularis –> Apalis fuscigularis
- Yellow-throated Apalis Apalis thoracica flavigularis –> Apalis flavigularis
- Namuli Apalis Apalis thoracica lynesi –> Apalis lynesi
- Kabobo Apalis Apalis porphyrolaema kaboboensis –> Apalis kaboboensis
- Chestnut-throated Apalis Apalis porphyrolaema porphyrolaema/affinis –> Apalis porphyrolaema
- Winding Cisticola Cisticola galactotes [marginatus Group] –> Cisticola marginatus
- Ethiopian Cisticola Cisticola galactotes lugubris –> Cisticola lugubris
- Coastal Cisticola Cisticola galactotes haematocephala –> Cisticola haematocephalus
- Luapula Cisticola Cisticola galactotes luapula –> Cisticola luapula
- Rufous-winged Cisticola Cisticola galactotes [galactotes Group] –> Cisticola galactotes
- Winding/Coastal/Luapula Cisticola Cisticola galactotes –> Cisticola marginatus/haematocephalus/luapula
- Fly River Grassbird Megalurus albolimbatus –> Poodytes albolimbatus
- Spinifexbird Megalurus carteri –> Poodytes carteri
- Little Grassbird Megalurus gramineus –> Poodytes gramineus
- Chatham Islands Fernbird Megalurus rufescens –> Poodytes rufescens
- New Zealand Fernbird Megalurus punctatus –> Poodytes punctatus
- New Zealand Fernbird (New Zealand) Megalurus punctatus [punctatus Group] –> Poodytes punctatus [punctatus Group]
- New Zealand Fernbird (Snares) Megalurus punctatus caudatus –> Poodytes punctatus caudatus
- Brown Songlark Megalurus cruralis –> Cincloramphus cruralis
- Bismarck Thicketbird Megalurulus grosvenori –> Cincloramphus grosvenori
- Rusty Thicketbird Megalurulus rubiginosus –> Cincloramphus rubiginosus
- Buff-banded Bushbird Buettikoferella bivittata –> Cincloramphus bivittatus
- Rufous Songlark Megalurus mathewsi –> Cincloramphus mathewsi
- New Caledonian Grassbird Megalurulus mariei –> Cincloramphus mariei
- Bougainville Thicketbird Megalurulus llaneae –> Cincloramphus llaneae
- Long-legged Thicketbird Trichocichla rufa –> Cincloramphus rufus
- Guadalcanal Thicketbird Megalurulus whitneyi –> Cincloramphus whitneyi
- Guadalcanal Thicketbird (Santo) Megalurulus whitneyi whitneyi –> Cincloramphus whitneyi whitneyi
- Guadalcanal Thicketbird (Guadalcanal) Megalurulus whitneyi turipavae –> Cincloramphus whitneyi turipavae
- Tawny Grassbird Megalurus timoriensis [timoriensis Group] –> Cincloramphus timoriensis
- Papuan Grassbird Megalurus timoriensis [macrurus Group] –> Cincloramphus macrurus
- Tawny/Papuan Grassbird Megalurus timoriensis –> Cincloramphus timoriensis/macrurus
- Poodytes/Cincloramphus/Megalurus sp. Megalurus sp. –> Poodytes/Cincloramphus/Megalurus sp.
