2018 eBird Taxonomy Update

By Team eBird 17 Aug 2018
Purple-backed Fairywren Malurus assimilis

The eBird taxonomy update is COMPLETE. We do this update once each year, taking into account the past 12 months worth of recent taxonomic knowledge on splits, lumps, name changes, and changes in the sequence of the species lists. As of this point, all core eBird data will be reflecting the new taxonomy. This includes your My eBird lists, range maps, bar charts, region and hotspot lists, and data entry. Your eBird Mobile should have had an “Updating taxonomy…” message that will have loaded the new version. We do have a small number of minor changes yet to make, which may affect the lists for some users as we implement these over the next few days. If you see unfamiliar bird names in the list, please refer to the story below to understand the change and why it happened.

If you only have time to take two things away from the taxonomy update, here they are:

  1. We automatically update your records for you when possible, using known range, your checklist comments, and other information to assign records to a species. However, please review your lists (made simple by the “my records” links below). With the publication of this story, most species should be changed, aside from species that have a “changes still underway” note. If you need to correct anything, it’s super easy using”Change Species.”
  2. If you use eBird Mobile on iPhone or Android, please check the App Store or Google Play Store to make sure you have the latest version of the app. Also, after you’ve updated to the new taxonomy (you should see an “Updating Taxonomy…” notification appear when you start the app up) make sure to submit a list from a new location near you (i.e., not one of your stored “recent locations”). This will ensure that the local checklist filter is updated to the newest version. For example, this step will make sure that all your post-update submissions have the correct new entries such as Velvet Scoter or White-winged Scoter instead of the pre-update White-winged/Velvet Scoter.

2018 eBird Taxonomic Update

This year’s update is v2018 of the eBird/Clements Checklist. The eBird/Clements Checklist is an integrated global taxonomy for the birds of the world, including all species and subspecies, as well as additional taxa useful to field birders to report in eBird. The list of species available in eBird is the eBird Taxonomy (v2018) and includes all species, subspecies groups (which we call identifiable sub-specific forms or ISSF), hybrids, intergrades, spuhs (e.g., scoter sp.), slashes (e.g., Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher), domestics, and forms. The Clements Checklist includes only species and subspecies, along with subspecies groups which are further identified as monotypic (consisting of one subspecies) or polytypic (consisting of more than one subspecies). Read more about the eBird Taxonomy.

The Clements Checklist provides two update pages (overview and 2018 updates & corrections) and also provides all three files (eBird/Clements, Clements, and eBird) for download, each as either an Excel spreadsheet or comma-delimited (csv) format.

The Clements Checklist 2018 updates & corrections provides details (including references) for all species splits and lumps, new species descriptions, revisions to subspecies groups (ISSFs) or subspecies, and other changes relevant to the Clements Checklist. We refer anyone wishing to learn more about these splits to that page.

A list of all the taxonomic changes is below. Most changes for the AOS-NACC Fifty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds are incorporated, as well as AOS-SACC revisions to the South American Check-List through 21 June 2018.

This is largely in sync with the above Clements update; references are not listed in full, but are included in the Clements update. Since this is a long article, here is a short index:

  • Introduction
  • Languages
  • Species splits
  • Species lumps
  • New species
  • Subspecies reshuffles
  • Shuffles of other taxa and subspecies group lumps
  • New subspecies groups
  • New hybrids and intergrades
  • New forms
  • New domestics
  • New slashes and spuhs
  • Common Name changes
  • Scientific Name changes
  • Order, Family, and Sequence changes


When the taxonomy is updated in eBird, many of the changes are fairly simple to implement. When a common name changes, a scientific name changes, or when the taxonomic sequence is revised, those changes roll through and appear in eBird output fairly quickly. Staying on top of name changes is a challenge, and consulting Avibase is one of the best ways to keep track. Just type any bird name in Avibase and Avibase will show you the history of that name, and—if it differs from eBird—it will show what the eBird equivalent is for that name. Try it with “Louisiana Heron”, for example.

When species are ‘lumped’ (e.g., two taxonomic entities that used to be considered separate species, but are now one), eBird usually retains the former species as an identifiable group. In these cases, your records may shift to the lumped form and your totals may (or may not) drop by one. The actual entity that you observed and reported has not changed in any way other than being changed from species to subspecies. For example, this year, those who have birded Central America may notice that your previous reports of Cherrie’s Tanager Ramphocelus costaricensis and Passerini’s Tanager Ramphocelus passerinii have changed to Scarlet-rumped Tanager (Cherrie’s) Ramphocelus passerinii costaricensis and Scarlet-rumped Tanager (Passerini’s) Ramphocelus passerinii passerinii.

When splits occur, the process is more complicated. In most cases, we have had subspecies options available for reporting in anticipation of the split. All these records update automatically to the new species. When a bird is reported at the broader species level (without a subspecies listed on your entry), and then that species is split, we update the records in eBird to one of the “child” species whenever possible. We try to be very conservative with this. When two species do not overlap in range (i.e., they are allopatric) we go ahead and make the change. When the species do overlap (i.e., are sympatric), and do not have clear seasonal or habitat differences, we usually do not make the change. This results in your records being left as the more conservative “slash” option.

As an example, this year Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus was split into two species, Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus and Chivi Vireo Vireo chivi. In some areas, this split is fairly easy to understand: Red-eyed Vireo is the only form known from North America and Chivi Vireo is the only one in southern South America (e.g., Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, much of Brazil). In addition, we know that any of these vireos observed in the boreal summer should be Chivi Vireo, since the northern-breeding Red-eyed Vireo should be on its Canada or USA breeding grounds from June to mid-August. However, let’s say that you reported an April or October record of Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus from northern Colombia, where Chivi Vireo is a year-round resident and Red-eyed Vireo is a common migrant. This record would be converted to Red-eyed/Chivi Vireo Vireo olivaceus/chivi since we won’t be able to tell which species you observed. Sometimes the behavior or local habitat can help to identify these two very similar species, but if you are not sure (and this is one of the tougher identification issues in the world, so don’t feel bad!), then your observation is best listed as the slash option.

If you want to review your records of “Red-eyed/Chivi Vireo” or of “Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher”, there are a couple ways to do this through the My eBird tools. If you know the checklist it is on, you can find the list in “Manage My Observations” and edit it as needed. If you can find your checklist on the range map of “Red-eyed/Chivi Vireo” then you can just click on the marker for your list and open it from there. But the best option to review your records is to go to My eBird and then click “Download My Data” from the right side. This downloads your entire eBird database as a CSV file that can be opened in Excel or a similar spreadsheet program. From there, you should easily be able to sort by name or search for “Hen/Northern Harrier” to find your records. Then you can scroll to the correct date or just replace the Submission ID in the URL for a checklist view.

Finally, the taxonomic sequence is changing substantially this year. See the section “Order, Family, and Sequence changes” for a full explanation of the changes. eBirders may notice that Loons, Penguins, Tubenoses, Boobies and Gannets, Pelicans, and Herons, which used to be at the beginning of the list are now appearing near the middle. This may be a bit disorienting if you have memorized the sequence of species, but please be aware that Quick Entry makes it very easy to find and enter any species during data entry. Did you know that typing “37 hosp” in eBird mobile will quick add 37 House Sparrows to whatever total you have already entered? (Learn how!). Also, learning to search for a species within your browser may be helpful too, since this works to quickly jump to a species in any species list (e.g., bar chart, Location Explorer) on eBird.


We provide birds names in eBird for more than 30 languages, as well as 25 additional regional versions of some languages. For example, Pluvialis squatorola is known as Black-bellied Plover in our taxonomy, but known by its winter dress in some areas such as the United Kingdom, where it’s called Grey Plover. You can access name preferences under “Preferences” from most eBird pages, which is also where you can set the names to shows as common names or scientific names. One option is English (IOC), which gives a full translation of species names into the IOC World Bird List (v8.2) nomenclature. Note that these names are exact taxonomic matches, so they reflect as slashes when a species is split by IOC and not by eBird; similarly, species split by eBird will appear as subspecies groups for IOC. Our Common Name Translations article explains more about regional common name preferences.


The species below were split in eBird. To see a map of the new species, click “map”. To see your personal lists in My eBird, just make sure you are logged in and click “My Records”. If you have seen the species but don’t have any records shown, then please enter your sightings! Full details for all below accounts can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page. We encourage all birders to carefully review the below splits and check your personal records and to update them if you think we made an error. Below are the splits for this update:

Knob-billed Ducks by Renuka Vijayaraghavan/Macaulay Library

The Old World Knob-billed Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos and New World Comb Duck Sarkidiornis sylvicola are split into two species. See also below Misc Topics section on AOS departures.

Mexican Duck by Matthew Grube/Macaulay Library

The sexually monochromatic Mexican Duck Anas diazi is split from the widespread species Mallard Anas platyrhynchos. Mallard occurs widely in Eurasia and overlaps (and interbreeds) with Mexican Duck in its United States range (border regions of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona) as well as in northern Mexico in winter. Mexican Ducks appear to be expanding in the northern portions of its range and also as a vagrant (north to Wyoming and Colorado and west to California). As always, birders should be careful to report any Mallards that show obvious signs of domestic rearing (oversized, unusual plumage, etc.) as Mallard (Domestic type). Note also that all Mallards in South America and other southern areas should be reported as Mallard (Domestic type), since the domestic provenance is often very clear. See also below Misc Topics section on AOS departures.

NOTE: Mallard and Mexican Duck will not be possible to accurately assign to species based on range within the border counties of the USA (Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas) since both species are common there. If you had previously reported these to a specific subspecies group prior to this split, then that will be reflected in your lists. If not, please review your records and make changes if you recall which form you observed (or if you have notes like 4 Mexican, 12 Northern, and 2 intergrades). We realize this will not be possible in many cases, so many records will be retained as the Mallard/Mexican Duck option.

Note also these important options for reporting:

  • Mallard x Mexican Duck (hybrid) Anas platyrhynchos x diazi [map] [media]
  • Mallard/Mexican Duck Anas platyrhynchos/diazi [map]

White-winged Scoter (Melanitta fusca) is split into two species: Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca, which occurs in Europe and western Asia and winters to North Africa, and White-winged Scoter Melanitta deglandi , which breeds North America and eastern Asia. See also below Misc Topics section on AOS departures. Note that the two subspecies deglandi and stejnegeri are for now retained within White-winged Scoter but each also may merit recognition as a distinct species.

  • Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca [map] [media] [my records]
  • White-winged Scoter Melanitta deglandi [map] [media] [my records]
    • White-winged Scoter (Siberian) Melanitta deglandi stejnegeri [map] [media]
    • White-winged Scoter (North American) Melanitta deglandi deglandi [map] [media]

In accord with AOS-NACC, the larger, darker-headed Andean Duck Oxyura ferruginea of South America is split from Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis. A problematic and interesting form, andina, occurs in central Colombia, which we include as the northerly subspecies within Andean Duck. It is variable and likely originated from past hybridization between Ruddy and Andean Ducks.

The two subspecies groups of Southern Crowned-Pigeon Goura scheepmakeri are each split as a species: Sclater’s Crowned-Pigeon Goura sclaterii of southern New Guinea (Mimika River to Fly River) and Scheepmaker’s Crowned-Pigeon Goura scheepmakeri from coastal se New Guinea (Hall Sound to Orangerie Bay).

Wedge-billed Hummingbird Schistes geoffroyi is split into two species: White-throated Wedgebill Schistes albogularis, which occurs in the western Andes of Colombia and the west slope of the Andes in Ecuador and Geoffroy’s Wedgebill Schistes geoffroyi, which occurs on the eastern slope of the Andes from the eastern Andes of Colombia south to Bolivia.

Rufous-gaped Hillstar by John Cahill/Macaulay Library

White-tailed Hillstar Urochroa leucura is split into two species, divided into east slope and west slope populations in the Andes: Rufous-gaped Hillstar Urochroa bougueri from the Western Andes of se Colombia and nw Ecuador and White-tailed Hillstar Urochroa leucura from the east slope of Andes from southern Colombia (Nariño) to northern Peru (Amazonas, San Martín).

One population from within the widespread Gray-breasted Sabrewing Campylopterus largipennis is split out as Dry-forest Sabrewing Campylopterus calcirupicola, with the new species occurring in a very localized ecotone in eastern Brazil (southeastern Goiás, southwestern Bahia, and northern Minas Gerais).

Given the strong vocal differences between the widespread species formerly known as Vermiculated Screech-Owl Megascops guatemalae, a long-anticipated split in that species is finally recognized. The new species include: Middle American Screech-Owl Megascops guatemalae which occurs from Mexico south to Costa Rica, and possibly east to central Panama on the Atlantic coast (more documentation of vocalizations needed from Panama west of the Canal Zone); Choco Screech-Owl Megascops centralis which occurs from central Panama (possibly west to the Pacific Slope of se. Costa Rica–again, more audio recordings are needed from this zone) south to western Ecuador; and Foothill Screech-Owl Megascops roraimae which has fairly widely-separated populations on the tepuis of southern Venezuela, adjacent northern Brazil, southern Guyana, and Suriname and Andean foothills from Venezuela and Colombia south to Bolivia. Both Middle American Screech-Owl and Foothill Screech-Owl have two subspecies groups that are also recognized.

  • Middle American Screech-Owl Megascops guatemalae [map] [media] [my records]
    • Middle American Screech-Owl (Middle American) Megascops guatemalae [guatemalae Group] [map] [media]
    • Middle American Screech-Owl (Vermiculated) Megascops guatemalae vermiculatus [map] [media]
  • Choco Screech-Owl Megascops centralis [map] [media] [my records]
  • Foothill Screech-Owl Megascops roraimae [map] [media] [my records]
    • Foothill Screech-Owl (Roraima) Megascops roraimae roraimae [map] [media]
    • Foothill Screech-Owl (Foothill) Megascops roraimae [napensis Group] [map] [media]

Blond-crested Woodpecker by Claudia Brasileiro/Macaulay Library

Blond-crested Woodpecker Celeus flavescens is split into Ochre-backed Woodpecker Celeus ochraceus of northeastern Brazil and the forests around the south bank at the mouth of the Amazon and a southerly, more widespread Blond-crested Woodpecker Celeus flavescens which ranges from Bahia, Brazil south to northern Argentina.

The range limits of these two species are not well known, so this slash option will prove useful when the species cannot be confirmed.

  • Ochre-backed/Blond-crested Woodpecker Celeus ochraceus/flavescens [map] [media] [my records]

Southerly populations of Russet Antshrike Thamnistes anabatinus from south of the Río Marañón in Amazonas, Peru, to Bolivia are recognized as a new species, Rufescent Antshrike Thamnistes rufescens, while those from northern Peru north to Mexico are retained as Russet Antshrike Thamnistes anabatinus.

Within Thrush-like Antpitta Myrmothera campanisona a vocally and genetically distinct form is recognized as a new species, Tapajos Antpitta Myrmothera subcanescens, which occurs south of the Amazon River, east of the Madeira River and west of the Xingu River; Thrush-like Antpitta Myrmothera campanisona occupies the remainder of the species’ wide range in South America.

A new species, Leymebamba Antpitta Grallaricula leymebambae, which ranges from Ecuador to Bolivia was previously considered a subspecies group within Rusty-breasted Antpitta Grallaricula ferrugineipectus, but is not closely related to that species. The range of Rusty-breasted Antpitta Grallaricula ferrugineipectus thus is now restricted to Colombia and Venezuela.

Buff-throated Foliage-Gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus is a widespread species with many subspecies and could see a number of future splits. This year, subspecies exertus is elevated to species-level as Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner Automolus exsertus, restricted to the Pacific Slope of southeastern Costa Rica and southwestern Panama, while the name Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus continues to apply for the rest of the species wide range from Mexico into South America.

Vocal, genetic, and some fairly subtle plumage differences support a split of Paltry Tyrannulet into four species, as follows: Guatemalan Tyrannulet Zimmerius vilissimus of highland areas in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador; Mistletoe Tyrannulet Zimmerius parvus from the lowlands of southern Belize and Peten, Guatemala, south along the Caribbean Slope of Honduras to nw. Colombia (Chocó); Spectacled Tyrannulet Zimmerius improbus in the Santa Marta, Sierra de Perijá, and northern Andes of Colombia and Venezuela; and Venezuelan Tyrannulet Zimmerius petersi of the coastal cordillera of n Venezuela (s Lara east to Miranda).

Kinglet Manakin by Ciro Albano/Macaulay Library

Striped Manakin Machaeropterus striolatus is split into Striolated Manakin Machaeropterus striolatus of western and northern South America and Kinglet Manakin Machaeropterus regulus, which is restricted to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. See also below under “New Species” for the recognition of the closely-related Painted Manakin Machaeropterus eckelberryi.

  • Striolated Manakin Machaeropterus striolatus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Striolated Manakin (Striolated) Machaeropterus striolatus [striolatus Group] [map] [media]
    • Striolated Manakin (aureopectus) Machaeropterus striolatus aureopectus [map] [media]
  • Kinglet Manakin Machaeropterus regulus [map] [media] [my records]

Variegated Fairywren Malurus lamberti is split into two species, a widespread Purple-backed Fairywren Malurus assimilis and a range-restricted Variegated Fairywren Malurus lamberti, which occurs only in coastal southeastern Australia (eastern New South Wales and southeastern Queensland north to Gladstone).

