Taxonomy Update for 2016

By Team eBird 14 Aug 2016
Lesser Violetear (Costa Rican) Colibri cyanotus cabanidis

The eBird taxonomy update is essentially COMPLETE. All major changes have occurred, and we have only a small number of minor changes yet to make. This may affect the lists of a very small number of users as we implement these over the next few days. We do this update once each year, taking into account the past 12 months of recent taxonomic knowledge on splits, lumps, name changes, and changes in the sequence of the species lists. As of this point, all eBird data will be reflecting the new taxonomy. This includes your My eBird lists, range maps, bar charts, region and hotspot lists, and data entry. eBird Mobile should also be updated to the new taxonomy. If you see unfamiliar bird names in the list, please refer to the story below to understand the change and why it happened. In addition, we list a number of new options for data entry (hybrids, spuhs, slashes, etc.), all of which are listed below.

eBirders who do not speak English as their first language will see updated names to reflect the new taxonomy. Remember that the language you choose for bird names needs to be selected separately from the language of the website (read more about common name translations).

NOTE: If you use eBird Mobile on iPhone or Android hopefully you have the newest versions of each; if not, update those in the App Store and Google Play store, respectively. Also, please make sure to submit a list from a new location near you (i.e., not one of your stored “recent locations”). This will ensure that the checklist filter is updated to the newest version. If you do not do this, you may accidentally submit California/Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay from a coastal California area, instead of the post-split option, California Scrub-Jay.

2016 eBird Taxonomic Update

This year’s update is v2016 of the eBird/Clements Checklist. The eBird/Clements Checklist is an integrated global taxonomy for the birds of the world, including all species and subspecies, as well as additional taxa useful to field birders to report in eBird. The list of species available in eBird is the eBird Taxonomy (v2016) and includes all species, subspecies groups (which we call identifiable sub-specific forms or ISSF), hybrids, intergrades, spuhs (e.g., scoter sp.), slashes (e.g., Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher), domestics, and forms. The Clements Checklist includes only the species and subspecies, along with subspecies groups which are further identified as monotypic (consisting of one subspecies) or polytypic (consisting of more than one subspecies). In this way, the eBird/Clements Checklist is completely integrated, but can also be divided into these two groups. Read more about the eBird Taxonomy.

The Clements Checklist provides two update pages (overview and 2016 updates & corrections) and also provides all three files (eBird/Clements, Clements, and eBird) for download.

The Clements Checklist 2016 updates & corrections provides details (including references) for all species splits and lumps, new species descriptions, revisions to subspecies groups (ISSFs) or subspecies, and other changes relevant to the Clements Checklist. We refer anyone wishing to learn more about these splits to that page.

A list of all the taxonomic changes is below. This is largely in sync with the above Clements update; references are not listed in full, but are included in the Clements update. Since this is a long article, here is a short index:

  • Introduction
  • Languages
  • Species splits
  • Subspecies group changes
  • Species lumps
  • New species
  • New subspecies groups
  • New hybrids and intergrades
  • New forms
  • New domestics
  • New slashes and spuhs
  • Common name “ambiguation” and subspecies group lumps
  • Common Name changes
  • Scientific Name changes


When the taxonomy is updated in eBird, many of the changes are fairly simple to implement. When a common name changes, a scientific name changes, or when the taxonomic sequence is revised, those changes roll through and start appearing in eBird output fairly quickly. Keeping track of name changes is a challenge, and consulting Avibase is one of the best ways to do so. Just type any bird name in Avibase and Avibase will show you the history of that name, and—if it differs from eBird—it will show what the eBird equivalent is for that name. Try it for “Louisiana Heron”, for example.

When species are ‘lumped’ (e.g., two taxonomic entities that used to be considered separate species, but are now one), eBird usually retains the former species as an identifiable group. In these cases, your records may shift to the lumped form and your totals may (or may not) drop by one. The actual entity that you observed and reported has not changed in any way other than being changed from species to subspecies.

However, when splits occur, the process is more complicated. In many cases, we have had subspecies options available for reporting in anticipation of the split. All these records update automatically to the new species. But when a bird is reported at the broader species level (without a subspecies listed on your entry), and then that species is split, we update the records in eBird to one of the “child” species whenever possible. We try to be very conservative with this. When two species do not overlap in range (i.e., they are allopatric) we go ahead and make the change. When the species do overlap (i.e., are sympatric), and do not have clear seasonal or habitat differences, we usually do not make the change. This results in your records being left as the more conservative “slash” option.

