This woodpecker specializes in drilling rows of sap wells into tree bark. Eats insects attracted to the sap. Larger than Downy Woodpecker and smaller than Hairy; often looks disheveled compared to these species. Look for the vertical white stripe on the shoulder. Adult males show red cap and throat; females have red cap and white throat; and juveniles are messy brownish-gray overall. Nests in cavities.