Mountain Sooty Boubou Laniarius poensis involved two widely separated species, one in west Africa and one in the Albertine Rift. These are now split as two species, with Western Boubou Laniarius poensis occurring in Cameroon, Nigeria, and Bioko Island andAlbertine Boubou Laniarius holomelas occurring in Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, and the extreme eastern D.R. Congo.

A major revision in shrikes resulted in two step process, with a major lump followed by a split. As of last year, Southern Gray Shrike Lanius meridionalis was used for the southerly populations within the Great Gray Shrike complex, involving all the subspecies groups listed below except Great Gray Shrike (Great Gray) Lanius excubitor [excubitor Group]. However, genetics show that all of these are closely related to Great Gray Shrike Lanius excubitor, while the meridionalis subspecies, restricted to Portugal, Spain, and southern France, is quite distinct (actually closer to the North American species, Loggerhead Shrike Lanius ludovicianus) and should be recognized as a distinct species, Iberian Gray Shrike Lanius meridionalis. We list all the subspecies and their ranges within this complex below to help clarify this situation (note that Northern Shrike Lanius borealis was split in last year’s update).

    • Iberian Gray Shrike Lanius meridionalis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Great Gray Shrike Lanius excubitor [map] [media] [my records]
      • Great Gray Shrike (Great Gray) Lanius excubitor [excubitor Group]  [map] [media]
        • Lanius excubitor excubitor RANGE: W and n Europe to w Siberia
        • Lanius excubitor homeyeri RANGE: Balkan Peninsula to s Ural Mountains and w Siberia
        • Lanius excubitor leucopterus RANGE: W Siberia to Yenisey River
      • Great Gray Shrike (Sahara) Lanius excubitor [elegans Group] [map][media]
        • Lanius excubitor koenigi RANGE: Canary Islands
        • Lanius excubitor algeriensis RANGE: Morocco (n of Atlas Mountains), coastal n Algeria and Tunisia
        • Lanius excubitor elegans RANGE: N Sahara (Mauritania to Sinai Peninsula and Red Sea)
        • Lanius excubitor leucopygos RANGE: southern Sahara and Sahel from Mauritania to western and central Sudan
      • Great Gray Shrike (Arabian) Lanius excubitor aucheri/buryi  [map] [media]
        • Lanius excubitor aucheri RANGE: eastern Sudan south to northern Somalia; southern Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and Arabian Peninsula east to Iran
        • Lanius excubitor buryi RANGE: Yemen; vagrant to Djibouti and Ethiopia
      • Great Gray Shrike (Socotra) Lanius excubitor uncinatus RANGE: Socotra  [map] [media]
      • Great Gray Shrike (Steppe) Lanius excubitor pallidirostris RANGE: Iran to arid steppes of w China (Xinjiang, Gansu and Ningsia)  [map] [media]
      • Great Gray Shrike (Indian) Lanius excubitor lahtora RANGE: E Pakistan and n India  [map] [media]

Chivi Vireo by Raphael Kurz/Macaulay Library

Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus was formerly considered one widespread species with migratory northern populations breeding in the USA and Canada, resident populations in northern and central South America, and migratory populations in southern South America. The species is now split, with North American breeders pertaining to Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus and South American breeders pertaining to Chivi Vireo Vireo chivi. Field identification will be very difficult in the boreal winter however, since Red-eyed Vireo winters in western Amazonia where it overlaps completely with Chivi Vireo. Any reports of Red-eyed Vireo from South America should be made with care and should clarify how Chivi Vireo was eliminated. We hope to give a bit more information on the identification of these two species here on eBird in the future.

Since these two species are virtually identical, outside of their migratory habits, this slash should be widely used for non-singing birds in regions and seasons of overlap:

  • Red-eyed/Chivi Vireo Vireo olivaceus/chivi [map] [media]

Rusty-bellied Fantail Rhipidura teysmanni is split into two species: a polytypic Sulawesi Fantail Rhipidura teysmanni , from Sulawesi and a monotypic Taliabu Fantail Rhipidura sulaensis from Taliabu I. (Sula Islands)

Maghreb Magpie by Christoph Moning/Macaulay Library

Genetics have helped to reveal cryptic diversity within the Pica magpies, with Eurasian Magpie Pica pica now divided into five species: Maghreb Magpie Pica mauritanica of North Africa; Asir Magpie Pica asirensis of Arabia; Black-rumped Magpie Pica bottanensis of the Tibetan Plateau; Oriental Magpie Pica serica from eastern China and Southeast Asia; and Eurasian Magpie Pica pica from the remainder of the species range from western Europe to northeastern Russia.

Within Firecrest Regulus ignicapilla, the island-endemic Madeira Firecrest Regulus madeirensis is split form the widespread species Common Firecrest Regulus ignicapilla, which occurs throughout the remainder of the range.

The localized Vietnam endemic (though it might reach eastern Cambodia) Dalat Bush Warbler Locustella idonea is split from Russet Bush Warbler Locustella mandelli.

The iconically named Henna-tailed Jungle-Flycatcher is lost as the species is split into two, each occurring on its own set of islands: Banggai Jungle-Flycatcher Cyornis pelingensis of Peleng Island (in the Banggai island chain) and Sula Jungle-Flycatcher Cyornis colonus from Taliabu, Seho, Mangole, and Sanana in the Sula island chain.

The two forms of Slaty Thrush are not each other’s closest relatives and are recognized as distinct species:Andean Slaty Thrush Turdus nigriceps of western South America and Eastern Slaty Thrush Turdus subalaris of eastern South America.

Taiwan Thrush by Jhihweit Tsai/Macaulay Library

Taiwan Thrush Turdus niveiceps, previously recognized as just one of 39 identifiable subspecies groups in Island Thrush Turdus poliocephalus, is now recognized as a distinct species and adds another species to the list of Taiwan endemics.

Peruvian Pipit Anthus peruvianus, restricted to relative dry coastal Peru and northern Chile, is split from the widespread Yellowish Pipit Anthus lutescens which occurs in wetter environments from southern Central America through much of South America east of the Andes.

Amazonian Grosbeak Cyanoloxia rothschildii, which occurs in South America from the Amazon Basin south to northern Argentina, is split from the more northerly Blue-black Grosbeak Cyanoloxia cyanoides which now occurs from Mexico south through Central America, along the West Slope of Colombia, Ecuador, and extreme nw. Peru (Tumbes) as well as east along the Caribbean coast of Colombia, western Venezuela, and central northern Venezuela east to Miranda.

Within Inaccessible Island Finch Nesospiza acunhae, subspecies Nesospiza acunhae questi was formerly recognized as a subspecies group but is hereby elevated to species status as Nightingale Island Finch Nesospiza questi, endemic to Nightingale Island. In addition, a new subspecies group is added, Inaccessible Island Finch (Upland) Nesospiza acunhae fraseri, and another, Inaccessible Island Finch (Dunn’s) Nesospiza acunhae dunnei, is transferred from Wilkins’s Finch Nesospiza wilkinsi. We list all subspecies groups in Inaccessible Island Finch below.

  • Inaccessible Island Finch Nesospiza acunhae [map] [media] [my records]
    • Inaccessible Island Finch (Lowland) Nesospiza acunhae acunhae [map] [media]
    • Inaccessible Island Finch (Upland) Nesospiza acunhae fraseri [map] [media]
    • Inaccessible Island Finch (Dunn’s) Nesospiza acunhae dunnei [map] [media]
  • Nightingale Island Finch Nesospiza questi [map] [media] [my records]

Two forms of Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch Poospiza nigrorufa are now split as distinct species, with the less richly colored form occurring in southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and northeastern Argentina retaining the name Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch Poospiza nigrorufa and the more richly colored form of nw. Argentina and s. Bolivia now being called Black-and-chestnut Warbling-Finch Poospiza whitii.

Morelet’s Seedeater by Ian Routley/Macaulay Library

Plumage, song, and genetic differences demonstrate that White-collared Seedeater Sporophila moreletti involves two species: Cinnamon-rumped Seedeater Sporophila torqueola which is endemic to Mexico, occurring from Sonora south to Oaxaca on the Pacific Slope and central Mexico west of the Sierra Madre Oriental and Morelet’s Seedeater Sporophila morelleti which occurs from southernmost Texas to western Panama, primarily on the Atlantic Slope in Mexico, but reaching both slopes from Chiapas southwards.

The two may almost come in contact in some areas, so a slash is retained in the case of confusion (females are nearly identical, but have bolder wing bars in moreletti.

  • Morelet’s/Cinnamon-rumped Seedeater Sporophila morelleti/torqueola [map] [media


In eBird taxonomic revision, lumps are very easy to deal with. Usually the taxa become subspecies groups, so there is no changing of records necessary, just a recalculation of lists as the species drop to identifiable subspecies. Whenever possible, we encourage birders to continue reporting at the subspecies level, but whenever you select these options, be sure you understand the taxa that you are using; do not try to guess at the subspecies based on the name! This section also includes invalid species descriptions: these are rare but occur when an original description of a species or subspecies is proven to be a hybrid, rare variant, or other form of natural variation that does not represent a species. Full details for can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page.

The Colombian Screech-Owl Megascops colombianus is no longer recognized as a distinct species and is lumped with Rufescent Screech-Owl Megascops ingens.

  • Rufescent Screech-Owl (Colombian) Megascops ingens [map] [media] [my records]
    • Rufescent Screech-Owl (Colombian) Megascops ingens colombianus [map] [media]
    • Rufescent Screech-Owl (Rufescent) Megascops ingens ingens/venezuelanus [map] [media]

White-chested Tinkerbird Pogoniulus makawai, thus far known from just a single specimen, is considered to be a variant of Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird Pogoniulus bilineatus.

  • Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird Pogoniulus bilineatus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird (Yellow-rumped) Pogoniulus bilineatus [bilineatus Group]
       [map] [media]
    • Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird (White-chested) Pogoniulus bilineatus makawai [map] [media]

Baron’s Spinetail Cranioleuca baroni and Line-cheeked Spinetail Cranioleuca antisiensis
are considered to represent a cline in body size and other traits and are lumped as Line-cheeked Spinetail Cranioleuca antisiensis.

  • Line-cheeked Spinetail Cranioleuca antisiensis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Line-cheeked Spinetail (Line-cheeked) Cranioleuca antisiensis antisiensis/palamblae [map] [media]
    • Line-cheeked Spinetail (Baron’s) Cranioleuca antisiensis [baroni Group] [map] [media

Canary Islands Kinglet Regulus teneriffae is no longer considered to represent a unique species and is now considered conspecific with Goldcrest Regulus regulus. Several new subspecies groups are listed in Goldcrest (see Appendix A: New Subspecies Groups below).

Javan Bush Warbler Locustella montis and Timor Bush Warbler Locustella timorensis are no longer considered two species and are merged as a single species, Javan Bush Warbler Locustella montis, although both subspecies groups are retained.

  • Javan Bush Warbler Locustella montis [map] [media] [my records]
    • Javan Bush Warbler (Javan) Locustella montis montis [map] [media]
    • Javan Bush Warbler (Timor) Locustella montis timorensis [map] [media]

Scarlet-rumped Tanager by Yeray Seminario/Macaulay Library

Two similar species from Central America, the Atlantic Slope Cherrie’s Tanager Ramphocelus costaricensis and Pacific Slope Passerini’s Tanager Ramphocelus passerinii, are lumped as Scarlet-rumped Tanager Ramphocelus passerinii, but are retained as subspecies groups.

  • Scarlet-rumped Tanager Ramphocelus passerinii [map] [media] [my records]
    • Scarlet-rumped Tanager (Passerini’s) Ramphocelus passerinii passerinii [map] [media
    • Scarlet-rumped Tanager (Cherrie’s) Ramphocelus passerinii costaricensis [map] [media


Each year, a few newly described species or populations newly recognized for their distinctiveness are named and added to the eBird/Clements taxonomy. This just goes to show how much remains to be learned about the birds of the World! Full details for can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page.

The mysterious extinct species, Spotted Green Pigeon, Caloenas maculata, had not been previously included in the eBird/Clements list. It is known from only two specimens (one of which now is lost) and one contemporaneous illustration, all apparently from the mid or late 18th century. Its former distribution is not known, but it probably was native to an island or island group in the South Pacific.

The presence of a distinctive screech-owl in the isolated Santa Marta range of northern Colombia has long been known, but this year it was finally was formally described and given a name: Santa Marta Screech-Owl Megascops gilesi. Previously known in eBird as Santa Marta Screech-Owl (undescribed form) Megascops [undescribed form].

Cordillera Azul Antbird by Andrew Spencer/Macaulay Library

The distinctive Cordillera Azul Antbird Myrmoderus eowilsoni was quickly described to science (compared to the owl), after being first noticed just a few years ago and and has already been seen by a good number of birders. Previously known in eBird as Whistling Antbird (undescribed form) Myrmoderus [undescribed form].

A new Machaeropterus manakin from the East Slope of the Peruvian Andes has been of interest to ornithologists for several years now and is now formally described as Painted Manakin Machaeropterus eckelberryi. With the split of another Machaeropterus, Striolated Manakin (see splits above), this genus now includes five species instead of the original three. Previously known in eBird as Painted Manakin (undescribed form).

A new myzomela is recognized from Rote Island in the Lesser Sundas: Rote Myzomela Myzomela irianawidodoae. This species was not previously listed in eBird.


When subspecies move around between species, this can have effects like splits or lumps. Thus, for a certain population within a species, the movement of the subspecies from one to another has important data quality implications and can significantly change the range of both species.

Gray-headed Swamphen and Black-backed Swamphen: Subspecies vididis, previously classified under Black-backed Swamphen Porphyrio indicus, properly belongs with Gray-headed Swamphen Porphyrio poliocephalus. This results in a major change in the range of the two taxa, since viridis occupied an extensive range in Southeast Asia, including Malaysia, s. Myanmar, s. Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and southeastern China. Now, that range is occupied by Gray-headed Swamphen, and Black-backed Swamphen is restricted to Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo and Sulawesi.

With this reshuffling, these taxa are now very different too and many hybrids and slashes from the former range of Black-backed Swamphen can now be safely assigned to Gray-headed Swamphen:

  • Black-backed x Gray-headed Swamphen (hybrid) Porphyrio indicus x poliocephalus [map] [media] [my records]
  • Black-backed/Gray-headed Swamphen Porphyrio indicus/poliocephalus [map] [media] [my records]

Three subspecies motleyi (Borneo and adjacent northern offshore islands), captus Nias I. (off nw Sumatra) and jungei (Batu I. and Simeulue I. off nw Sumatra) are transferred from Black-backed Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx erithaca to Rufous-backed Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx rufidorsa. This revision means that Black-backed Dwarf Kingfisher occurs south of the Isthmus of Kra on the Thai Malay Peninsula and in Sumatra only as a migrant; the resident forms are now all placed in Rufous-backed Dwarf-Kingfisher.

Subspecies flavidifrons, which some authorities split as a unique species, was formerly recognized as a subspecies group within Golden-faced Tyrannulet Zimmerius chrysops as Golden-faced Tyrannulet (Loja) Zimmerius chrysops flavidifrons. It is better considered a subspecies of Peruvian Tyrannulet Zimmerius viridiflavus and is moved to that species with this revision. It occurs in sw Ecuador and extreme northern Peru.

  • Peruvian Tyrannulet (Loja) Zimmerius viridiflavus flavidifrons [map] [media] [my records]

Subspecies viridinitens is transferred from Hair-crested Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus to Sumatran Drongo Dicrurus sumatranus, so now it is Sumatran Drongo that is found in the Mentawi Islands off Sumatra (the range of viridinitens) and not Hair-crested.

Subspecies acrophila, found in northern New Guinea (Foja and Bewani Mountains), was previously listed as part of Rufous-backed Honeyeater Ptiloprora guisei but instead belongs with Mayr’s Honeyeater Ptiloprora mayri.

Within Vanuatu Whistler Pachycephala chlorura, subspecies vanikorensis is transferred from Vanuatu Whistler to Temotu Whistler Pachycephala vanikorensis, and subspecies littayei is transferred to Vanuatu Whistler from New Caledonian Whistler Pachycephala caledonica. Since littayei occurs in the Loyalty Islands (Ouvéa and Lifou), those islands are added to the range of Vanuatu Whistler and since vanikorensis occurs in the southern Santa Cruz Islands (Vanikoro), those islands are added to the range of Temotu Whistler. New Calendonia Whistler thus is restricted to the main island of New Caledonia.

Subspecies intensior, previously classified as a subspecies of Kloss’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus ogilviegranti, properly belongs with Davison’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus intensior. Because of the rules of zoological nomenclature, this subspecies transfer also results in a change in the scientific name of Davison’s Leaf Warbler from Phylloscopus muleyitensis to Phylloscopus intensior. Subspecies intensior occurs from Southeast Thailand (Trat Province) to mountains of n Cambodia, so this transfer removes a significant portion of the range of Kloss’s Leaf Warbler, which is now unrecorded from Cambodia and Thailand.

Subspecies chiriquensis, which has been considered for species status and was formerly placed with Masked Yellowthroat Geothlypis aequinoctialis, is moved to Olive-crowned Yellowthroat Geothlypis semiflava. Since this was the only subspecies of Masked Yellowthroat known from North America, this shuffle removes a species from the North American avifauna. It is found in se Costa Rica and w Panama.