As an example, this year Western Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica) was split into two species, California Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica) and Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma woodhouseii). The breeding ranges are largely allopatric, and Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay is much more widespread overall, but they come in contact in eastern California and western Nevada and occur as rare vagrants to the same areas of some areas, such as eastern Kern County, California, and Idaho. In this case, we changed all the records from the core areas of the range to the appropriate species. Sightings that specified the subspecies were updated automatically (we recommend being specific when possible, but only when you understand the subspecies options you select for data entry!). Before this update, if you observed a “Western Scrub-Jay” from Alpine County, California, or other areas right at the contact zone, it would be considered in eBird as California/Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay–the only difference now is that the taxa involved are now considered species instead of subspecies. If you know which one you saw, we encourage you to update your records. If you are not sure (and this is one of the tougher identification issues in the world, so don’t feel bad!), then your observation is best listed as the slash option.

If you want to review your records of “California/Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay” or of “Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher”, there are a couple ways to do this through the My eBird tools. If you know the checklist it is on, you can find the list in “Manage My Observations” and edit it as needed. If you can find your checklist on the range map of “California/Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay” then you can just click on the marker for your list and open it from there. But the best option to review your records is to go to My eBird and then click “Download My Data” from the right side. This downloads your entire eBird database as a CSV file that can be opened in Excel or a similar spreadsheet program. From there, you should easily be able to sort by name or search for “California/Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay” to find your records. Then you can scroll to the correct date or just replace the Submission ID in the URL for a checklist view.


We provide common names for birds in the eBird taxonomy in cases where a different language is spoken as well as where alternate English names are used in that area. For example, Pluvialis squatorola is known as Black-bellied Plover in our taxonomy, but known by its duller winter dress in some areas such as the United Kingdom, where they call it Grey Plover. You can access these under “Preferences” from most eBird pages, which is also where you can set the names to shows as common names or scientific names. One additional option is English (IOC), which gives a full translation of species names into the IOC World Bird List (v6.3) nomenclature. Note that these names are exact taxonomic matches, so they reflect as slashes when a species is split by IOC and not by eBird; similarly, species split by eBird will appear as subspecies groups for IOC. Our Common Name Translations article explains more about regional common name preferences.


The species below were split in eBird. To see a map of the new species, click “map”. To see your personal lists in My eBird, just make sure you are logged in and click “my records”. If you have seen the species but don’t have any records shown, then please enter your sightings! Full details for all below accounts can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page. We encourage all birders to carefully review the below splits and check your personal records and to update them if you think we made an error. Below are the splits for this update:

Great-winged Petrel Pterodroma macropteraGreat-winged Petrel was split into two species. Each of the two monotypic groups of Great-winged Petrel is elevated to species rank, based on differences in mitochondrial DNA, vocalizations, plumage, morphometrics, and in other aspects of their biology.

While records from New Zealand and the south Pacific east of New Zealand were assigned to Gray-faced Petrel, and records form much of the Indian Ocean assigned to Great-winged Petrel, users will want to carefully check your records to make sure they represent the correct species or remain as the slash Great-winged/Gray-faced Petrel in cases of uncertainty. Most records (including all those from Australia) were left exactly as reported, so if you had reported “Great-winged Petrel” you may want to check your records to see if you can apply it to one of the new species.

Leach’s Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa: Leach’s Storm-Petrel is split into three species. The monotypic group Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Townsend’s) Oceanodroma leucorhoa socorroensis is elevated to species rank as Townsend’s Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma socorrensis and Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Ainley’s) Oceanodroma leucorhoa cheimomnestes is elevated to species rank as Ainley’s Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma cheimomnestes. Townsend’s and Ainley’s Storm-Petrel both breed on Guadalupe Island (although with little seasonal overlap in the timing of breeding) and their vocalizations and morphology differ. Townsend’s Storm-Petrel is a summer breeder on islets off Guadalupe I. (western Mexico) and ranges in eastern Pacific north to southern California and south to ca. 10º N. Ainley’s Storm-Petrel is a winter breeder on islets off Guadalupe I. (western Mexico); its nonbreeding range is poorly known, but the species apparently disperses south in eastern Pacific, to at least as far as the Galapagos Island. Following the split, Leach’s Storm-Petrel now contains only two subspecies, each of which is recognized as a monotypic group: Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Leach’s) Oceanodroma leucorhoa leucorhoa and Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Chapman’s) Oceanodroma leucorhoa chapmani.

Record conversions were difficult here, with only those records already assigned to subspecies being changed. Some records of Leach’s Storm-Petrel may be more appropriate as a slash option (e.g., Leach’s/Townsend’s/Ainley’s Storm-Petrel) so please make that change if appropriate.

  • Leach’s Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa [map] [my records]
  • Ainley’s Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma cheimomnestes [map] [my records]
  • Townsend’s Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma socorroensis [map] [my records]

Gray-necked Wood-Rail (Aramides cajaneus): Gray-necked Wood-Rail is split into two species, which were not even recognized as subspecies groups previously: Russet-naped Wood-Rail Aramides albiventris, and Gray-cowled Wood-Rail Aramides cajaneus. This action follows the NACC decision, with documented significant vocal differences and less obvious but still consistent plumage differences between the two species. These two species also appear to be parapatric, replacing one another rather abruptly. Gray-cowled occurs from the central Pacific Slope of Costa Rica south to northwestern Colombia (including islands off of Panama) and, east of the Andes, to the Guianas and northeastern Brazil south to northern Argentina and Uruguay, while Russet-naped occurs from western Costa Rica north to east Mexico.