- Evergreen-forest Warbler (Lopez’s) Bradypterus lopezi lopezi/camerunensis –> Bradypterus lopezi [lopezi Group]
- Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Ridgway’s) Stelgidopteryx serripennis ridgwayi –> Stelgidopteryx serripennis ridgwayi/stuarti
- Forest Swallow Petrochelidon fuliginosa –> Atronanus fuliginosus
- Shelley’s Greenbul (Kakamega) Arizelocichla masukuensis kakamegae –> Arizelocichla masukuensis kakamegae/kungwensis
- Eastern Mountain Greenbul (Mountain) Arizelocichla nigriceps [nigriceps Group] –> Arizelocichla nigriceps nigriceps/usambarae
- Uluguru Mountain Greenbul Arizelocichla nigriceps neumanni –> Arizelocichla neumanni
- Yellow-throated Mountain Greenbul Arizelocichla nigriceps chlorigula –> Arizelocichla chlorigula
- Black-browed Mountain Greenbul Arizelocichla nigriceps fusciceps –> Arizelocichla fusciceps
- Aceh Bulbul Pycnonotus bimaculatus snouckaerti –> Pycnonotus snouckaerti
- Orange-spotted Bulbul Pycnonotus bimaculatus bimaculatus/tenggerensis –> Pycnonotus bimaculatus
- Aceh/Orange-spotted Bulbul Pycnonotus bimaculatus –> Pycnonotus snouckaerti/bimaculatus
- Cinereous Bulbul (Cinereous) Hemixos flavala cinereus –> Hemixos cinereus cinereus
- Cinereous Bulbul (Green-winged) Hemixos flavala connectens –> Hemixos cinereus connectens
- Bianchi’s/Martens’s/Alström’s Warbler Phylloscopus valentini/omeiensis –> Phylloscopus valentini/omeiensis/soror
- Davison’s/Kloss’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus davisoni/ogilviegranti –> Phylloscopus intensior/ogilviegranti
- Rote Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus [undescribed Rote form] –> Phylloscopus rotiensis
- Manchurian Bush Warbler Horornis borealis –> Horornis canturians
- Japanese/Manchurian Bush Warbler Horornis diphone/borealis –> Horornis diphone/canturians
- Rwenzori Hill Babbler Sylvia abyssinica atriceps –> Sylvia atriceps
- Bush Blackcap Sylvia nigricapilla –> Sylvia nigricapillus
- Chestnut-vented Warbler Sylvia subcaerulea –> Sylvia subcoerulea
- Lesser Whitethroat (Lesser) Sylvia curruca –> Sylvia curruca curruca/blythi/halimodendri
- Lesser Whitethroat (Desert) Sylvia minula –> Sylvia curruca minula
- Lesser Whitethroat (Lesser/Desert) Sylvia minula/curruca –> Sylvia curruca curruca/minula
- Lesser Whitethroat (Gansu) Sylvia margelanica –> Sylvia curruca margelanica
- Lesser Whitethroat (Desert/Gansu) Sylvia minula/margelanica –> Sylvia curruca minula/margelanica
- Lesser Whitethroat (Hume’s) Sylvia althaea –> Sylvia curruca althaea
- Lesser Whitethroat (Lesser/Hume’s) Sylvia althaea/curruca –> Sylvia curruca curruca /althaea
- Lesser Whitethroat (Lesser/Desert/Hume’s) Sylvia minula/althaea/curruca –> Sylvia curruca curruca/minula/althaea
- Ludlow’s Fulvetta Alcippe ludlowi –> Fulvetta ludlowi
- Three-toed Parrotbill Cholornis paradoxa –> Cholornis paradoxus
- Mbulu White-eye Zosterops poliogastrus mbuluensis –> Zosterops mbuluensis
- Pale White-eye Zosterops abyssinicus flavilateralis/jubaensis –> Zosterops flavilateralis
- Taita White-eye Zosterops poliogastrus silvanus –> Zosterops silvanus
- South Pare White-eye Zosterops poliogastrus winifredae –> Zosterops winifredae
- Cape White-eye (Cape) Zosterops virens [capensis Group] –> Zosterops virens capensis
- Kikuyu White-eye Zosterops poliogastrus kikuyuensis –> Zosterops kikuyuensis
- Kilimanjaro White-eye Zosterops poliogastrus eurycricotus –> Zosterops eurycricotus
- broad-ringed white-eye sp. Zosterops poliogastrus –> Zosterops sp. (Broad-ringed White-eye complex)
- Meratus White-eye (undescribed form) Zosterops [undescribed form] –> Zosterops [undescribed Meratus form]
- Indian/Swinhoe’s White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus/japonicus –> Zosterops palpebrosus/simplex
- Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler Napothera danjoui danjoui/parvirostris –> Napothera danjoui
- Naung Mung Scimitar-Babbler Napothera danjoui naungmungensis –> Napothera naungmungensis
- Capuchin Babbler (Gray-hooded) Turdoides atripennis atripennis/rubiginosus –> Turdoides atripennis atripennis
- Chinese Babax Ianthocincla lanceolata lanceolata/latouchei –> Ianthocincla lanceolata
- Mount Victoria Babax Ianthocincla lanceolata woodi –> Ianthocincla woodi
- Goldcrest (western Canary Islands) Regulus regulus ellenthalarae –> Regulus regulus ellenthalerae
- Eurasian Nuthatch (Chinese) Sitta europaea sinensis/formasana –> Sitta europaea sinensis/formosana
- Chattering Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus sticturus/obscurus –> Ramphocaenus sticturus
- Long-billed/Chattering Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus –> Ramphocaenus melanurus/sticturus
- White-lored Gnatcatcher Polioptila albiloris albiloris/vanrossemi –> Polioptila albiloris
- Yucatan Gnatcatcher Polioptila albiloris albiventris –> Polioptila albiventris
- Guianan Gnatcatcher Polioptila guianensis guianensis –> Polioptila guianensis
- Inambari Gnatcatcher Polioptila guianensis attenboroughi –> Polioptila attenboroughi
- Rio Negro Gnatcatcher Polioptila guianensis facilis –> Polioptila facilis
- Klage’s Gnatcatcher Polioptila guianensis paraensis –> Polioptila paraensis
- Red-billed Oxpecker Buphagus erythrorhynchus –> Buphagus erythrorynchus
- Red-billed/Yellow-billed Oxpecker Buphagus erythrorhynchus/africanus –> Buphagus erythrorynchus/africanus
- Black-bellied Starling Notopholia corrusca –> Notopholia corusca
- Meves’s Starling (Meves’s) Lamprotornis mevesii mevesii/violacior –> Lamprotornis mevesii mevesii
- Amami Thrush Zoothera dauma major –> Zoothera major
- Abyssinian Ground-Thrush (Kivu) Geokichla tanganjicae –> Geokichla piaggiae tanganjicae
- Pantepui Thrush Turdus ignobilis murinus –> Turdus murinus
- Campina Thrush Turdus ignobilis arthuri –> Turdus arthuri
- White-tailed Alethe Alethe diademata diademata –> Alethe diademata
- Fire-crested Alethe Alethe diademata castanea/woosnami –> Alethe castanea
- Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin (Rufous-tailed) Cercotrichas galactotes –> Cercotrichas galactotes [galactotes Group]
- Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin (African) Cercotrichas minor –> Cercotrichas galactotes minor/hamertoni
- Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae tickelliae/jerdoni –> Cyornis tickelliae
- Indochinese Blue Flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae [sumatrensis Group] –> Cyornis sumatrensis
- Himalayan Shortwing Brachypteryx montana cruralis –> Brachypteryx cruralis
- Chinese Shortwing Brachypteryx montana sinensis –> Brachypteryx sinensis
- Taiwan Shortwing Brachypteryx montana goodfellowi –> Brachypteryx goodfellowi
- Slaty-backed Flycatcher Ficedula sordida –> Ficedula erithacus
- Buff-streaked Chat Saxicola bifasciatus –> Campicoloides bifasciatus
- Sickle-winged Chat Cercomela sinuata –> Emarginata sinuata
- Karoo Chat Cercomela schlegelii –> Emarginata schlegelii
- Tractrac Chat Cercomela tractrac –> Emarginata tractrac
- Moorland Chat Cercomela sordida –> Pinarochroa sordida
- Moorland Chat (Abyssinian) Cercomela sordida sordida –> Pinarochroa sordida sordida
- Moorland Chat (Mt. Kenya) Cercomela sordida ernesti –> Pinarochroa sordida ernesti
- Moorland Chat (Ngorongoro) Cercomela sordida olimotiensis –> Pinarochroa sordida olimotiensis
- Moorland Chat (Mt. Kilimanjaro) Cercomela sordida hypospodia –> Pinarochroa sordida hypospodia
- Mountain Wheatear Oenanthe monticola –> Myrmecocichla monticola
- White-fronted Black-Chat Myrmecocichla albifrons –> Oenanthe albifrons
- Blackstart Cercomela melanura –> Oenanthe melanura