  • Olive-crowned Yellowthroat (Chiriqui) Geothlypis semiflava chiriquensis [map] [media] [my records]

Subspecies dunnei is removed from Wilkins’s Finch Nesospiza wilkinsi and transferred to Inaccessible Island Finch (Dunn’s) Nesospiza acunhae dunnei. See also “Splits” above.


Revisions to eBird subspecies groups, and occasionally other taxa (like spuhs or slashes), can happen in our taxonomic update as well. This effectively changes the definition for these taxa and also changes how you should use them in reporting. To review your records of any of the subspecies groups below, simply open your Life List on eBird and use a browser search to search for the species name in question. Click the species to open all reports for that species; your subspecies reports will appear in this list and you can review those for accuracy. Selected revisions are listed below; for a complete listing of these changes see the Clements updates.

Little Grebe: Subspecies Tachybaptus ruficollis collaris, from NE New Guinea to Bougainville (Solomon Islands), is removed from Little Grebe (Little) Tachybaptus ruficollis [ruficollis Group] and  placed in Little Grebe (Tricolored) Tachybaptus ruficollis [tricolor Group]. Note that the IOC splits these two groups as separate species.

  • Little Grebe (Little) Tachybaptus ruficollis [ruficollis Group] [map] [media] [my records]
  • Little Grebe (Tricolored) Tachybaptus ruficollis [tricolor Group] [map] [media] [my records]

White-bellied Bustard: Subspecies mackenziei, which occurs from eastern Gabon to southern Democratic Republic of the Congo, eastern Angola and western Zambia, is removed from the group White-bellied Bustard (White-bellied) and is added to the group White-bellied Bustard (Barrow’s).

  • White-bellied Bustard (White-bellied) Eupodotis senegalensis [senegalensis Group] [map] [media] [my records]
  • White-bellied Bustard (Barrow’s) Eupodotis senegalensis barrowii/mackenziei [map] [media] [my records]

Little Bronze-Cuckoo: Subspecies salvadorii, previously included in a polytypic group Little Bronze-Cuckoo (Pied) Chrysococcyx minutillus crassirostris/salvadorii, instead belongs with subspecies rufomerus. Below are the revised groups.

  • Little Bronze-Cuckoo (Banda) Chrysococcyx minutillus rufomerus/salvadorii [map] [media] [my records]
  • Little Bronze-Cuckoo (Pied) Chrysococcyx minutillus crassirostris [map] [media] [my records]

Common Tern: Common Tern had long included two subspecies groups, the dark-billed Common Tern Sterna hirundo longipennis and red-billed Common Tern (hirundo) Sterna hirundo hirundo. With this revision, we consider minussensis to be a synonym of tibetana and we include tibetana in an expanded red-billed group. Note that these two group intergrade where they come in contact, so an intergrade is added to help account for birds with intermediate bill color which are common in places such as Mongolia.

  • Common Tern (hirundo/tibetana) Sterna hirundo hirundo/tibetana [map] [media] [my records]

Brown Pelican: Subspecies urinator is endemic to the Galapagos Islands and is recognized as a separate group (see “new subspecies groups” below). As a result, the Brown Pelican (Southern) subspecies group is now restricted to two subspecies.

  • Brown Pelican (Southern) Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis/murphyi [map] [media] [my records]

Roadside Hawk: Our former group Roadside Hawk (Mainland) Rupornis magnirostris [magnirostris Group] is now split into two groups, which differ substantially in plumage. The Northern group includes all of North America and much of northern South America, while the Southern group includes much of Amazonia and southern South America.

  • Roadside Hawk (Northern) Rupornis magnirostris [magnirostris Group] [map] [media] [my records]
  • Roadside Hawk (Southern) Rupornis magnirostris [pucherani Group] [map] [media] [my records]

Sulawesi Scops-Owl: The polytypic group Sulawesi Scops-Owl (Sulawesi) Otus manadensis manadensis/mendeni is partitioned into two monotypic groups:

Burrowing Owl: With this year’s revision we have added a full set of subspecies groups for Burrowing Owl. As part of this revision, subspecies rostrata, endemic to Isla Clarión of Mexico, is added to the Burrowing Owl (Western) Athene cunicularia hypugaea group to become Burrowing Owl (Western) Athene cunicularia hypugaea/rostrata. See also Appendix A: New Subspecies Groups.

Southern Emerald-Toucanet: Subspecies cyanolaemus is recognized as a new group, Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Black-billed) Aulacorhynchus albivitta cyanolaemus(see “new subspecies groups” below) which results in a revision to Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Black-throated) and a restriction of the range to more southerly areas, since cyanolaemus occurs in the subtropical Andes of se Ecuador and n Peru. See also Appendix A: New Subspecies Groups.

  • Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Black-throated) Aulacorhynchus albivitta atrogularis/dimidiatus [map] [media] [my records]

With significant revisions to woodpecker genera, these spuhs are now restricted to different sets of species. These involved fairly major changes, so please see Scientific name changes below.

Russet Antshrike: With the split of rufescens as Rufescent Antshrike Thamnistes rufescens, (see “Splits” above), the Russet Antshrike (Andean) group is now restricted to subspecies aequatorialis and gularis.

  • Russet Antshrike (Andean) Thamnistes anabatinus aequatorialis/gularis [map] [media] [my records]

Dusky-capped Flycatcher: Subspecies groups in Dusky-capped Flycatcher were incompletely defined until this year (see “new subspecies groups” below). As part of this revision, our former subspecies group Dusky-capped Flycatcher (lawrenceii) Myiarchus tuberculifer lawrenceii was expanded this year to include all 8 North American subspecies, except Myiarchus tuberculifer olivascens, which is still recognized as a monotypic subspecies group Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Arizona). The range of the group now extends to western Colombia, which is the southern limit for subspecies brunneiceps. As always, download the eBird/Clements Checklist or log in to Avibase to see the full set of subspecies included within each eBird subspecies group. See also Appendix A: New Subspecies Groups.

  • Dusky-capped Flycatcher (lawrenceii Group) Myiarchus tuberculifer [lawrenceii Group] [map] [media] [my records]

Previously the polytypic group Little Shrikethrush (Rufous) Colluricincla megarhyncha [megarhyncha Group] included no fewer than 28 subspecies: affinis, batantae, misoliensis, aruensis, obscura, melanorhyncha, idenburgi, hybridus, tappenbecki, maeandrina, megarhyncha, ferruginea, neos, madaraszi, goodsoni, wuroi, palmeri, despecta, superflua, fortis, trobriandi, discolor, aelptes, normani, griseata, synaptica, gouldii, and rufogaster. This highly polytypic group now is partitioned into seven groups. The group Colluricincla megarhyncha [megarhyncha Group] now is restricted to subspecies batantae, misoliensis, melanorhyncha, aruensis, megarhyncha, ferruginea, goodsoni, wuroi, and palmeri; and the English name for this group changes from Little Shrikethrush (Rufous) to Little Shrikethrush (Arafura). See also Appendix A: New Subspecies Groups.

  • Little Shrikethrush (Arafura) Colluricincla megarhyncha [megarhyncha Group] [map] [media] [my records]

Hair-crested Drongo: Previously we recognized a large, polytypic group Hair-crested Drongo (Hair-crested) Dicrurus hottentottus [hottentottus Group], with 11 subspecies. One subspecies (viridinitens) is transferred to Sumatran Drongo Dicrurus sumatranus, and we also partition Hair-crested Drongo (Hair-crested) into nine groups. Therefore change the scientific name of the (now greatly smaller!) group Hair-crested Drongo (Hair-crested) from Dicrurus hottentottus [hottentottus Group] to Dicrurus hottentottus hottentottus/brevirostris.

  • Hair-crested Drongo (Hair-crested) Dicrurus hottentottus hottentottus/brevirostris [map] [media] [my records]

Eurasian Nuthatch: While we previously recognized just two subspecies groups within this species, a monotypic Eurasian Nuthatch (Siberian) Sitta europaea arctica and another group Eurasian Nuthatch (Eurasian) Sitta europaea [europaea Group] covering all other subspecies, we have now split the latter group into four groups. See the “new subspecies groups” section below.

  • Eurasian Nuthatch (Western) Sitta europaea [europaea Group] [map] [media]

Tropical Gnatcatcher: New genetics are helping to delineate relationships within Tropical Gnatcatcher and future taxonomic updates may address some splits within this group. For now, we split the former group Tropical Gnatcatcher (Tropical) into multiple smaller subspecies groups and also remove subspecies anteocularis to form a new group with plumbiceps as Tropical Gnatcatcher (plumbiceps/anteocularis) Polioptila plumbea plumbiceps/anteocularis. Thus, the group Tropical Gnatcatcher (white-browed) is restricted to remove N Colombia (Upper Magdalena Valley) form its range. See Appendix A: New Subspecies Groups below.

  • Tropical Gnatcatcher (White-browed) Polioptila plumbea [bilineata Group] [map] [media

African Yellow White-eye: Previously we recognized a polytypic group African Yellow White-eye (African Yellow) Zosterops senegalensis [senegalensis Group], which included the 13 subspecies senegalensis, demeryi, gerhardi, jacksoni, kasaicus, heinrichi, quanzae, tongensis, stuhlmanni, reichenowi, toroensis, stierlingi, and anderssoni. We now partition this polytypic group into three polytypic groups. Subspecies senegalensis, demeryi, gerhardi, jacksoni, kasaicus, heinrichi, quanzae, and tongensis remain in African Yellow White-eye (African Yellow) Zosterops senegalensis [senegalensis Group]. New polytypic groups (See Appendix A: New Subspecies Groups below) are African Yellow White-eye (Green) Zosterops senegalensis [stuhlmanni Group], composed of subspecies stuhlmanni, reichenowi, and toroensis; and African Yellow White-eye (Southern) Zosterops senegalensis anderssoni/stierlingi, composed of course of subspecies stierlingi and anderssoni.

  • African Yellow White-eye (African Yellow) Zosterops senegalensis [senegalensis Group] [map] [media

Broad-ringed White-eye: Previously we recognized a polytypic group Broad-ringed White-eye (Montane) Zosterops poliogastrus [poliogastrus Group], which included the five subspecies kaffensis, poliogastrus, mbuluensis, eurycricotus, and winifredae. We now partition this polytypic group into five monotypic groups: Broad-ringed White-eye (Ethiopian) Zosterops poliogastrus poliogastrus; Broad-ringed White-eye (Kaffa) Zosterops poliogastrus kaffensis; Broad-ringed White-eye (Mbulu) Zosterops poliogastrus mbuluensis; Broad-ringed White-eye (Kilimanjaro) Zosterops poliogastrus eurycricotus; and Broad-ringed White-eye (South Pare) Zosterops poliogastrus winifredae. The sequence of subspecies of Broad-ringed White-eye is revised.

  • Broad-ringed White-eye (Ethiopian) Zosterops poliogastrus poliogastrus [map] [media

American Pipit: The subspecies group American Pipit (alticola) Anthus rubescens alticola is now merged with the rubescens Group. Although there are some subtle differences in breeding plumage, these subspecies are not reliably identifiable at most times of year and are hereby merged.

  • American Pipit (rubescens Group) Anthus rubescens [rubescens Group] [map] [media]

Tropical Parula: We reassessed and completed the addition of groups in Tropical Parula (see Appendix A: New Subspecies Groups below). The monotypic groups Tropical Parula (Central American) Setophaga pitiayumi speciosa, with range “Tropical s Honduras to Nicaragua, Costa Rica and w Panama”, and Tropical Parula (Eastern Panama) Setophaga pitiayumi nana, with range “E Panama (Darién) to nw Colombia (Córdoba)”, are not longer considered distinct. Now we have a single group for Middle America: Tropical Parula (Middle American) Setophaga pitiayumi inornata from “southern Mexico (north to southern Veracruz and northern Chiapas) south to northwestern Colombia (Córdoba)”.

  • Tropical Parula (Middle American) Setophaga pitiayumi inornata [map] [media]

Bananaquit: Bananaquit groups have been reassessed and finalized. Subspecies portoricensis, sanctithomae, newtoni, bartholemica, marinicana, barbadensis, atrata, aterrima, and uropygialis all are removed from the polytypic group Bananaquit (Caribbean) Coereba flaveola [flaveola Group]. Subspecies portoricensis is recognized as a new monotypic group, Bananaquit (Puerto Rico) Coereba flaveola portoricensis. Subspecies sanctithomae, newtoni, bartholemica, marinicana, barbadensis, and uropygialis form a new polytypic group, Bananaquit (Lesser Antillean) Coereba flaveola [bartholemica Group]. Subspecies atrata and aterrima each are recognized as new monotypic groups, Bananaquit (St. Vincent) Coereba flaveola atrata and Bananaquit (Grenada) Coereba flaveola aterrima. Finally, the former monotypic group Bananaquit (Mainland) Coereba flaveola mexicana is subsumed into a greatly expanded polytypic group Bananaquit (Continental) Coereba flaveola [luteola Group] that includes the additional subspecies cerinoclunis, columbiana, bonairensis, ferryi, frailensis, luteola, obscura, minima, montana, caucae, gorgonae, intermedia, bolivari, guianensis, roraimae, pacifica, magnirostris, dispar, chloropyga, and alleni.

  • Bananaquit (Greater Antillean) Coereba flaveola [flaveola Group] [map] [media]


The following new subspecies groups are now available for data entry. When you are certain you have seen representatives of these groups, and ideally have identified them critically based on their field marks, please report them to eBird. Please do not guess based on the name, such as “Northern” and “Southern” or “African” and “Asian”; make sure you understand the differences being represented before reporting at so specific a level. Many new subspecies groups were added this year, largely because we reviewed the work by Nigel Collar and the Birdlife International team, who assessed a large number of avian taxa based on morphological and acoustic information and scored their relative distinctiveness (also known as the Tobias criteria). While we don’t necessarily follow the species-level splits from Handbook of the Birds of the World, these were useful for helping identify distinctive subspecies groups, resulting in the large number of additions this year.

See appendix A for this list. Since it is so long this year, we are moving it to the bottom of this article. Importantly, please note that the following species, which were not completely formulated into groups before, now have a full set of groups: Common Tern, Burrowing Owl, Golden Tanager, Bananaquit, Tropical Parula.


eBird has a long list of field identifiable hybrids. These are always listed in taxonomic order (the species that comes first sequentially is listed first) and are always followed by “hybrid”. If you identified a hybrid, especially any of the below, please do report it to eBird (hopefully with photos)! eBird also maintains a much shorter lists of intergrades (hybrids between subspecies groups); these are sometimes followed by the phrase “intergrade” and can be identified from the scientific name by the structure of the names which indicates that it is a subspecies (the only new intergrade for 2018 is within Common Tern). Hybrids and intergrades are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

With Change Species, eBirders can quickly update their lists if you already have an entry of any of these (e.g., under duck sp. or hummingbird sp.).

  • Bar-headed x Canada Goose (hybrid) Anser indicus x Branta canadensis
  • Mallard x Mexican/Mottled Duck (hybrid) Anas platyrhynchos x diazi/fulvigula
  • Mexican x Mottled Duck (hybrid) Anas diazi x fulvigula
  • Pacific Black Duck x Gray Teal (hybrid) Anas superciliosa x gracilis
  • Pacific Black Duck x Chestnut Teal (hybrid) Anas superciliosa x castanea
  • Gray x Chestnut Teal (hybrid) Anas gracilis x castanea
  • Gray Teal x Hardhead (hybrid) Anas gracilis x Aythya australis
  • Bufflehead x goldeneye sp. (hybrid) Bucephala albeola x clangula/islandica
  • Honduran Emerald x Azure-crowned Hummingbird (hybrid) Amazilia luciae x cyanocephala
  • Eurasian x Red-knobbed Coot (hybrid) Fulica atra x cristata
  • Pied x Variable Oystercatcher (hybrid) Haematopus longirostris x unicolor
  • Herring x Caspian Gull (hybrid) Larus argentatus x cachinnans
  • Common Tern (hirundo/tibetana x longipennis) Sterna hirundo hirundo/tibetana x longipennis
  • Common x Arctic Tern (hybrid) Sterna hirundo x paradisaea
  • Macaroni x Southern Rockhopper Penguin (hybrid) Eudyptes chrysolophus x chrysocome
  • Red-tailed x Ferruginous Hawk (hybrid) Buteo jamaicensis x regalis
  • Western x Eastern Screech-Owl (hybrid) Megascops kennicottii x asio
  • Great Spotted x Syrian Woodpecker (hybrid) Dendrocopos major x syriacus
  • Northern x Gilded Flicker (hybrid) Colaptes auratus x chrysoides
  • Little Corella x Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (hybrid) Cacatua sanguinea x galerita
  • Rufous-backed x Brown-backed Antwren (hybrid) Epinecrophylla haematonota x fjeldsaai
  • New Holland x White-cheeked Honeyeater (hybrid) Phylidonyris novaehollandiae x niger
  • Raggiana x Greater Bird-of-Paradise (hybrid) Paradisaea raggiana x apoda
  • Pale-chinned x Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher (hybrid) Cyornis poliogenys x tickelliae
  • Bahama x Northern Mockingbird (hybrid) Mimus gundlachii x polyglottos
  • Western Yellow x Citrine Wagtail (hybrid) Motacilla flava x citreola
  • Lapland Longspur x Snow Bunting (hybrid) Calcarius lapponicus x Plectrophenax nivalis
  • Yellow-headed x Oriente Warbler (hybrid) Teretistris fernandinae x fornsi
  • Yellow-rumped x Yellow-throated Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga coronata x dominica
  • Indigo x Painted Bunting (hybrid) Passerina cyanea x ciris
  • House x Somali Sparrow (hybrid) Passer domesticus x castanopterus
  • Tricolored x Chestnut Munia (hybrid) Lonchura malacca x atricapilla
  • Yellow-rumped x Chestnut-breasted Munia (hybrid) Lonchura flaviprymna x castaneothorax


Within eBird, we also have forms for taxa that are field identifiable (or likely potential species) and worth tracking, but are not formally described. These include undescribed species and undescribed subspecies groups (both noted with “undescribed form”), slashes at a level between subspecies group and species (e.g., “Whimbrel (White-rumped)” below) and miscellaneous other options. This year’s update includes three undescribed forms which may be recognized as species in the future, a couple additional US options where two similar subspecies may be separated from other forms, but not from each other (Red-tailed Hawk and Iceland Gull), plus two coot forms from Hawaii. Forms are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Timor Nightjar (undescribed form) Caprimulgus sp. [undescribed Timor form]
  • Hawaiian Coot (Red-shielded) Fulica alai (Red-shielded)
  • Hawaiian Coot (White-shielded) Fulica alai (White-shielded)
  • Iceland Gull (thayeri/kumlieni) Larus glaucoides thayeri/kumlieni
  • Red-tailed Hawk (calurus/abieticola) Buteo jamaicensis calurus/abieticola
  • Necklaced Spinetail (undescribed form) Synallaxis stictothorax [undescribed La Libertad form]
  • Bacan Drongo (undescribed form) Dicrurus [undescribed form]


eBird has certain domesticated species that are regularly seen in a feral or wild state. The distinction between a “Domestic” and a wild type bird of the same species is in its appearance, and domestics are always identifiable as having domestic ancestry, often in their white, yellow, or otherwise abnormal plumage, or less often, in their size or shape (e.g., Graylag Goose (Domestic type) is larger and more pot-bellied than wild Graylag Geese). Domestics are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist. We have not added any domestics for 2017.

