Very handsome but rather local sparrow endemic to interior southern Mexico. Found in scrubby oak woodland and brushy cactus scrub of dry tropical foothills and interior valleys. Usually in pairs or small groups, which keep in touch with high, rhythmic twittering choruses. Can be very skulking; mostly stays low in brush or on the ground, but sings from atop bushes and cacti. Plumage distinctive, with black throat, white whisker (bridle), gray head, rusty shoulders, and rich buffy flanks.