Boldly-patterned sparrow found in the understory of deciduous and humid forests and edges from southern Brazil to northeastern Argentina. Usually in pairs on or near the ground. Note the mostly bright orange bill. Also look for the bold black-and-white head pattern and black chest band. Upperparts vary from gray with a greenish shoulder (western part of range) to entirely mossy-green (eastern part of range). The song is a series of high-pitched notes.