  • No additions for 2018


As with hybrids, eBird has a long list of “slashes” and “spuhs”. These are useful in the field if you get a good enough look at a bird to know it, for example, a scoter, but not to tell if it was a Common Scoter, Black Scoter, Surf Scoter, Velvet Scoter, or White-winged Scoter. You can use “scoter sp.”, in such instances. If you are able to narrow it down to two (or in rare cases, three or four) species options, we have “slashes”, which mention the full common name (and scientific name) for the species that are potential species for your observation (e.g., Surf/Black Scoter). This list is being regularly updated as observers let us know what field identification problems they encounter. Slashes and spuhs are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Fulvous/Lesser Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor/javanica
  • Mexican/Mottled Duck Anas diazi/fulvigula
  • Anas sp. Anas sp.
  • Rock/Hill Pigeon Columba livia/rupestris
  • Eurasian/Red Collared-Dove Streptopelia decaocto/tranquebarica
  • crowned-pigeon sp. Goura sp.
  • Greater/Lesser Coucal Centropus sinensis/bengalensis
  • Large/Common Hawk-Cuckoo Hierococcyx sparverioides/varius
  • Lesser/Indian Cuckoo Cuculus poliocephalus/micropterus
  • Lesser/Oriental Cuckoo Cuculus poliocephalus/optatus
  • Gray-rumped/Ridgetop Swiftlet Collocalia marginata/isonota
  • Drab/Glossy Swiftlet Collocalia neglecta/esculenta
  • Curlew Sandpiper/Dunlin Calidris ferruginea/alpina
  • Wilson’s/South American Snipe Gallinago delicata/paraguaiae
  • Black-bellied/River Tern Sterna acuticauda/aurantia
  • Thalasseus sp. Thalasseus sp.
  • Schrenck’s/Cinnamon Bittern Ixobrychus eurhythmus/cinnamomeus
  • Clanga/Aquila sp. Clanga/Aquila sp.
  • Crested Sparrowhawk/Besra Accipiter trivirgatus/virgatus
  • Malabar/Oriental Pied-Hornbill Anthracoceros coronatus/albirostris
  • European/Indian Roller Coracias garrulus/benghalensis
  • Lineated/Brown-headed Barbet Psilopogon lineatus/zeylanicus
  • Downy/Ladder-backed Woodpecker Dryobates pubescens/scalaris
  • Dryobates sp. Dryobates sp.
  • Himalayan/Common Flameback Dinopium shorii/javanense
  • Red-footed/Amur Falcon Falco vespertinus/amurensis
  • Alexandrine/Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula eupatria/krameri
  • Russet/Rufescent Antshrike Thamnistes anabatinus/rufescens
  • Rufous-backed/Madeira Antwren Epinecrophylla haematonota/amazonica
  • Guatemalan/Mistletoe Tyrannulet Zimmerius vilissimus/parvus
  • Striolated/Painted Manakin Machaeropterus striolatus/eckelberryi
  • Australian treecreeper sp. Climacteridae sp.
  • Purple-backed/Variegated Fairywren Malurus assimilis/lamberti
  • Belford’s/Yellow-browed Melidectes Melidectes belfordi/rufocrissalis
  • Malabar/Common Woodshrike Tephrodornis sylvicola/pondicerianus
  • Ryukyu/Ashy Minivet Pericrocotus tegimae/divaricatus
  • Black-throated/White-throated Magpie-Jay Calocitta colliei/formosa
  • Oriental/Eurasian Magpie Pica serica/pica
  • Singing/Indian Bushlark Mirafra cantillans/erythroptera
  • Gray-throated Martin/Bank Swallow Riparia chinensis/riparia
  • Black-breasted/Rufous-vented Tit Periparus rufonuchalis/rubidiventris
  • Pycnonotus sp. Pycnonotus sp.
  • Mountain/Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus sindianus/collybita
  • Greenish/Large-billed Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides/magnirostris
  • Middendorff’s/Pleske’s Grasshopper-Warbler Locustella ochotensis/pleskei
  • Zitting/Golden-headed Cisticola Cisticola juncidis/exilis
  • Oriental/Japanese White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus/japonicus
  • Red-billed/Coral-billed Scimitar-Babbler Pomatorhinus ochraceiceps/ferruginosus
  • Streak-breasted/White-browed Scimitar-Babbler Pomatorhinus ruficollis/schisticeps
  • Common/Striated Babbler Turdoides caudata/earlei
  • Gray-streaked/Dark-sided Flycatcher Muscicapa griseisticta/sibirica
  • Large/Hill Blue Flycatcher Cyornis magnirostris/banyumas
  • Blue-throated/Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides/tickelliae
  • Nilgiri/Verditer Flycatcher Eumyias albicaudatus/thalassinus
  • White-browed/Collared Bush-Robin Tarsiger indicus/johnstoniae
  • Common/Black Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus/ochruros
  • White-browed Bushchat/Siberian Stonechat Saxicola insignis/maurus
  • Tropical/Northern Mockingbird Mimus gilvus/polyglottos
  • Pale-billed/Nilgiri Flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrorhynchos/concolor
  • Black-and-yellow/Collared Grosbeak Mycerobas icterioides/affinis
  • Dark-rumped/Spot-winged Rosefinch Carpodacus edwardsii/rodopeplus
  • Pink-browed/Himalayan White-browed Rosefinch Carpodacus rodochroa/thura
  • Yellow-throated/Short-billed Chlorospingus Chlorospingus flavigularis/parvirostris
  • Grassland/Yellow-browed Sparrow Ammodramus humeralis/aurifrons
  • Ammospiza sp. Ammospiza sp.
  • Grasshopper/Henslow’s Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum/Centronyx bairdii
  • Grasshopper/Baird’s Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum/Centronyx henslowii
  • Shiny/Bronzed Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis/aeneus
  • Blue-black/Amazonian Grosbeak Cyanoloxia cyanoides/rothschildii
  • Nightingale Island/Wilkins’s Finch Nesospiza questi/wilkinsi
  • Baglafecht/Bannerman’s Weaver Ploceus baglafecht/bannermani
  • Streaked/Bengal Weaver Ploceus manyar/benghalensis
  • nigrita sp. Nigrita sp.
  • Papuan/Blue-faced Parrotfinch Erythrura papuana/trichroa
  • parrotfinch sp. Erythrura sp.


See the Clements Checklist updates (here) of the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, if a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia is split into unique species on each continent, the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash). Other name changes may be driven by changes in taxonomic sequence (as with hybrids and slashes, where the first-listed species always comes first), an attempt to follow an emerging consensus in local usage, or a taxonomic revision that affects hyphenation rules. Other general changes, including corrections and decisions to use an alternate common name, have been made here.

