Small brown bird with large distribution from Costa Rica to Argentina. Rufous-brown overall with whitish eyebrow and a white stripe on the side of the face. Extensive streaking on crown and underparts separates from Plain Xenops. Compare with Slender-billed Xenops, which occurs primarily in lowland Amazonian forests where Streaked does not and is not as boldly streaked. Usually found singly or in pairs following a mixed-species flock. Occurs in mature forests and edges, from the understory to the canopy, but most often at middle levels. Can be found from the lowlands up to around 2,500 m.