- Familiar Chat Cercomela familiaris –> Oenanthe familiaris
- Sombre Rock Chat Cercomela dubia –> Oenanthe dubia
- Brown-tailed Chat Cercomela scotocerca –> Oenanthe scotocerca
- Brown-tailed Chat (Brown-tailed) Cercomela scotocerca [scotocerca Group] –> Oenanthe scotocerca [scotocerca Group]
- Brown-tailed Chat (Pale) Cercomela scotocerca spectatrix/validior –> Oenanthe scotocerca spectatrix/validior
- Brown Rock Chat Cercomela fusca –> Oenanthe fusca
- Kurdish Wheatear Oenanthe xanthoprymna xanthoprymna –> Oenanthe xanthoprymna
- Persian Wheatear Oenanthe xanthoprymna chrysopygia –> Oenanthe chrysopygia
- Kurdish/Persian Wheatear (Red-tailed Wheatear) Oenanthe xanthoprymna –> Oenanthe xanthoprymna/chrysopygia
- Yellow-bellied Flowerpecker Dicaeum melanoxanthum –> Dicaeum melanozanthum
- Brown-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis [malacensis Group] –> Anthreptes malacensis
- Gray-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis griseigularis/birgitae –> Anthreptes griseigularis
- Brown-throated/Gray-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis –> Anthreptes malacensis/griseigularis
- Black Sunbird Leptocoma sericea –> Leptocoma aspasia
- Western Miombo Sunbird Cinnyris manoensis pintoi –> Cinnyris gertrudis
- Eastern Miombo Sunbird Cinnyris manoensis manoensis/amicorum –> Cinnyris manoensis
- Western/Eastern Miombo Sunbird Cinnyris manoensis –> Cinnyris gertrudis/manoensis
- Eastern Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris mediocris mediocris –> Cinnyris mediocris
- Usambara Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris mediocris usambaricus –> Cinnyris usambaricus
- Forest Double-collared Sunbird Cinnyris mediocris fuelleborni/bensoni –> Cinnyris fuelleborni
- Purple-naped Spiderhunter Arachnothera hypogrammicum –> Kurochkinegramma hypogrammicum
- Aldabra Fody Foudia eminentissima aldabrana –> Foudia aldabrana
- Angola Waxbill Coccopygia melanotis bocagei –> Coccopygia bocagei
- Swee Waxbill Coccopygia melanotis melanotis –> Coccopygia melanotis
- Lavender Waxbill Estrilda caerulescens –> Estrilda coerulescens
- Quailfinch (Black-faced) Ortygospiza atricollis –> Ortygospiza atricollis [atricollis Group]
- Quailfinch (Black-chinned) Ortygospiza gabonensis –> Ortygospiza atricollis [gabonensis Group]
- Quailfinch (Spectacled) Ortygospiza fuscocrissa –> Ortygospiza atricollis [fuscocrissa Group]
- Blue-faced/Papuan Parrotfinch Erythrura papuana/trichroa –> Erythrura trichroa/papuana
- Desert Sparrow Passer simplex simplex/saharae –> Passer simplex
- Zarudny’s Sparrow Passer simplex zarudnyi –> Passer zarudnyi
- Yellow-spotted Bush Sparrow Gymnornis pyrgita –> Gymnoris pyrgita
- Yellow-throated Sparrow Gymnornis xanthocollis –> Gymnoris xanthocollis
- Yellow-throated Bush Sparrow Gymnornis superciliaris –> Gymnoris superciliaris
- Sahel Bush Sparrow Gymnornis dentata –> Gymnoris dentata
- African Pipit (Jackson’s) Anthus latistriatus –> Anthus cinnamomeus latistriatus
- Tenerife Blue Chaffinch Fringilla teydea teydea –> Fringilla teydea
- Gran Canaria Blue Chaffinch Fringilla teydea polatzeki –> Fringilla polatzeki
- Arabian Grosbeak Rhynchostruthus socotranus percivali –> Rhynchostruthus percivali
- Socotra Grosbeak Rhynchostruthus socotranus socotranus –> Rhynchostruthus socotranus
- West African Seedeater Crithagra gularis [canicapilla Group] –> Crithagra canicapilla
- Streaky-headed Seedeater Crithagra gularis [gularis Group] –> Crithagra gularis
- Black-headed Canary (Black-headed) Serinus alario –> Serinus alario alario
- Black-headed Canary (Damara) Serinus leucolaemus –> Serinus alario leucolaemus
- Grasshopper/Baird’s Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum/Centronyx henslowii –> Ammodramus savannarum/Centronyx bairdii