  • Comb Duck (Old World) –> Knob-billed Duck
  • Comb Duck (South American) –> Comb Duck
  • Mallard (Northern) –> Mallard
  • Mallard (Mexican) –> Mexican Duck
  • Mallard (Mexican intergrade) –> Mallard x Mexican Duck (hybrid)
  • Mallard –> Mallard/Mexican Duck
  • White-eyed Duck –> Hardhead
  • White-winged Scoter (Velvet) –> Velvet Scoter
  • White-winged Scoter –> Velvet/White-winged Scoter
  • Ruddy Duck (Andean) –> Andean Duck (ferruginea)
  • Northern Bobwhite (graysoni) –> Northern Bobwhite (graysoni/nigripectus)
  • Northern Bobwhite (pectoralis) –> Northern Bobwhite (pectoralis Group)
  • Band-tailed Pigeon (Viosca) –> Band-tailed Pigeon (Viosca’s)
  • Southern Crowned-Pigeon (Sclater’s) –> Sclater’s Crowned-Pigeon
  • Southern Crowned-Pigeon (Scheepmaker’s) –> Scheepmaker’s Crowned-Pigeon
  • Zoe Imperial-Pigeon –> Zoe’s Imperial-Pigeon
  • Ruwenzori Turaco –> Rwenzori Turaco
  • Ruwenzori Turaco (Ruwenzori) –> Rwenzori Turaco (Rwenzori)
  • Ruwenzori Turaco (Mt. Kabobo) –> Rwenzori Turaco (Mt. Kabobo)
  • Ruwenzori Turaco (Kivu) –> Rwenzori Turaco (Kivu)
  • Coua sp. –> coua sp.
  • Little Bronze-Cuckoo (Dark-backed) –> Little Bronze-Cuckoo (Banda)
  • Montane Nightjar –> Rwenzori Nightjar
  • Long-tailed/Long-billed Hermit –> Long-billed/Long-tailed Hermit
  • Wedge-billed Hummingbird (Western) –> White-throated Wedgebill
  • Wedge-billed Hummingbird (Eastern) –> Geoffroy’s Wedgebill
  • White-tailed Hillstar (Rufous-gaped) –> Rufous-gaped Hillstar
  • White-tailed Hillstar (White-tailed) –> White-tailed Hillstar
  • Gray-breasted Sabrewing (Dry Forest) –> Dry-forest Sabrewing
  • Red-knobbed/Eurasian Coot –> Eurasian/Red-knobbed Coot
  • gallinule/moorhen/coot sp. –> moorhen/coot/gallinule sp.
  • Hapalocrex/Porzana/Zapornia sp. –> Porzana/Zapornia/Hapalocrex sp.
  • Iceland Gull (Iceland) –> Iceland Gull (glaucoides/kumlieni)
  • Common Tern (hirundo) –> Common Tern (hirundo/tibetana)
  • Galapagos Shearwater (dark-winged) -> Galapagos Shearwater (Dark-winged)
  • Galapagos Shearwater (light-winged) –> Galapagos Shearwater (Light-winged)
  • Black-shouldered Kite –> Black-winged Kite
  • Black-shouldered Kite (African) –> Black-winged Kite (African)
  • Black-shouldered Kite (Asian) –> Black-winged Kite (Asian)
  • Australian Kite –> Black-shouldered Kite
  • Great Philippine Eagle –> Philippine Eagle
  • Frances’s Goshawk –> Frances’s Sparrowhawk
  • Madagascar Red Owl –> Red Owl
  • European Scops-Owl –> Eurasian Scops-Owl
  • European Scops-Owl (European) –> Eurasian Scops-Owl (Eurasian)
  • European Scops-Owl (Cyprus) –> Eurasian Scops-Owl (Cyprus)
  • Colombian Screech-Owl –> Rufescent Screech-Owl (Colombian)
  • Vermiculated Screech-Owl –> Middle American Screech-Owl
  • Vermiculated Screech-Owl (Guatemalan) –> Middle American Screech-Owl (Middle American)
  • Vermiculated Screech-Owl (Vermiculated) –> Middle American Screech-Owl (Vermiculated)
  • Vermiculated Screech-Owl (Choco) –> Choco Screech-Owl
  • Vermiculated Screech-Owl (Roraima) –> Foothill Screech-Owl (Roraima)
  • Vermiculated Screech-Owl (Foothill) –> Foothill Screech-Owl (Foothill)
  • Santa Marta Screech-Owl (undescribed form) –> Santa Marta Screech-Owl
  • African Long-eared Owl –> Abyssinian Owl
  • Madagascar Long-eared Owl –> Madagascar Owl
  • Cuckoo-Roller –> Cuckoo-roller
  • White-chested Tinkerbird –> Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird (White-chested)
  • Crimson-breasted/Darjeeling Woodpecker –> Darjeeling/Crimson-breasted Woodpecker
  • Nuttall’s x Downy Woodpecker (hybrid) –> Downy x Nuttall’s Woodpecker (hybrid)
  • Ladder-backed x Downy Woodpecker (hybrid) –> Downy x Ladder-backed Woodpecker (hybrid)
  • Ladder-backed x Nuttall’s Woodpecker (hybrid) –> Nuttall’s x Ladder-backed Woodpecker (hybrid)
  • Ladder-backed/Nuttall’s Woodpecker –> Nuttall’s/Ladder-backed Woodpecker
  • Common/Greater Flameback –> Greater/Common Flameback
  • Eurasian Green x Gray-headed Woodpecker (hybrid) –> Gray-headed x Eurasian Green Woodpecker (hybrid)
  • Lineated Woodpecker/Campephilus sp. –> Campephilus sp./Lineated Woodpecker
  • Blond-crested Woodpecker (Ochre-backed) –> Ochre-backed Woodpecker
  • Blond-crested Woodpecker (Blond-crested) –> Blond-crested Woodpecker
  • Blond-crested Woodpecker –> Ochre-backed/Blond-crested Woodpecker
  • Greater Vasa-Parrot –> Greater Vasa Parrot
  • Lesser Vasa-Parrot –> Lesser Vasa Parrot
  • Greater/Lesser Vasa-Parrot –> Greater/Lesser Vasa Parrot
  • Sunbird Asity –> Common Sunbird-Asity
  • Yellow-bellied Asity –> Yellow-bellied Sunbird-Asity
  • Sunbird/Yellow-bellied Asity –> Common/Yellow-bellied Sunbird-Asity
  • Pitta sp. (genus Erythropitta/Hydrornis/Pitta) –> pitta sp. (genus Erythropitta/Hydrornis/Pitta)
  • Northern Slaty-Antshrike (Northern) –> Northern Slaty-Antshrike (Guianan)
  • Northern Slaty-Antshrike (Marañon) –> Northern Slaty-Antshrike (Peruvian)
  • Whistling Antbird (undescribed form) –> Cordillera Azul Antbird
  • Thrush-like Antpitta (Thrush-like) –> Thrush-like Antpitta
  • Thrush-like Antpitta (Tapajos) –> Tapajos Antpitta
  • Rusty-breasted Antpitta (Leimebamba) –> Leymebamba Antpitta
  • Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (exsertus) –> Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner
  • Line-cheeked Spinetail –> Line-cheeked Spinetail (Line-cheeked)
  • Baron’s Spinetail –> Line-cheeked Spinetail (Baron’s)
  • Paltry Tyrannulet (Paltry) –> Guatemalan Tyrannulet
  • Paltry Tyrannulet (Mistletoe) –> Mistletoe Tyrannulet
  • Paltry Tyrannulet (Mountain) –> Spectacled Tyrannulet
  • Golden-faced Tyrannulet (Loja) –> Peruvian Tyrannulet (Loja)
  • Peruvian Tyrannulet (Amazonas) (undescribed form) –> Peruvian Tyrannulet (Amazonas)
  • Paltry Tyrannulet (Venezuelan) –> Venezuelan Tyrannulet
  • Dusky-capped Flycatcher (East Mexico) –> Dusky-capped Flycatcher (lawrenceii Group)
  • Streaked Flycatcher (Streaked) –> Streaked Flycatcher (Northern)
  • Streaked Flycatcher (solitarius) –> Streaked Flycatcher (Southern)
  • Striped Manakin (Western) –> Striolated Manakin (Striolated)
  • Striped Manakin (aureopectus) –> Striolated Manakin (aureopectus)
  • Painted Manakin (undescribed form) –> Painted Manakin
  • Striped Manakin (Eastern) –> Kinglet Manakin
  • Tooth-billed Catbird –> Tooth-billed Bowerbird
  • Variegated Fairywren –> Purple-backed Fairywren
  • Variegated Fairywren (Lavender-flanked) –> Purple-backed Fairywren (Lavender-flanked)
  • Variegated Fairywren (Purple-backed) –> Purple-backed Fairywren (Purple-backed)
  • Rote Myzomela (undescribed form) –> Rote Myzomela
  • Ruwenzori Batis –> Rwenzori Batis
  • Mountain Sooty Boubou –> Western Boubou
  • Mountain Sooty Boubou (Cameroon) –> Western Boubou (Cameroon)
  • Mountain Sooty Boubou (Bioko) –> Western Boubou (Bioko)
  • Mountain Sooty Boubou (Ruwenzori) –> Albertine Boubou
  • Little Shrikethrush (Rufous) –> Little Shrikethrush (Arafura)
  • Crested Jay –> Crested Shrikejay
  • Southern Gray Shrike (Steppe) –> Great Gray Shrike (Steppe)
  • Great Gray/Northern Shrike –> Northern/Great Gray Shrike
  • Great Gray/Southern Gray Shrike –> Iberian Gray/Great Gray Shrike
  • Red-eyed Vireo (Red-eyed) –> Red-eyed Vireo
  • Red-eyed Vireo (resident Chivi) –> Chivi Vireo (resident)
  • Red-eyed Vireo (migratory Chivi) –> Chivi Vireo (migratory)
  • Red-eyed Vireo –> Red-eyed/Chivi Vireo
  • Pygmy Drongo-Fantail –> Drongo Fantail
  • Rusty-bellied Fantail (Sulawesi) –> Sulawesi Fantail
  • Rusty-bellied Fantail (Taliabu) –> Taliabu Fantail
  • Madagascar Paradise-Flycatcher (Comoro) –> Madagascar Paradise-Flycatcher (Comoros)
  • Fantailed Monarch –> Fan-tailed Monarch
  • Kolombangra Monarch –> Kolombangara Monarch
  • Gray Jay –> Canada Jay
  • Gray Jay (Northern) –> Canada Jay (Northern)
  • Gray Jay (Rocky Mts.) –> Canada Jay (Rocky Mts.)
  • Gray Jay (Pacific) –> Canada Jay (Pacific)
  • Eurasian Magpie (North African) –> Maghreb Magpie
  • Eurasian Magpie (Arabian) –> Asir Magpie
  • Eurasian Magpie (Black-rumped) –> Black-rumped Magpie
  • Vogelkop Superb Bird-of-Paradise –> Vogelkop Lophorina
  • Greater Superb Bird-of-Paradise –> Greater Lophorina
  • Lesser Superb Bird-of-Paradise –> Lesser Lophorina
  • Thekla/Crested Lark –> Thekla’s/Crested Lark
  • Thekla/Crested/Maghreb Lark –> Thekla’s/Crested/Maghreb Lark
  • Greater Striped-Swallow –> Greater Striped Swallow
  • Lesser Striped-Swallow –> Lesser Striped Swallow
  • Yellow Tit –> Taiwan Yellow Tit
  • Black-lored Tit –> Himalayan Black-lored Tit
  • Indian Tit –> Indian Yellow Tit
  • Long-tailed Tit (europaeus) –> Long-tailed Tit (europaeus Group)
  • Long-tailed Tit (alpinus) –> Long-tailed Tit (alpinus Group)
  • Rock/Persian Nuthatch –> Western Rock/Eastern Rock Nuthatch
  • African Spotted-Creeper –> African Spotted Creeper
  • Indian Spotted-Creeper –> Indian Spotted Creeper
  • Long-billed Gnatwren (rufiventris) –> Long-billed Gnatwren (rufiventris Group)
  • Pycnonotus sp. –> Brachypodius/Rubigula/Pycnonotus sp.
  • Canary Islands Kinglet –> Goldcrest (Tenerife)
  • Firecrest (Madeira) –> Madeira Firecrest
  • Firecrest (European) –> Common Firecrest
  • Goldcrest/Firecrest –> Goldcrest/Common Firecrest
  • tesia sp. –> Tesia sp. (genus Tesia)
  • Dusky/Radde’s Warbler –> Radde’s/Dusky Warbler
  • Dusky/Yellow-streaked/Radde’s Warbler –> Radde’s/Yellow-streaked/Dusky Warbler
  • Martens’s/Bianchi’s Warbler –> Bianchi’s/Martens’s Warbler
  • Plain-tailed Warbler –> Alström’s Warbler
  • Seicercus sp. (Golden-spectacled Warbler complex) –> Phylloscopus sp. (Golden-spectacled Warbler complex)
  • Arctic/Japanese Leaf Warbler –> Japanese Leaf/Arctic Warbler
  • Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler –> Japanese Leaf/Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf Warbler
  • Kolombangra Leaf Warbler –> Kolombangara Leaf Warbler
  • Javan Bush Warbler –> Javan Bush Warbler (Javan)
  • Timor Bush Warbler –> Javan Bush Warbler (Timor)
  • Roberts’s Prinia –> Roberts’s Warbler
  • Namaqua Prinia –> Namaqua Warbler
  • Ruwenzori Apalis –> Rwenzori Apalis
  • Red-fronted Warbler –> Red-fronted Prinia
  • Red-fronted Warbler (Red-fronted) –> Red-fronted Prinia (Red-fronted)
  • Red-fronted Warbler (Rufous-backed) –> Red-fronted Prinia (Rufous-backed)
  • African Hill Babbler (Ruwenzori) –> African Hill Babbler (Rwenzori)
  • Banded Warbler –> Banded Parisoma
  • Brown Warbler –> Brown Parisoma
  • Brown Warbler (Brown) –> Brown Parisoma (Brown)
  • Brown Warbler (Gray-vented) –> Brown Parisoma (Gray-vented)
  • White-breasted White-eye –> Abyssinian White-eye
  • White-breasted White-eye (Abyssinian) –> Abyssinian White-eye (Abyssinian)
  • White-breasted White-eye (Kenya) –> Abyssinian White-eye (Kenya)
  • Meratus White-eye (undescribed Meratus form) –> Meratus White-eye (undescribed form)
  • Cream-throated White-eye (Helmahera) –> Cream-throated White-eye (Halmahera)
  • Kolombangra White-eye –> Kolombangara White-eye
  • babbler sp. –> Timaliidae sp.
  • Sukatschev’s Laughingthrush –> Snowy-cheeked Laughingthrush
  • Nilgiri Blue Robin –> Nilgiri Sholakili
  • White-bellied Blue Robin –> White-bellied Sholakili
  • Black-throated Blue Robin –> Blackthroat
  • Korean Flycatcher –> Yellow-rumped Flycatcher
  • Black-and-rufous Flycatcher –> Black-and-orange Flycatcher
  • Spotted Ground-Thrush (Congo) –> Spotted Ground-Thrush (Upemba)
  • Oberlaender’s Ground-Thrush –> Oberländer’s Ground-Thrush
  • American Robin/Varied Thrush –> Varied Thrush/American Robin
  • Slaty Thrush (Eastern) –> Eastern Slaty Thrush
  • Chiguanco Thrush (chiguanco) –> Chiguanco Thrush (chiguanco/conradi)
  • Slaty Thrush (Andean) –> Andean Slaty Thrush
  • Island Thrush (Taiwan) –> Taiwan Thrush
  • Island Thrush (Kolombangra) –> Island Thrush (Kolombangara)
  • Kenya Violet-backed Sunbird –> Eastern Violet-backed Sunbird
  • Seimund’s Sunbird –> Little Green Sunbird
  • White/White-browed Wagtail –> White-browed/White Wagtail
  • American Pipit (rubescens/pacificus) –> American Pipit (rubescens Group)
  • Yellowish Pipit (Yellowish) –> Yellowish Pipit
  • Yellowish Pipit (Peruvian) –> Peruvian Pipit
  • Common Redpoll (rostrata) –> Common Redpoll (rostrata/islandica)
  • Gray-hooded/Ortolan Bunting –> Gray-necked/Ortolan Bunting
  • American Tree Sparrow/Spizella sp. –> Spizella sp./American Tree Sparrow
  • Masked Yellowthroat (Chiriqui) –> Olive-crowned Yellowthroat (Chiriqui)
  • Tropical Parula (South Mexico and Guatemala) –> Tropical Parula (Middle American)
  • Three-striped Warbler (San Lucas) (undescribed form) –> Three-striped Warbler (San Lucas)
  • Blue-black Grosbeak (Blue-black) –> Blue-black Grosbeak
  • Blue-black Grosbeak (Amazonian) –> Amazonian Grosbeak
  • Passerini’s/Cherrie’s Tanager –> Scarlet-rumped Tanager
  • Passerini’s Tanager –> Scarlet-rumped Tanager (Passerini’s)
  • Cherrie’s Tanager –> Scarlet-rumped Tanager (Cherrie’s)
  • Cherrie’s x Crimson-backed Tanager (hybrid) –> Scarlet-rumped x Crimson-backed Tanager (hybrid)
  • Golden Tanager (Venezuelan) –> Golden Tanager (arthus)
  • Tit-like Dacnis (petersi Group) –> Tit-like Dacnis (petersi/bella)
  • Nightingale Finch –> Inaccessible Island Finch
  • Nightingale Finch (Inaccessible I.) –> Inaccessible Island Finch (Lowland)
  • Wilkins’s Finch (Inaccessible I.) –> Inaccessible Island Finch (Dunn’s)
  • Nightingale Finch (Nightingale I.) –> Nightingale Island Finch
  • Wilkins’s Finch (Nightingale I.) –> Wilkins’s Finch
  • Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch (Black-and-chestnut) –> Black-and-chestnut Warbling-Finch
  • Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch (Black-and-rufous) –> Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch
  • Saffron Finch (Pelzen’s) –> Saffron Finch (Pelzeln’s)
  • White-collared Seedeater (White-collared) –> Morelet’s Seedeater
  • White-collared Seedeater (Cinnamon-rumped) –> Cinnamon-rumped Seedeater
  • White-collared Seedeater –> Morelet’s/Cinnamon-rumped Seedeater
  • Española Cactus-Finch –> Española Ground-Finch
  • Rock Petronia –> Rock Sparrow
  • Social Weaver –> Sociable Weaver


See the Clements Checklist updates (to be posted soon here) for full discussion of the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, if a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia that is split into unique species on each continent, the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash). We display the primary English name as well, using the 2018 name (thus, the English name would match the revised Scientific Name in instances of a split).

