A large, slender pipit with considerable variation across its range. African and South Asian birds average browner, warmer-colored, and more heavily streaked on the breast than the grayer-toned Middle Eastern subspecies. All subspecies possess a pale eyebrow, a long tail, and a relatively long bill. As with many other pipits, can be frustratingly difficult to identify in the field; habitat and voice are important clues. Prefers dry, open areas with clumps of vegetation and scattered rocks and boulders, typically on slopes. Calls include squeaky sparrow-like chirps and sweet two-noted whistles. Song doesn’t quite sound like a song: a sequence of plaintive whistles, two-noted chirps, and other call-like vocalizations strung together with pauses in between.