- Grasshopper/Henslow’s Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum/Centronyx bairdii –> Ammodramus savannarum/Centronyx henslowii
- Yellow-thighed Brushfinch Pselliophorus tibialis –> Atlapetes tibialis
- Yellow-green Brushfinch Pselliophorus luteoviridis –> Atlapetes luteoviridis
- Tennessee Warbler Oreothlypis peregrina –> Leiothlypis peregrina
- Orange-crowned Warbler Oreothlypis celata –> Leiothlypis celata
- Orange-crowned Warbler (Gray-headed) Oreothlypis celata celata/orestera –> Leiothlypis celata celata/orestera
- Orange-crowned Warbler (celata) Oreothlypis celata celata –> Leiothlypis celata celata
- Orange-crowned Warbler (orestera) Oreothlypis celata orestera –> Leiothlypis celata orestera
- Orange-crowned Warbler (lutescens) Oreothlypis celata lutescens –> Leiothlypis celata lutescens
- Orange-crowned Warbler (sordida) Oreothlypis celata sordida –> Leiothlypis celata sordida
- Colima Warbler Oreothlypis crissalis –> Leiothlypis crissalis
- Lucy’s Warbler Oreothlypis luciae –> Leiothlypis luciae
- Nashville Warbler Oreothlypis ruficapilla –> Leiothlypis ruficapilla
- Nashville Warbler (ruficapilla) Oreothlypis ruficapilla ruficapilla –> Leiothlypis ruficapilla ruficapilla
- Nashville Warbler (ridgwayi) Oreothlypis ruficapilla ridgwayi –> Leiothlypis ruficapilla ridgwayi
- Orange-crowned x Nashville Warbler (hybrid) Oreothlypis celata x ruficapilla –> Leiothlypis celata x ruficapilla
- Virginia’s Warbler Oreothlypis virginiae –> Leiothlypis virginiae
- Colima x Virginia’s Warbler (hybrid) Oreothlypis crissalis x virginiae –> Leiothlypis crissalis x virginiae
- Leiothlypis sp. Oreothlypis sp. –> Leiothlypis sp.
- Nashville x Magnolia Warbler (hybrid) Oreothlypis ruficapilla x Setophaga magnolia –> Leiothlypis ruficapilla x Setophaga magnolia
- Golden-naped Tanager Tangara ruficervix –> Chalcothraupis ruficervix
- Golden-naped Tanager (Golden-naped) Tangara ruficervix [ruficervix Group] –> Chalcothraupis ruficervix [ruficervix Group]
- Golden-naped Tanager (Rusty-naped) Tangara ruficervix [fulvicervix Group] –> Chalcothraupis ruficervix [fulvicervix Group]
- Azure-rumped Tanager Tangara cabanisi –> Poecilostreptus cabanisi
- Gray-and-gold Tanager Tangara palmeri –> Poecilostreptus palmeri
- Black-headed Tanager Tangara cyanoptera –> Stilpnia cyanoptera
- Black-headed Tanager (Black-headed) Tangara cyanoptera cyanoptera –> Stilpnia cyanoptera cyanoptera
- Black-headed Tanager (Black-hooded) Tangara cyanoptera whitelyi –> Stilpnia cyanoptera whitelyi
- Silvery Tanager Tangara viridicollis –> Stilpnia viridicollis
- Black-capped Tanager Tangara heinei –> Stilpnia heinei
- Green-throated Tanager Tangara argyrofenges –> Stilpnia argyrofenges
- Sira Tanager Tangara phillipsi –> Stilpnia phillipsi
- Black-backed Tanager Tangara peruviana –> Stilpnia peruviana
- Chestnut-backed Tanager Tangara preciosa –> Stilpnia preciosa
- Green-capped Tanager Tangara meyerdeschauenseei –> Stilpnia meyerdeschauenseei
- Burnished-buff Tanager Tangara cayana –> Stilpnia cayana
- Burnished-buff Tanager (Rufous-crowned) Tangara cayana cayana/fulvescens –> Stilpnia cayana cayana/fulvescens
- Burnished-buff Tanager (Stripe-bellied) Tangara cayana [flava Group] –> Stilpnia cayana [flava Group]
- Lesser Antillean Tanager Tangara cucullata –> Stilpnia cucullata
- Lesser Antillean Tanager (St. Vincent) Tangara cucullata versicolor –> Stilpnia cucullata versicolor
- Lesser Antillean Tanager (Grenada) Tangara cucullata cucullata –> Stilpnia cucullata cucullata
- Scrub Tanager Tangara vitriolina –> Stilpnia vitriolina
- Masked Tanager Tangara nigrocincta –> Stilpnia nigrocincta
- Golden-hooded Tanager Tangara larvata –> Stilpnia larvata
- Blue-necked Tanager Tangara cyanicollis –> Stilpnia cyanicollis
- Tangara/Stilpnia sp. Tangara sp. –> Tangara/Stilpnia sp.