  • Greater White-fronted Goose (Western) Anser albifrons gambelli/frontalis –> Anser albifrons gambelli/sponsa
  • Brant (Black) Branta bernicla nigricans/orientalis –> Branta bernicla nigricans
  • Knob-billed Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotos –> Sarkidiornis melanotos
  • Comb Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos sylvicola –> Sarkidiornis sylvicola
  • Radjah Shelduck Tadorna radjah –> Radjah radjah
  • Mallard Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos/conboschas –> Anas platyrhynchos
  • Mexican Duck Anas platyrhynchos diazi –> Anas diazi
  • Mallard x Mexican Duck (hybrid) Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos x diazi –> Anas platyrhynchos x diazi
  • Mallard/Mexican Duck Anas platyrhynchos –> Anas platyrhynchos/diazi
  • teal sp. Anas sp. (teal sp.) –> Anatidae sp. (teal sp.)
  • dabbling duck sp. Anatidae sp. (dabbling duck sp.) –> Anatidae sp. (dabbling duck sp.)
  • Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca fusca –> Melanitta fusca
  • White-winged Scoter (Siberian) Melanitta fusca stejnegeri –> Melanitta deglandi stejnegeri
  • White-winged Scoter (North American) Melanitta fusca deglandi –> Melanitta deglandi deglandi
  • Surf x White-winged Scoter (hybrid) Melanitta perspicillata x fusca –> Melanitta perspicillata x deglandi
  • Velvet/White-winged Scoter Melanitta fusca –> Melanitta fusca/deglandi
  • Andean Duck (ferruginea) Oxyura jamaicensis ferruginea –> Oxyura ferruginea ferruginea
  • Little Grebe (Tricolored) Tachybaptus ruficollis tricolor/vulcanorum –> Tachybaptus ruficollis [tricolor Group]
  • Sclater’s Crowned-Pigeon Goura scheepmakeri sclaterii –> Goura sclaterii
  • Scheepmaker’s Crowned-Pigeon Goura scheepmakeri scheepmakeri –> Goura scheepmakeri
  • White-bellied Bustard (Barrow’s) Eupodotis senegalensis barrowii –> Eupodotis senegalensis barrowii/mackenziei
  • Little Bronze-Cuckoo (Banda) Chrysococcyx minutillus rufomerus –> Chrysococcyx minutillus rufomerus/salvadorii
  • White-throated Wedgebill Schistes geoffroyi albogularis –> Schistes albogularis
  • Geoffroy’s Wedgebill Schistes geoffroyi geoffroyi/chapmani –> Schistes geoffroyi
  • Rufous-gaped Hillstar Urochroa bougueri bougueri –> Urochroa bougueri
  • White-tailed Hillstar Urochroa bougueri leucura –> Urochroa leucura
  • Dry-forest Sabrewing Campylopterus largipennis calcirupicola –> Campylopterus calcirupicola
  • African Crake Crecopsis egregia –> Crex egregia
  • Slaty-breasted Rail Gallirallus striatus –> Lewinia striata
  • Invisible Rail Habroptila wallacii –> Gallirallus wallacii
  • Chestnut Rail Eulabeornis castaneoventris –> Gallirallus castaneoventris
  • Woodford’s Rail Nesoclopeus woodfordi –> Gallirallus woodfordi
  • Woodford’s Rail (Bougainville) Nesoclopeus woodfordi tertius –> Gallirallus woodfordi tertius
  • Woodford’s Rail (Santa Isabel) Nesoclopeus woodfordi immaculatus –> Gallirallus woodfordi immaculatus
  • Woodford’s Rail (Guadalcanal) Nesoclopeus woodfordi woodfordi –> Gallirallus woodfordi woodfordi
  • Bar-winged Rail Nesoclopeus poecilopterus –> Gallirallus poecilopterus
  • Eurasian/Red-knobbed Coot Fulica cristata/atra –> Fulica atra/cristata
  • moorhen/coot/gallinule sp. Porphyrio/Gallinula/Fulica sp. –> Gallinula/Fulica/Porphyrio sp.
  • Porzana/Zapornia/Hapalocrex sp. Hapalocrex/Porzana/Zapornia sp. –> Porzana/Zapornia/Hapalocrex sp.
  • Common Tern (hirundo/tibetana) Sterna hirundo hirundo –> Sterna hirundo hirundo/tibetana
  • Yellow-nosed Albatross (Indian) Thalassarche chlororhynchos bassi –> Thalassarche chlororhynchos carteri
  • storm-petrel sp. (dark-rumped) Hydrobatidae sp. (dark-rumped) –> Oceanitidae/Hydrobatidae sp. (dark-rumped)
  • storm-petrel sp. (white-rumped) Hydrobatidae sp. (white-rumped) –> Oceanitidae/Hydrobatidae sp. (white-rumped)
  • storm-petrel sp. Hydrobatidae sp. –> Oceanitidae/Hydrobatidae sp.
  • Galapagos Shearwater (Dark-winged) Puffinus subalaris (dark-winged) –> Puffinus subalaris (Dark-winged)
  • Galapagos Shearwater (Light-winged) Puffinus subalaris (light-winged) –> Puffinus subalaris (Light-winged)
  • Brown Pelican (Southern) Pelecanus occidentalis [occidentalis Group] –> Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis/murphyi
  • Rufescent Screech-Owl (Colombian) Megascops colombianus –> Megascops ingens colombianus
  • Choco Screech-Owl Megascops guatemalae centralis –> Megascops centralis
  • Foothill Screech-Owl (Roraima) Megascops guatemalae roraimae –> Megascops roraimae roraimae
  • Foothill Screech-Owl (Foothill) Megascops guatemalae [napensis Group] –> Megascops roraimae [napensis Group]
  • Santa Marta Screech-Owl Megascops [undescribed form] –> Megascops gilesi
  • White-browed Owl Ninox superciliaris –> Athene superciliaris
  • Burrowing Owl (Western) Athene cunicularia hypugaea –> Athene cunicularia hypugaea/rostrata
  • Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird (White-chested) Pogoniulus makawai –> Pogoniulus bilineatus makawai
  • Northern Emerald-Toucanet (Blue-throated) Aulacorhynchus prasinus caeruleogularis/maxillaris –> Aulacorhynchus prasinus caeruleogularis
  • Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Black-throated) Aulacorhynchus albivitta [atrogularis Group] –> Aulacorhynchus albivitta atrogularis/dimidiatus
  • African Piculet Sasia africana –> Verreauxia africana
  • Sulawesi Woodpecker Dendrocopos temminckii –> Yungipicus temminckii
  • Philippine Woodpecker Dendrocopos maculatus –> Yungipicus maculatus
  • Sulu Woodpecker Dendrocopos ramsayi –> Yungipicus ramsayi
  • Brown-capped Woodpecker Dendrocopos nanus –> Yungipicus nanus
  • Sunda Woodpecker Dendrocopos moluccensis –> Yungipicus moluccensis
  • Gray-capped Woodpecker Dendrocopos canicapillus –> Yungipicus canicapillus
  • Brown-capped/Gray-capped Woodpecker Dendrocopos nanus/canicapillus –> Yungipicus nanus/canicapillus
  • Pygmy Woodpecker Dendrocopos kizuki –> Yungipicus kizuki
  • Yellow-crowned Woodpecker Dendrocopos mahrattensis –> Leiopicus mahrattensis
  • Middle Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos medius –> Dendrocoptes medius
  • Brown-fronted Woodpecker Dendrocopos auriceps –> Dendrocoptes auriceps
  • Arabian Woodpecker Dendrocopos dorae –> Dendrocoptes dorae
  • Abyssinian Woodpecker Dendropicos abyssinicus –> Chloropicus abyssinicus
  • Melancholy Woodpecker Dendropicos lugubris –> Chloropicus lugubris
  • Gabon Woodpecker Dendropicos gabonensis –> Chloropicus gabonensis
  • Elliot’s Woodpecker Dendropicos elliotii –> Chloropicus elliotii
  • Elliot’s Woodpecker (Elliot’s) Dendropicos elliotii elliotii –> Chloropicus elliotii elliotii
  • Elliot’s Woodpecker (Johnston’s) Dendropicos elliotii johnstoni –> Chloropicus elliotii johnstoni
  • Little Gray Woodpecker Dendropicos elachus –> Chloropicus elachus
  • Speckle-breasted Woodpecker Dendropicos poecilolaemus –> Chloropicus poecilolaemus
  • Cardinal Woodpecker Dendropicos fuscescens –> Chloropicus fuscescens
  • Bearded Woodpecker Dendropicos namaquus –> Chloropicus namaquus
  • Fire-bellied Woodpecker Dendropicos pyrrhogaster –> Chloropicus pyrrhogaster
  • Golden-crowned Woodpecker Dendropicos xantholophus –> Chloropicus xantholophus
  • Stierling’s Woodpecker Dendropicos stierlingi –> Chloropicus stierlingi
  • Brown-backed Woodpecker Dendropicos obsoletus –> Chloropicus obsoletus
  • African Gray Woodpecker Dendropicos goertae –> Chloropicus goertae
  • African Gray Woodpecker (Gray) Dendropicos goertae [goertae Group] –> Chloropicus goertae [goertae Group]
  • African Gray Woodpecker (Sahel) Dendropicos goertae koenigi –> Chloropicus goertae koenigi
  • Mountain Gray Woodpecker Dendropicos spodocephalus –> Chloropicus spodocephalus
  • Olive Woodpecker Dendropicos griseocephalus –> Chloropicus griseocephalus
  • Olive Woodpecker (Red-bellied) Dendropicos griseocephalus ruwenzori –> Chloropicus griseocephalus ruwenzori
  • Olive Woodpecker (Montane) Dendropicos griseocephalus kilimensis –> Chloropicus griseocephalus kilimensis
  • Olive Woodpecker (Southern) Dendropicos griseocephalus griseocephalus –> Chloropicus griseocephalus griseocephalus
  • Okinawa Woodpecker Sapheopipo noguchii –> Dendrocopos noguchii
  • Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos minor –> Dryobates minor
  • Crimson-breasted Woodpecker Dendrocopos cathpharius –> Dryobates cathpharius
  • Crimson-breasted Woodpecker (Scarlet-breasted) Dendrocopos cathpharius [cathpharius Group] –> Dryobates cathpharius [cathpharius Group]
  • Crimson-breasted Woodpecker (Crimson-breasted) Dendrocopos cathpharius [pernyii Group] –> Dryobates cathpharius [pernyii Group]
  • Darjeeling/Crimson-breasted Woodpecker Dendrocopos cathpharius/darjellensis –> Dryobates darjellensis/cathpharius
  • Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens –> Dryobates pubescens
  • Downy Woodpecker (Eastern) Picoides pubescens pubescens/medianus –> Dryobates pubescens pubescens/medianus
  • Downy Woodpecker (Rocky Mts.) Picoides pubescens leucurus/glacialis –> Dryobates pubescens leucurus/glacialis
  • Downy Woodpecker (Pacific) Picoides pubescens gairdnerii/turati –> Dryobates pubescens gairdnerii/turati
  • Nuttall’s Woodpecker Picoides nuttallii –> Dryobates nuttallii
  • Downy x Nuttall’s Woodpecker (hybrid) Picoides nuttallii x pubescens –> Dryobates pubescens x nuttallii
  • Ladder-backed Woodpecker Picoides scalaris –> Dryobates scalaris
  • Downy x Ladder-backed Woodpecker (hybrid) Picoides scalaris x pubescens –> Dryobates pubescens x scalaris
  • Nuttall’s x Ladder-backed Woodpecker (hybrid) Picoides scalaris x nuttallii –> Dryobates nuttallii x scalaris
  • Nuttall’s/Ladder-backed Woodpecker Picoides scalaris/nuttallii –> Dryobates nuttallii/scalaris
  • Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis –> Dryobates borealis
  • Hairy Woodpecker Picoides villosus –> Dryobates villosus
  • Hairy Woodpecker (Eastern) Picoides villosus [villosus Group] –> Dryobates villosus [villosus Group]
  • Hairy Woodpecker (Pacific) Picoides villosus [harrisi Group] –> Dryobates villosus [harrisi Group]
  • Hairy Woodpecker (Rocky Mts.) Picoides villosus orius/icastus –> Dryobates villosus orius/icastus
  • Hairy Woodpecker (South Mexican) Picoides villosus jardinii/sanctorum –> Dryobates villosus jardinii/sanctorum
  • Hairy Woodpecker (Costa Rican) Picoides villosus extimus –> Dryobates villosus extimus
  • Downy x Hairy Woodpecker (hybrid) Picoides pubescens x villosus –> Dryobates pubescens x villosus
  • Downy/Hairy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens/villosus –> Dryobates pubescens/villosus
  • Nuttall’s x Hairy Woodpecker (hybrid) Picoides nuttallii x villosus –> Dryobates nuttallii x villosus
  • Ladder-backed x Hairy Woodpecker (hybrid) Picoides scalaris x villosus –> Dryobates scalaris x villosus
  • White-headed Woodpecker Picoides albolarvatus –> Dryobates albolarvatus
  • Smoky-brown Woodpecker Picoides fumigatus –> Dryobates fumigatus
  • Strickland’s Woodpecker Picoides stricklandi –> Dryobates stricklandi
  • Arizona Woodpecker Picoides arizonae –> Dryobates arizonae
  • Red-rumped Woodpecker Veniliornis kirkii –> Dryobates kirkii
  • Golden-collared Woodpecker Veniliornis cassini –> Dryobates cassini
  • White-spotted Woodpecker Veniliornis spilogaster –> Dryobates spilogaster
  • Checkered Woodpecker Veniliornis mixtus –> Dryobates mixtus
  • Striped Woodpecker Veniliornis lignarius –> Dryobates lignarius
  • Blood-colored Woodpecker Veniliornis sanguineus –> Dryobates sanguineus
  • Little Woodpecker Veniliornis passerinus –> Dryobates passerinus
  • Dot-fronted Woodpecker Veniliornis frontalis –> Dryobates frontalis
  • Scarlet-backed Woodpecker Veniliornis callonotus –> Dryobates callonotus
  • Yellow-vented Woodpecker Veniliornis dignus –> Dryobates dignus
  • Bar-bellied Woodpecker Veniliornis nigriceps –> Dryobates nigriceps
  • Red-stained Woodpecker Veniliornis affinis –> Dryobates affinis
  • Little/Red-stained Woodpecker Veniliornis passerinus/affinis –> Dryobates passerinus/affinis
  • Choco Woodpecker Veniliornis chocoensis –> Dryobates chocoensis
  • Yellow-eared Woodpecker Veniliornis maculifrons –> Dryobates maculifrons
  • Greater/Common Flameback Dinopium javanense/Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus –> Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus/Dinopium javanense
  • Gray-headed x Eurasian Green Woodpecker (hybrid) Picus viridis x canus –> Picus canus x viridis
  • Banded Woodpecker Picus miniaceus –> Chrysophlegma miniaceum
  • Greater Yellownape Picus flavinucha –> Chrysophlegma flavinucha
  • Lesser/Greater Yellownape Picus chlorolophus/flavinucha –> Picus chlorolophus/Chrysophlegma flavinucha
  • Checker-throated Woodpecker Picus mentalis –> Chrysophlegma mentale
  • Checker-throated Woodpecker (Checker-throated) Picus mentalis humii –> Chrysophlegma mentale humii
  • Checker-throated Woodpecker (Javan) Picus mentalis mentalis –> Chrysophlegma mentale mentale
  • Campephilus sp./Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus/Campephilus sp. –> Campephilus sp./Dryocopus lineatus
  • Ochre-backed Woodpecker Celeus flavescens ochraceus –> Celeus ochraceus
  • Blond-crested Woodpecker Celeus flavescens flavescens/intercedens –> Celeus flavescens
  • Ochre-backed/Blond-crested Woodpecker Celeus flavescens –> Celeus ochraceus/flavescens
  • Greater Vasa Parrot Mascarinus vasa –> Coracopsis vasa
  • Lesser Vasa Parrot Mascarinus niger –> Coracopsis nigra
  • Greater/Lesser Vasa Parrot Mascarinus vasa/niger –> Coracopsis vasa/nigra
  • Seychelles Parrot Mascarinus barklyi –> Coracopsis barklyi
  • Greater Bluebonnet (Red-vented) Northiella haematogaster haematorrhous –> Northiella haematogaster haematorrhoa
  • Stephens Island Wren Xenicus lyalli –> Traversia lyall
  • Russet Antshrike (Andean) Thamnistes anabatinus [aequatorialis Group] –> Thamnistes anabatinus aequatorialis/gularis
  • White-lined Antbird Percnostola lophotes –> Myrmoborus lophotes
  • Cordillera Azul Antbird Myrmoderus [undescribed form] –> Myrmoderus eowilsoni
  • White-throated Antbird Gymnopithys salvini –> Oneillornis salvini
  • Lunulated Antbird Gymnopithys lunulatus –> Oneillornis lunulatus
  • Thrush-like Antpitta Myrmothera campanisona –> Myrmothera campanisona
  • Tapajos Antpitta Myrmothera campanisona subcanescens –> Myrmothera subcanescens
  • Leymebamba Antpitta Grallaricula ferrugineipectus leymebambae –> Grallaricula leymebambae
  • Chiriqui Foliage-gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus exsertus –> Automolus exsertus
  • Line-cheeked Spinetail (Line-cheeked) Cranioleuca antisiensis –> Cranioleuca antisiensis antisiensis/palamblae
  • Line-cheeked Spinetail (Baron’s) Cranioleuca baroni –> Cranioleuca antisiensis [baroni Group]
  • Guatemalan Tyrannulet Zimmerius vilissimus vilissimus –> Zimmerius vilissimus
  • Mistletoe Tyrannulet Zimmerius vilissimus parvus –> Zimmerius parvus
  • Spectacled Tyrannulet Zimmerius vilissimus improbus/tamae –> Zimmerius improbus
  • Peruvian Tyrannulet (Loja) Zimmerius chrysops flavidifrons –> Zimmerius viridiflavus flavidifrons
  • Venezuelan Tyrannulet Zimmerius vilissimus petersi –> Zimmerius petersi
  • Dusky-capped Flycatcher (lawrenceii Group) Myiarchus tuberculifer lawrenceii –> Myiarchus tuberculifer [lawrenceii Group]
  • Striolated Manakin (Striolated) Machaeropterus regulus [striolatus Group] –> Machaeropterus striolatus [striolatus Group]
  • Striolated Manakin (aureopectus) Machaeropterus regulus aureopectus –> Machaeropterus striolatus aureopectus
  • Painted Manakin Machaeropterus [undescribed form] –> Machaeropterus eckelberryi
  • Kinglet Manakin Machaeropterus regulus regulus –> Machaeropterus regulus
  • Purple-backed Fairywren Malurus lamberti –> Malurus assimilis
  • Purple-backed Fairywren (Lavender-flanked) Malurus lamberti dulcis/rogersi –> Malurus assimilis dulcis/rogersi
  • Purple-backed Fairywren (Purple-backed) Malurus lamberti assimilis –> Malurus assimilis assimilis/bernieri
  • Rote Myzomela Myzomela [undescribed Rote form] –> Myzomela irianawidodoae
  • Black-headed Batis (Eastern) Batis minor minor/suahelicus –> Batis minor minor/suahelica
  • Albertine Boubou Laniarius poensis holomelas –> Laniarius holomelas
  • Black-faced Woodswallow (White-vented) Artamus cinereus normani/dealbatus –> Artamus cinereus normani/inkermani
  • Rusty Pitohui Colluricincla ferruginea –> Pseudorectes ferrugineus
  • White-bellied Pitohui Colluricincla incerta –> Pseudorectes incertus
  • Temotu Whistler Pachycephala utupuae –> Pachycephala vanikorensis
  • Great Gray Shrike (Steppe) Lanius meridionalis pallidirostris –> Lanius excubitor pallidirostris
  • Northern/Great Gray Shrike Lanius excubitor/borealis –> Lanius borealis/excubitor
  • Iberian Gray/Great Gray Shrike Lanius excubitor/meridionalis –> Lanius meridionalis/excubitor
  • greenlet sp. Hylophilus/Tunchiornis/Pachyslvia sp. –> Hylophilus/Tunchiornis/Pachysylvia sp.
  • Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus olivaceus –> Vireo olivaceus
  • Chivi Vireo (resident) Vireo olivaceus [agilis Group] –> Vireo chivi [agilis Group]
  • Chivi Vireo (migratory) Vireo olivaceus chivi/diversus –> Vireo chivi chivi/diversus
  • Red-eyed/Chivi Vireo Vireo olivaceus –> Vireo olivaceus/chivi
  • Variable Pitohui (Raja Ampat) Pitohui kirhocephalus cervineiventris/pallidus –> Pitohui kirhocephalus cerviniventris/pallidus
  • Crow-billed Drongo Dicrurus annectans –> Dicrurus annectens
  • Sulawesi Fantail Rhipidura teysmanni teysmanni/toradja –> Rhipidura teysmanni
  • Taliabu Fantail Rhipidura teysmanni sulaensis –> Rhipidura sulaensis
  • Peleng Fantail (undescribed form) Rhipidura (undescribed form) –> Rhipidura [undescribed form]
  • Madagascar Paradise-Flycatcher (Grand Comoro) Terpsiphone mutata comoroensis –> Terpsiphone mutata comorensis
  • Maghreb Magpie Pica pica mauritanica –> Pica mauritanica
  • Asir Magpie Pica pica asirensis –> Pica asirensis
  • Black-rumped Magpie Pica pica bottanensis –> Pica bottanensis
  • Greater/Asian/Lesser Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla/Alaudala cheleensis/Alaudala rufescens –> Calandrella brachydactyla/Alaudala cheleensis/rufescens
  • Yellow-bellied Fairy-Fantail Chelidorhynx hypoxantha –> Chelidorhynx hypoxanthus
  • Indian Spotted Creeper Salpornis spilonotus –> Salpornis spilonota
  • Rufous-throated Dipper Cinclus schulzi –> Cinclus schulzii
  • Black-and-white Bulbul Pycnonotus melanoleucos –> Brachypodius melanoleucos
  • Puff-backed Bulbul Pycnonotus eutilotus –> Brachypodius eutilotus
  • Yellow-wattled Bulbul Pycnonotus urostictus –> Brachypodius urostictus
  • Gray-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus priocephalus –> Brachypodius priocephalus
  • Black-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus atriceps –> Brachypodius atriceps
  • Andaman Bulbul Pycnonotus fuscoflavescens –> Brachypodius fuscoflavescens
  • Spectacled Bulbul Pycnonotus erythropthalmos –> Rubigula erythropthalmos
  • Gray-bellied Bulbul Pycnonotus cyaniventris –> Rubigula cyaniventris
  • Scaly-breasted Bulbul Pycnonotus squamatus –> Rubigula squamata
  • Black-crested Bulbul Pycnonotus flaviventris –> Rubigula flaviventris
  • Flame-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus gularis –> Rubigula gularis
  • Black-capped Bulbul Pycnonotus melanicterus –> Rubigula melanicterus
  • Ruby-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus dispar –> Rubigula dispar
  • Bornean Bulbul Pycnonotus montis –> Rubigula montis
  • Bare-faced Bulbul Pycnonotus hualon –> Nok hualon
  • Brachypodius/Rubigula/Pycnonotus sp. Pycnonotus sp. –> Brachypodius/Rubigula/Pycnonotus sp.
  • Nicobar Bulbul Hypsipetes virescens –> Hypsipetes nicobariensis
  • Goldcrest (Tenerife) Regulus teneriffae –> Regulus regulus teneriffae
  • Madeira Firecrest Regulus ignicapilla madeirensis –> Regulus madeirensis
  • Common Firecrest Regulus ignicapilla ignicapilla/balearicus –> Regulus ignicapilla
  • Radde’s/Dusky Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus/schwarzi –> Phylloscopus schwarzi/fuscatus
  • Radde’s/Yellow-streaked/Dusky Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus/armandii/schwarzi –> Phylloscopus schwarzi/armandii/fuscatus
  • White-spectacled Warbler Seicercus affinis –> Phylloscopus intermedius
  • Gray-cheeked Warbler Seicercus poliogenys –> Phylloscopus poliogenys
  • Golden-spectacled Warbler Seicercus burkii –> Phylloscopus burkii
  • Gray-crowned Warbler Seicercus tephrocephalus –> Phylloscopus tephrocephalus
  • Whistler’s Warbler Seicercus whistleri –> Phylloscopus whistleri
  • Golden-spectacled/Whistler’s Warbler Seicercus burkii/whistleri –> Phylloscopus burkii/whistleri
  • Gray-crowned/Whistler’s Warbler Seicercus tephrocephalus/whistleri –> Phylloscopus tephrocephalus/whistleri
  • Bianchi’s Warbler Seicercus valentini –> Phylloscopus valentini
  • Gray-crowned/Bianchi’s Warbler Seicercus tephrocephalus/valentini –> Phylloscopus tephrocephalus/valentini
  • Martens’s Warbler Seicercus omeiensis –> Phylloscopus omeiensis
  • Bianchi’s/Martens’s Warbler Seicercus omeiensis/valentini –> Phylloscopus valentini/omeiensis
  • Alström’s Warbler Seicercus soror –> Phylloscopus soror
  • Phylloscopus sp. (Golden-spectacled Warbler complex) Seicercus sp. (burkii complex) –> Phylloscopus sp. (burkii complex)
  • Japanese Leaf/Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis/xanthodryas –> Phylloscopus xanthodryas/borealis
  • Japanese Leaf/Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus borealis/examinandus/xanthodryas –> Phylloscopus xanthodryas/borealis/examinandus
  • Chestnut-crowned Warbler Seicercus castaniceps –> Phylloscopus castaniceps
  • Yellow-breasted Warbler Seicercus montis –> Phylloscopus montis
  • Sunda Warbler Seicercus grammiceps –> Phylloscopus grammiceps
  • Sunda Warbler (Sumatran) Seicercus grammiceps sumatrensis –> Phylloscopus grammiceps sumatrensis
  • Sunda Warbler (Javan) Seicercus grammiceps grammiceps –> Phylloscopus grammiceps grammiceps
  • Davison’s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus davisoni –> Phylloscopus intensior
  • Timor Leaf Warbler (Flores) Phylloscopus presbytes floris –> Phylloscopus presbytes floresianus
  • Rote Leaf Warbler (undescribed form) Phylloscopus (undescribed Rote form) –> Phylloscopus [undescribed Rote form]
  • Thick-billed Warbler Iduna aedon –> Arundinax aedon
  • Javan Bush Warbler (Javan) Locustella montis –> Locustella montis montis
  • Javan Bush Warbler (Timor) Locustella timorensis –> Locustella montis timorensis
  • Roberts’s Warbler Prinia robertsi –> Oreophilais robertsi
  • Namaqua Warbler Prinia substriata –> Phragmacia substriata
  • Black-collared Apalis Apalis pulchra –> Oreolais pulchra
  • Rwenzori Apalis Apalis ruwenzorii –> Oreolais ruwenzorii
  • Red-fronted Prinia Urorhipis rufifrons –> Prinia rufifrons
  • Red-fronted Prinia (Red-fronted) Urorhipis rufifrons rufifrons/smithi –> Prinia rufifrons rufifrons/smithi
  • Red-fronted Prinia (Rufous-backed) Urorhipis rufifrons rufidorsalis –> Prinia rufifrons rufidorsalis
  • Cape White-eye Zosterops capensis –> Zosterops virens
  • Cape White-eye (Cape) Zosterops capensis [capensis Group] –> Zosterops virens [capensis Group]
  • Cape White-eye (Green) Zosterops capensis virens –> Zosterops virens virens
  • Meratus White-eye (undescribed Meratus form) Zosterops [undescribed form] –> Zosterops [undescribed Meratus form]
  • Rufous-vented Prinia Prinia burnesii –> Laticilla burnesii
  • Swamp Prinia Prinia cinerascens –> Laticilla cinerascens
  • Ashambu Laughingthrush Montecincla meridionale –> Montecincla meridionalis
  • White-bellied Blue Flycatcher Cyornis pallipes –> Cyornis pallidipes
  • Brown-chested Alethe Pseudalethe poliocephala –> Chamaetylas poliocephala
  • Brown-chested Alethe (Gray-headed) Pseudalethe poliocephala poliocephala –> Chamaetylas poliocephala poliocephala
  • Brown-chested Alethe (Gabela) Pseudalethe poliocephala hallae –> Chamaetylas poliocephala hallae
  • Brown-chested Alethe (Chestnut-backed) Pseudalethe poliocephala compsonota –> Chamaetylas poliocephala compsonota
  • Brown-chested Alethe (Brown-chested) Pseudalethe poliocephala [carruthersi Group] –> Chamaetylas poliocephala [carruthersi Group]
  • Red-throated Alethe Pseudalethe poliophrys –> Chamaetylas poliophrys
  • Cholo Alethe Pseudalethe choloensis –> Chamaetylas choloensis
  • White-chested Alethe Pseudalethe fuelleborni –> Chamaetylas fuelleborni
  • Blue-capped Rock-Thrush Monticola cinclorhynchus –> Monticola cinclorhyncha
  • Finsch’s Flycatcher-Thrush Neocossyphus finschii –> Neocossyphus finschi
  • Chinese Thrush Turdus mupinensis –> Otocichla mupinensis
  • Varied Thrush/American Robin Turdus migratorius/Ixoreus naevius –> Ixoreus naevius/Turdus migratorius
  • Eastern Slaty Thrush Turdus nigriceps subalaris –> Turdus subalaris
  • Tristan Thrush Nesocichla eremita –> Turdus eremita
  • Andean Slaty Thrush Turdus nigriceps nigriceps –> Turdus nigriceps
  • Taiwan Thrush Turdus poliocephalus niveiceps –> Turdus niveiceps
  • Spot-winged Starling Saroglossa spiloptera –> Saroglossa spilopterus
  • Sao Tome Short-tail Amaurocichla bocagii –> Motacilla bocagii
  • White-browed/White Wagtail Motacilla alba/maderaspatensis –> Motacilla maderaspatensis/alba
  • American Pipit (rubescens Group) Anthus rubescens rubescens/pacificus –> Anthus rubescens [rubescens Group]
  • Yellowish Pipit Anthus lutescens lutescens/parvus –> Anthus lutescens
  • Peruvian Pipit Anthus lutescens peruvianus –> Anthus peruvianus
  • European/Fire-fronted/Syrian Serin Serinus pusillus/serinus/syriacus –> Serinus serinus/pusillus/syriacus
  • Crested Bunting Melophus lathami –> Emberiza lathami
  • Slaty Bunting Latoucheornis siemsseni –> Emberiza siemsseni
  • Spizella sp./American Tree Sparrow Spizelloides/Spizella sp. –> Spizella/Spizelloides sp.
  • LeConte’s Sparrow Ammodramus leconteii –> Ammospiza leconteii
  • Seaside Sparrow Ammodramus maritimus –> Ammospiza maritima
  • Seaside Sparrow (Atlantic) Ammodramus maritimus maritimus/macgillivraii –> Ammospiza maritima maritima/macgillivraii
  • Seaside Sparrow (Dusky) Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens –> Ammospiza maritima nigrescens
  • Seaside Sparrow (Gulf of Mexico) Ammodramus maritimus [sennetti Group] –> Ammospiza maritima [sennetti Group]
  • Seaside Sparrow (Cape Sable) Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis –> Ammospiza maritima mirabilis
  • Nelson’s Sparrow Ammodramus nelsoni –> Ammospiza nelsoni
  • Nelson’s Sparrow (Interior) Ammodramus nelsoni nelsoni/alter –> Ammospiza nelsoni nelsoni/altera
  • Nelson’s Sparrow (Atlantic Coast) Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus –> Ammospiza nelsoni subvirgata
  • Saltmarsh Sparrow Ammodramus caudacutus –> Ammospiza caudacuta
  • Nelson’s x Saltmarsh Sparrow (hybrid) Ammodramus nelsoni x caudacutus –> Ammospiza nelsoni x caudacuta
  • Nelson’s/Saltmarsh Sparrow (Sharp-tailed Sparrow) Ammodramus nelsoni/caudacutus –> Ammospiza nelsoni/caudacuta
  • Baird’s Sparrow Ammodramus bairdii –> Centronyx bairdii
  • Henslow’s Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii –> Centronyx henslowii
  • Red-breasted Meadowlark Sturnella militaris –> Leistes militaris
  • White-browed Meadowlark Sturnella superciliaris –> Leistes superciliaris
  • Peruvian Meadowlark Sturnella bellicosa –> Leistes bellicosus
  • Pampas Meadowlark Sturnella defilippii –> Leistes defilippii
  • Long-tailed Meadowlark Sturnella loyca –> Leistes loyca
  • Olive-crowned Yellowthroat (Chiriqui) Geothlypis aequinoctialis chiriquensis –> Geothlypis semiflava chiriquensis
  • Blue-black Grosbeak Cyanoloxia cyanoides [cyanoides Group] –> Cyanoloxia cyanoides
  • Amazonian Grosbeak Cyanoloxia cyanoides rothschildii –> Cyanoloxia rothschildii
  • Scarlet-rumped Tanager Ramphocelus passerinii/costaricensis –> Ramphocelus passerinii
  • Scarlet-rumped Tanager (Passerini’s) Ramphocelus passerinii –> Ramphocelus passerinii passerinii
  • Scarlet-rumped Tanager (Cherrie’s) Ramphocelus costaricensis –> Ramphocelus passerinii costaricensis
  • Scarlet-rumped x Crimson-backed Tanager (hybrid) Ramphocelus costaricensis x dimidiatus –> Ramphocelus passerinii x dimidiatus
  • Inaccessible Island Finch (Dunn’s) Nesospiza wilkinsi dunnei –> Nesospiza acunhae dunnei
  • Nightingale Island Finch Nesospiza acunhae questi –> Nesospiza questi
  • Wilkins’s Finch Nesospiza wilkinsi wilkinsi –> Nesospiza wilkinsi
  • Black-and-chestnut Warbling-Finch Poospiza nigrorufa whitii/wagneri –> Poospiza whitii
  • Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch Poospiza nigrorufa nigrorufa –> Poospiza nigrorufa
  • Morelet’s Seedeater Sporophila torqueola [morelleti Group] –> Sporophila morelleti
  • Cinnamon-rumped Seedeater Sporophila torqueola torqueola –> Sporophila torqueola
  • Morelet’s/Cinnamon-rumped Seedeater Sporophila torqueola –> Sporophila morelleti/torqueola
  • Puerto Rican Bullfinch Loxigilla portoricensis –> Melopyrrha portoricensis
  • Greater Antillean Bullfinch Loxigilla violacea –> Melopyrrha violacea
  • Russet Sparrow Passer rutilans –> Passer cinnamomeus
  • Yellow-spotted Petronia Petronia pyrgita –> Gymnornis pyrgita
  • Chestnut-shouldered Petronia Petronia xanthocollis –> Gymnornis xanthocollis
  • Yellow-throated Petronia Petronia superciliaris –> Gymnornis superciliaris
  • Bush Petronia Petronia dentata –> Gymnornis dentata


One particular split will be of note to North America birders: the separation of Mexican Duck Anas diazi from the widespread Mallard Anas platyrhynchos. Keen watchers of avian taxonomy will note that the North American Classification Committee (AOS-NACC) considered a proposal to split Mexican Duck this year and elected to retain this species as conspecific with Mallard.

In the past we have deferred to the AOS in almost all decisions regarding the species limits of North America species (our few departures are always listed here), but 100% concordance with AOS committees is impossible since the two AOS committees that deal with North America (AOS-NACC) and South America (AOS-SACC) are not always in sync with each other. For example, the four-way split of Paltry Tyrannulet Zimmerius vilissimus and three-way split of Vermiculated Screech-Owl Megascops guatemalae, which we adopt this year, have been accepted to date only by AOS-SACC and the split of Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus and Chivi Vireo Vireo chivi has been considered so far only by AOS-NACC.

While we rarely disagree on decisions that are in the purview of just one of the AOS committees, we strongly disagree with this year’s decision on the recognition of Mexican Duck, largely because we find it inconsistent to treat Mallard, Mottled Duck, Hawaiian Duck, and American Black Duck as separate species, while considering Mexican Duck to be a subspecies of Mallard (for more details, please see the proposal which addresses this point more thoroughly). All taxa show similar levels of hybridization where they come in contact and have similar differences in plumage, habitat, behavior, migratory patterns, and natural history. Available genetics support the hypothesis that Mexican Duck is at least as different from Mallard as its closest relatives (Mottled Duck and American Black Duck). Our treatment of Mexican Duck at the species level also matches the treatment by other major global taxonomies (IOC, Howard and Moore, Birdlife International, and the Handbook of the Birds of the World). We encourage birders to report this species with care, since hybrids are not uncommon, just as we encourage careful reporting of Mottled Duck and American Black Duck, given the widespread hybrids where those species come in contact with Mallard.

Two other members of Anatidae are also split into New World and Old World forms: White-winged Scoter Melanitta fusca is separated into Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca of the western Palearctic and White-winged Scoter Melanitta deglandi of North America and east Asia; this change will be nothing new for Europeans, who have generally considered these two separate species for a long time and it also represents the consensus view for global avian taxonomies. Comb Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos is split into the Old World Knob-billed Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos and the New World Comb Duck Sarkidiornis sylvicola. Both of the above splits have not recently been considered by the AOS committees but seem like strong candidates for a proposal to split.


The taxonomic sequence has changed fairly substantially this year. Fortunately, quick entry codes for data entry (and exploration) on the web and via eBird Mobile is very easy with quick entry. Please see this article to understand how to use easy to learn four-letter codes to enter data quickly (did you know that typing “37 hosp” in eBird mobile will quick add 37 House Sparrows to whatever total you have already entered? Learn how!).This change in the sequence was implemented by the AOS-NACC a couple years ago (see discussion on ABA blog) and is considered to represent the best current information on higher order relationships among birds. The existing Orders are arranged to the following sequence; the orders with an asterisk are the ones that have changed significantly. We don’t retain common names for order, but we have added them here to help understand how the list sequence is changing. Notably, Loons, Penguins, Tubenoses, Boobies and Gannets, Pelicans, and Herons, which used to be near the beginning of the list, have moved far down in sequence. Note also that Musophagiformes (Turacos) is a new Order.

      1. Struthioniformes (Ostriches)
      2. Rheiformes (Rheas)
      3. Tinamiformes (Tinamous)
      4. Casuariiformes (Casuaries and Emu)
      5. Apterygiformes (Kiwis)
      6. Anseriformes (Waterfowl)
      7. Galliformes (Pheasants, Quail and Allies)
      8. Phoenicopteriformes* (Flamingos)
      9. Podicipediformes (Grebes)
      10. Columbiformes* (Doves and Pigeons)
      11. Mesitornithiformes* (Mesites)
      12. Pterocliformes* (Sandgrouse)
      13. Otidiformes* (Bustards)
      14. Musophagiformes (Turacos) – NEWLY RECOGNIZED ORDER
      15. Cuculiformes* (Cuckoos)
      16. Caprimulgiformes* (Nightjars, Potoos, Swifts, and Hummingbirds)
      17. Opisthocomiformes* (Hoatzin)
      18. Gruiformes* (Cranes, Rails, and Allies)
      19. Charadriiformes* (Shorebirds, Gulls, Terns, Jaegers and Alcids)
      20. Eurypygiformes* (Sunbittern and Kagu)
      21. Phaethontiformes* (Tropicbirds)
      22. Gaviiformes* (Loons)
      23. Sphenisciformes* (Penguins)
      24. Procellariiformes* (Tubenoses, including Shearwaters, Petrels, Albatrosses, and Storm-Petrels)
      25. Ciconiiformes* (Storks)
      26. Suliformes* (Boobies and Gannets)
      27. Pelecaniformes* (Pelicans, Herons, Ibis, and Allies)
      28. Cathartiformes* (New World Vultures and Condors)
      29. Accipitriformes* (Hawks, Eagles, Old World Vultures and Allies)
      30. Strigiformes (Owls)
      31. Coliiformes (Mousebirds)
      32. Leptosomiformes (Cuckoo-roller)
      33. Trogoniformes (Trogons)
      34. Bucerotiformes (Hornbills, Wood-Hoopoes, and Hoopoes)
      35. Coraciiformes (Kingfishers, Motmots, Bee-eaters, Roller, and Allies)
      36. Galbuliformes (Puffbirds and Jacamars)
      37. Piciformes (Woodpeckers, Barbets, Honeyguides, Toucans, and Allies
      38. Cariamiformes (Seriemas)
      39. Falconiformes (Falcons and Caracaras)
      40. Psittaciformes (Parrots and Parakeets)
      41. Passeriformes (Passerines or Perching Birds)

Two new families are recognized. Hydrobatidae (Storm-Petrels) is split into two families: Hydrobatidae (Northern Storm-Petrels) and Oceanitidae (Southern Storm-Petrels) and we recognize the monotypic Platylophidae (Crested Shrikejay).

In addition, some families have changed sequence as well, particularly those near the end of the Passeriformes, after Olive Warbler. The ones that have changed their relative position are shown with an asterisk.