- small tanager sp. (former Tangara sp.) Tangara/Ixothraupis sp. –> Thraupidae sp. (former Tangara sp.)
- Red-backed Sierra-Finch Phrygilus dorsalis –> Idiopsar dorsalis
- White-throated Sierra-Finch Phrygilus erythronotus –> Idiopsar erythronotus
- Mourning Sierra-Finch Phrygilus fruticeti –> Rhopospina fruticeti
- Mourning Sierra-Finch (Mourning) Phrygilus fruticeti fruticeti/peruvianus –> Rhopospina fruticeti fruticeti/peruviana
- Mourning Sierra-Finch (Blackish) Phrygilus fruticeti coracinus –> Rhopospina fruticeti coracina
- Carbonated Sierra-Finch Phrygilus carbonarius –> Porphyrospiza carbonaria
- Band-tailed Sierra-Finch Phrygilus alaudinus –> Porphyrospiza alaudina
- sierra-finch sp. Phrygilus sp. –> Phrygilus/Idiopsar/Geospizopsis/Rhopospina/Porphyrospiza sp.
- Chestnut-breasted Mountain-Finch Poospiza caesar –> Poospizopsis caesar
- Rufous-sided Warbling-Finch Poospiza hypochondria –> Poospizopsis hypochondria
- Black-and-chestnut/Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch Poospiza nigrorufa- –> Poospiza whitii/nigrorufa
- warbling-finch sp. Microspingus/Castanozoster/Poospiza sp. –> Microspingus/Poospizopsis/Castanozoster/Poospiza sp.
- Cuban Grassquit Tiaris canorus –> Phonipara canora
- Black-faced Grassquit Tiaris bicolor –> Melanospiza bicolor
- Dull-colored Grassquit Tiaris obscurus –> Asemospiza obscura
- Sooty Grassquit Tiaris fuliginosus –> Asemospiza fuliginosa
ORDER, FAMILY, and TAXONOMIC SEQUENCE CHANGES
This year there continue to be some significant changes to the taxonomic sequence. As always quick entry codes and Smart Sort for data entry on the web and via eBird Mobile is very easy and makes it less necessary to try to memorize the sequence. Please see this article to understand how to use easy to learn four-letter codes to enter data quickly (did you know that typing “37 hosp” in eBird mobile will quickly add 37 House Sparrows to whatever total you have already entered? Learn how!).
The main changes to families this year involve two mergers and one family expansion:
- Sylviidae (Sylviid Warblers) and Paradoxornithidae (Parrotbills, Wrentit, and Allies) are merged into an expanded Sylviidae (Sylviid Warblers, Parrotbills, and Allies)
- Artamidae (Woodswallows) and Cracticidae (Bellmagpies and Allies) are merged into an expanded Artamidae (Woodswallows, Bellmagpies, and Allies)
- In addition, three genera previously included (with much uncertainty) in Tyrannidae–Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus coronatus, Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Terenotriccus erythrurus, and members of the genus Myiobius are merged into Oxyruncidae, which used to be Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill) and is now expanded to be Oxyruncidae (Sharpbill, Royal Flycatcher, and Allies)
The sequence of many families is revised again as we finally align towards a more stable family-level sequence supported by the best and most current genetic information. Please see the Clements update for more information on this.
Congratulations, you read the full 2019 taxonomy article! You’re a true eBirder—thank you.