    1. Peucedramidae (Olive Warbler)
    2. Calcariidae (Longspurs and Snow Buntings)*
    3. Rhodinocichlidae (Thrush-Tanager)*
    4. Parulidae (New World Warblers)*
    5. Thraupidae (Tanagers and Allies)*
    6. Passerellidae (New World Sparrows)*
    7. Emberizidae (Old World Buntings)*
    8. Calyptophilidae (Chat-Tanagers)*
    9. Phaenicophilidae (Hispaniolan Tanagers)*
    10. Nesospingidae (Puerto Rican Tanager)*
    11. Spindalidae (Spindalises)*
    12. Zeledoniidae (Wrenthrush)*
    13. Teretistridae (Cuban Warblers)*
    14. Icteriidae (Yellow-breasted Chat)*
    15. Mitrospingidae (Mitrospingid Tanagers)*
    16. Cardinalidae (Cardinals and Allies)*
    17. Icteridae (Troupials and Allies)*
    18. Fringillidae (Finches, Euphonias, and Allies)*
    19. Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
    20. Ploceidae (Weavers and Allies)
    21. Estrildidae (Waxbills and Allies)
    22. Viduidae (Indigobirds)


New subspecies groups, some of which were mentioned above under “Splits” or other sections, are listed below.

  • Andean Duck (andina) Oxyura ferruginea andina
  • Speckled Chachalaca (Speckled) Ortalis guttata guttata/subaffinis
  • Speckled Chachalaca (Parana) Ortalis guttata remota
  • Sultan’s Cuckoo-Dove (Sulawesi) Macropygia doreya [albicapilla Group]
  • Sultan’s Cuckoo-Dove (Sultan’s) Macropygia doreya [doreya Group]
  • Thick-billed Pigeon (Thick-billed) Treron curvirostra curvirostra
  • Thick-billed Pigeon (Barusan) Treron curvirostra hypothapsinus
  • Little Bronze-Cuckoo (Pied) Chrysococcyx minutillus crassirostris
  • Cape Petrel (Antarctic) Daption capense capense
  • Cape Petrel (Snares) Daption capense australe
  • Lesser Frigatebird (Lesser) Fregata ariel ariel/iredaeli
  • Lesser Frigatebird (Trindade) Fregata ariel trinitatis
  • Brown Pelican (Galapagpos) Pelecanus occidentalis urinator
  • Shikra (African) Accipiter badius sphenurus/polyzonoides
  • Shikra (Asian) Accipiter badius [badius Group]
  • Roadside Hawk (Northern) Rupornis magnirostris [magnirostris Group]
  • Roadside Hawk (Southern) Rupornis magnirostris [pucherani Group]
  • Rajah Scops-Owl (Sumatran) Otus brookii solokensis
  • Rajah Scops-Owl (Bornean) Otus brookii brookii
  • Sulawesi Scops-Owl (Sulawesi) Otus manadensis manadensis
  • Sulawesi Scops-Owl (Banggai) Otus manadensis mendeni
  • Rufescent Screech-Owl (Rufescent) Megascops ingens ingens/venezuelanus
  • Collared Owlet (Collared) Glaucidium brodiei brodiei/pardalotum
  • Collared Owlet (Sunda) Glaucidium brodiei sylvaticum/borneense
  • Burrowing Owl (guadeloupensis Group) Athene cunicularia [guadeloupensis Group]
  • Burrowing Owl (Andean) Athene cunicularia [tolimae Group]
  • Burrowing Owl (Littoral) Athene cunicularia nanodes/juninensis
  • Burrowing Owl (grallaria) Athene cunicularia grallaria
  • Burrowing Owl (Southern) Athene cunicularia [cunicularia Group]
  • Brown Wood-Owl (Brown) Strix leptogrammica [indranee Group]
  • Brown Wood-Owl (Bornean) Strix leptogrammica [leptogrammica Group]
  • Black-throated Trogon (tenellus) Trogon rufus tenellus
  • Black-throated Trogon (cupreicauda) Trogon rufus cupreicauda
  • Black-throated Trogon (rufus Group) Trogon rufus [rufus Group]
  • Black-throated Trogon (chrysochloros) Trogon rufus chrysochloros
  • Orange-breasted Trogon (Spice) Harpactes oreskios [dulitensis Group]
  • Orange-breasted Trogon (Orange-breasted) Harpactes oreskios oreskios
  • Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird (Yellow-rumped) Pogoniulus bilineatus [bilineatus Group]
  • Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Black-billed) Aulacorhynchus albivitta cyanolaemus
  • Long-tailed Parakeet (Andaman) Psittacula longicauda tytleri
  • Long-tailed Parakeet (Nicobar) Psittacula longicauda nicobarica
  • Long-tailed Parakeet (Long-tailed) Psittacula longicauda longicauda/defontainei
  • Long-tailed Parakeet (Enganno) Psittacula longicauda modesta
  • Dot-winged Antwren (Boucard’s) Microrhopias quixensis [boucardi Group]
  • Dot-winged Antwren (microstictus) Microrhopias quixensis microstictus
  • Dot-winged Antwren (quixensis) Microrhopias quixensis quixensis
  • Dot-winged Antwren (nigriventris) Microrhopias quixensis nigriventris
  • Dot-winged Antwren (White-tailed) Microrhopias quixensis albicauda/intercedens
  • Dot-winged Antwren (bicolor) Microrhopias quixensis bicolor
  • Dot-winged Antwren (emiliae) Microrhopias quixensis emiliae
  • Streak-chested Antpitta (Colombian Valleys) Hylopezus perspicillatus pallidior
  • Streak-chested Antpitta (Baudo) Hylopezus perspicillatus periophthalmicus
  • Plain Softtail (dimorpha) Thripophaga fusciceps dimorpha
  • Plain Softtail (obidensis) Thripophaga fusciceps obidensis
  • Plain Softtail (fusciceps) Thripophaga fusciceps fusciceps
  • Peruvian Tyrannulet (Peruvian) Zimmerius viridiflavus viridiflavus
  • Snethlage’s Tody-Tyrant (Igapo) Hemitriccus minor pallens
  • Snethlage’s Tody-Tyrant (Snethlage’s) Hemitriccus minor minor/snethlageae
  • Cinnamon Flycatcher (Santa Marta) Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus assimilis
  • Cinnamon Flycatcher (Venezuelan) Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus [vieillotioides Group]
  • Cinnamon Flycatcher (Andean) Pyrrhomyias cinnamomeus cinnamomeus/pyrrhopterus
  • Dusky-capped Flycatcher (tuberculifer/pallidus) Myiarchus tuberculifer tuberculifer/pallidus
  • Dusky-capped Flycatcher (nigriceps/atriceps) Myiarchus tuberculifer nigriceps/atriceps
  • Swainson’s Flycatcher (phaeonotus) Myiarchus swainsoni phaeonotus
  • Swainson’s Flycatcher (swainsoni Group) Myiarchus swainsoni [swainsoni Group]
  • Blue-backed Manakin (pareola/atlantica) Chiroxiphia pareola pareola/atlantica
  • Blue-backed Manakin (napensis) Chiroxiphia pareola napensis
  • Blue-backed Manakin (regina) Chiroxiphia pareola regina
  • Little Shrikethrush (Waigeo) Colluricincla megarhyncha affinis
  • Little Shrikethrush (Mamberamo) Colluricincla megarhyncha [obscura Group]
  • Little Shrikethrush (Sepik-Ramu) Colluricincla megarhyncha [tappenbecki Group]
  • Little Shrikethrush (Variable) Colluricincla megarhyncha [fortis Group]
  • Little Shrikethrush (Tagula) Colluricincla megarhyncha discolor
  • Little Shrikethrush (Rufous) Colluricincla megarhyncha [rufogaster Group]
  • Great Gray Shrike (Great Gray) Lanius excubitor [excubitor Group]
  • Great Gray Shrike (Sahara) Lanius excubitor [elegans Group]
  • Great Gray Shrike (Arabian) Lanius excubitor aucheri/buryi
  • Great Gray Shrike (Socotra) Lanius excubitor uncinatus
  • Great Gray Shrike (Indian) Lanius excubitor lahtora
  • Black-naped Oriole (Philippine) Oriolus chinensis [chinensis Group]
  • Black-naped Oriole (Talaud) Oriolus chinensis melanisticus
  • Black-naped Oriole (Sulawesi) Oriolus chinensis [frontalis Group]
  • Black-naped Oriole (Tenggara) Oriolus chinensis broderipi/boneratensis
  • Square-tailed Drongo (Saturnine) Dicrurus ludwigii sharpei/saturnus
  • Square-tailed Drongo (Square-tailed) Dicrurus ludwigii [ludwigii Group]
  • Fork-tailed Drongo (Glossy-backed) Dicrurus adsimilis divaricatus
  • Fork-tailed Drongo (Clancey’s) Dicrurus adsimilis apivorus
  • Fork-tailed Drongo (adsimilis/fugax) Dicrurus adsimilis adsimilis/fugax
  • Velvet-mantled Drongo (Fanti) Dicrurus modestus atactus
  • Velvet-mantled Drongo (coracinus) Dicrurus modestus coracinus
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Hair-crested) Dicrurus hottentottus hottentottus/brevirostris
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Bornean) Dicrurus hottentottus borneensis
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Javan) Dicrurus hottentottus jentincki/faberi
  • Hair-crested Drongo (White-eyed) Dicrurus hottentottus leucops/banggaiensis
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Obi) Dicrurus hottentottus guillemardi
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Sula) Dicrurus hottentottus pectoralis
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Palawan) Dicrurus hottentottus palawanensis
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Cuyo) Dicrurus hottentottus cuyensis
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Sulu) Dicrurus hottentottus suluensis
  • Sumatran Drongo (Sumatran) Dicrurus sumatranus sumatranus
  • Sumatran Drongo (Mentawai) Dicrurus sumatranus viridinitens
  • Wallacean Drongo (Lombok) Dicrurus densus vicinus
  • Wallacean Drongo (Flores) Dicrurus densus bimaensis
  • Wallacean Drongo (Sumba) Dicrurus densus sumbae
  • Wallacean Drongo (Timor) Dicrurus densus densus
  • Wallacean Drongo (Tanimbar) Dicrurus densus kuehni
  • Wallacean Drongo (Kai) Dicrurus densus megalornis
  • Spangled Drongo (Morotai) Dicrurus bracteatus morotensis
  • Spangled Drongo (Halmahera) Dicrurus bracteatus atrocaeruleus
  • Spangled Drongo (Buru) Dicrurus bracteatus buruensis
  • Spangled Drongo (Seram) Dicrurus bracteatus amboinensis
  • Spangled Drongo (Papuan) Dicrurus bracteatus carbonarius
  • Spangled Drongo (Bismarck) Dicrurus bracteatus laemostictus
  • Spangled Drongo (Guadalcanal) Dicrurus bracteatus meeki
  • Spangled Drongo (Makira) Dicrurus bracteatus longirostris
  • Spangled Drongo (Spangled) Dicrurus bracteatus [bracteatus Group]
  • Hooded Crow (Hooded) Corvus cornix [cornix Group]
  • Hooded Crow (Mesopotamian) Corvus cornix capellanus
  • Sultan Tit (Yellow-crested) Melanochlora sultanea [sultanea Group]
  • Sultan Tit (Black-crested) Melanochlora sultanea gayeti
  • Japanese Tit (Japanese) Parus minor [minor Group]
  • Japanese Tit (commixtus) Parus minor commixtus
  • Japanese Tit (Amami) Parus minor amamiensis
  • Japanese Tit (Okinawa) Parus minor okinawae
  • Japanese Tit (Ishigaki) Parus minor nigriloris
  • Eurasian Nuthatch (Western) Sitta europaea [europaea Group]
  • Eurasian Nuthatch (White-bellied) Sitta europaea [asiatica Group]
  • Eurasian Nuthatch (Buff-bellied) Sitta europaea [roseilia Group]
  • Eurasian Nuthatch (Chinese) Sitta europaea sinensis/formasana
  • White-lored Gnatcatcher (White-lored) Polioptila albiloris albiloris/vanrossemi
  • White-lored Gnatcatcher (Yucatan) Polioptila albiloris albiventris
  • Tropical Gnatcatcher (plumbiceps/anteocularis) Polioptila plumbea plumbiceps/anteocularis
  • Tropical Gnatcatcher (innotata) Polioptila plumbea innotata
  • Tropical Gnatcatcher (plumbea) Polioptila plumbea plumbea
  • Tropical Gnatcatcher (parvirostris) Polioptila plumbea parvirostris
  • Tropical Gnatcatcher (atricapilla) Polioptila plumbea atricapilla
  • Goldcrest (European) Regulus regulus [regulus Group]
  • Goldcrest (western Canary Islands) Regulus regulus ellenthalarae
  • Goldcrest (Asian) Regulus regulus [himalayensis Group]
  • Northern Crombec (Northern) Sylvietta brachyura brachyura/carnapi
  • Northern Crombec (Eastern) Sylvietta brachyura leucopsis
  • Greenish Warbler (viridanus) Phylloscopus trochiloides viridanus
  • Greenish Warbler (trochiloides/ludlowi) Phylloscopus trochiloides trochiloides/ludlowi
  • Greenish Warbler (obscuratus) Phylloscopus trochiloides obscuratus
  • Menetries’s Warbler (mystacea) Sylvia mystacea mystacea
  • Menetries’s Warbler (rubescens/turcmenica) Sylvia mystacea rubescens/turcmenica
  • African Yellow White-eye (Green) Zosterops senegalensis [stuhlmanni Group]
  • African Yellow White-eye (Southern) Zosterops senegalensis anderssoni/stierlingi
  • Broad-ringed White-eye (Ethiopian) Zosterops poliogastrus poliogastrus
  • Broad-ringed White-eye (Kaffa) Zosterops poliogastrus kaffensis
  • Broad-ringed White-eye (Mbulu) Zosterops poliogastrus mbuluensis
  • Broad-ringed White-eye (Kilimanjaro) Zosterops poliogastrus eurycricotus
  • Broad-ringed White-eye (South Pare) Zosterops poliogastrus winifredae
  • Chestnut-backed Scimitar-Babbler (Sunda) Pomatorhinus montanus bornensis/occidentalis
  • Chestnut-backed Scimitar-Babbler (Javan) Pomatorhinus montanus montanus/ottolanderi
  • Horsfield’s Babbler (Hartert’s) Turdinus sepiarius tardinatus/barussanus
  • Horsfield’s Babbler (Horsfield’s) Turdinus sepiarius sepiarius
  • Horsfield’s Babbler (Salvadori’s) Turdinus sepiarius rufiventris/harterti
  • Short-billed Pipit (Puna) Anthus furcatus brevirostris
  • Short-billed Pipit (Fork-tailed) Anthus furcatus furcatus
  • Pine Grosbeak (Eurasian) Pinicola enucleator [enucleator Group]
  • Pine Grosbeak (Pacific Northwest) Pinicola enucleator flammula
  • Pine Grosbeak (Queen Charlotte) Pinicola enucleator carlottae
  • Pine Grosbeak (Rocky Mts.) Pinicola enucleator montana
  • Pine Grosbeak (California) Pinicola enucleator californica
  • Pine Grosbeak (Taiga) Pinicola enucleator leucura
  • Red Crossbill (Central American or type 11) Loxia curvirostra mesamericana
  • Godlewski’s Bunting (godlewskii Group) Emberiza godlewskii [godlewskii Group]
  • Godlewski’s Bunting (yunnanensis/khamensis) Emberiza godlewskii yunnanensis/khamensis
  • Saffron-billed Sparrow (Stripe-crowned) Arremon flavirostris dorbignii
  • Saffron-billed Sparrow (Gray-backed) Arremon flavirostris polionotus
  • Saffron-billed Sparrow (Saffron-billed) Arremon flavirostris flavirostris
  • Rufous-collared Sparrow (Rufous-collared) Zonotrichia capensis [capensis Group]
  • Rufous-collared Sparrow (Patagonian) Zonotrichia capensis australis
  • Unicolored Blackbird (Azara’s) Agelasticus cyanopus atroolivaceus/unicolor
  • Unicolored Blackbird (Yellow-breasted) Agelasticus cyanopus cyanopus
  • Tropical Parula (South American) Setophaga pitiayumi [pitiayumi Group]
  • Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager (Carriker’s) Dubusia taeniata carrikeri
  • Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager (Buff-breasted) Dubusia taeniata taeniata
  • Golden Tanager (aurulenta Group) Tangara arthus [aurulenta Group]
  • Golden Tanager (pulchra Group) Tangara arthus [pulchra Group]
  • Capped Conebill (White-capped) Conirostrum albifrons [albifrons Group]
  • Capped Conebill (Blue-capped) Conirostrum albifrons [atrocyaneum Group]
  • Inaccessible Island Finch (Upland) Nesospiza acunhae fraseri
  • White-bellied Seedeater (Bicolored) Sporophila leucoptera bicolor
  • White-bellied Seedeater (Gray-backed) Sporophila leucoptera [leucoptera Group]
  • Bananaquit (Greater Antillean) Coereba flaveola [flaveola Group]
  • Bananaquit (Puerto Rico) Coereba flaveola portoricensis
  • Bananaquit (Lesser Antillean) Coereba flaveola [bartholemica Group]
  • Bananaquit (St. Vincent) Coereba flaveola atrata
  • Bananaquit (Grenada) Coereba flaveola aterrima
  • Bananaquit (Los Roques) Coereba flaveola lowii
  • Bananaquit (laurae/melanornis) Coereba flaveola laurae/melanornis
  • Bananaquit (Continental) Coereba flaveola [luteola Group]
  • Woodpecker Finch (pallidus/productus) Camarhynchus pallidus pallidus/productus
  • Woodpecker Finch (striatipecta) Camarhynchus pallidus striatipecta


You can download full 2018 taxonomy (v2018) from the links at the bottom of our Taxonomy Page, including XLSX and CSV formats for a clean version and one with the changes annotated (four files).