Record conversion was simple here, except in Costa Rica, where the two species may come in contact along the central Pacific coast, with Gray-cowled to the south and east and Russet-naped to the north and west, including the Atlantic slope and intermontane valleys. Please check your records carefully from these areas, upload audio recordings and photos if you have them, and use the slash option if the records are uncertain.

The split of Russet-naped Wood-Rail (here) and Gray-cowled Wood-Rail (below) from Gray-necked Wood-Rail was a surprise. The russet nape is the best known and most consistent field mark, apparently, but much remains to be learned about the identification of this cryptic pair. Is the chestnut upper back shown here a helpful field mark? Photo Michael Hooper/Macaulay Library.

The split of Russet-naped Wood-Rail (here) and Gray-cowled Wood-Rail (below) from Gray-necked Wood-Rail was a surprise. The russet nape is the best known and most consistent field mark, apparently, but much remains to be learned about the identification of this cryptic pair and plumage is known to be variable. For example, is the buffy-orange upper back shown here a helpful field mark compared to the below individual? Photo Michael Hooper/Macaulay Library.



Vocal differences are the best distinction between Russet-naped and Gray-cowled (here) Wood-Rails and more audio recordings are needed. Compare these recordings from the Macaulay Library collection, by Ted Parker III and Irby Davis, respectively: Gray-cowled and Russet-naped. Note also the less russet nape on this photo of a Gray-cowled from Costa Rica. Photo Larry Therrien/Macaulay Library.

Dusky Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia magna is split into three species based primarily on vocal differences. These include a polytypic Flores Sea Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia macassariensis, from SW Sulawesi, Tanakeke and Salayar islands, and the E Lesser Sundas; a monotypic Timor Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia magna from Timor, Wetar and adjacent E Lesser Sundas; and a monotypic Tanimbar Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia timorlaoensis from the Tanimbar Islands (Yamdena, Larat and Selaru).

Record conversion was straightforward for these island endemics; check your records if you are lucky enough to have seen or heard these doves!

Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia amboinensisis is split into two species based primarily on vocal differences. Amboyna Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia amboinensisis occurs in eastern New Guinea and islands to the east, as well as the South Moluccas off the western side of Papua New Guinea and islands in Geelvink Bay of Papua. Sultan’s Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia doreya, occurs in most Indonesian Islands (except the S Moluccas) including the North Moluccas and western Papua New Guinea, including the Balim Valley.

Record conversion was very tricky here, since the ranges of these birds are not very well-established yet. Audio recordings from within the range of these birds are a high priority to better clarify the ranges.

Ruddy Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia emiliana is split into three species, based primarily on vocal differences. Ruddy Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia emiliana is the widespread form, occurring on Krakatau, Java, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, and Paloe islands, while the other two are endemic to tiny islands off the southwest side of Java: the monotypic Enggano Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia cinnamomea on Enggano Island only and a polytypic Barusan Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia modiglianii which has three island-endemic subspecies, with each occurring on Simeulue I. (off nw Sumatra), Nias I. (off w Sumatra), and the Mentawi Islands (Siberut, Sipura, and Pagai).

Record conversion was straightforward for these island endemics; check your records if you are lucky enough to have seen or heard these doves!

White-faced Cuckoo-Dove Turacoena manadensis is split into two species since T. m. sulaensis is vocally distinct. White-faced Cuckoo-Dove occurs on Sulawesi and the Togian Islands and Sula Cuckoo-Dove on the Banggai Islands and Sula Islands.

Record conversion was straightforward for these island endemics; check your records if you are lucky enough to have seen or heard these doves!

Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica is split into two species, with Asian Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica occurring widely in South Asia (e.g., India) to Southeast Asia (e.g., Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia) and Pacific Emerald Dove Chalcophaps longirostris occurring in New Guinea, Australia, and Pacific Islands.

Record conversion is straightforward in most of the range, but please check your records in contact zones on New Guinea and Indonesia. Asian/Pacific Emerald Dove is an option for uncertain records.

Asian doves and pigeons would make any New World birder jealous, such as this Asian emerald Dove, recently split from its relative the Pacific Emerald Dove. Photo Dr Sumit Chakrabarti/Macaulay Library.

Asian doves and pigeons would make any New World or European birder jealous, such as this Asian Emerald Dove, recently split from its relative the Pacific Emerald Dove. Photo Dr Sumit Chakrabarti/Macaulay Library.

Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus porphyraceus is split into three species, including a fairly widespread Purple-capped Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus ponapensis and two species of the remote Caroline Islands in the central Pacific, a monotypic Kosrae Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus hernsheimi endemic to Kosrae and a polytypic Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus porphyraceus which occurs on Truk and Pohnpei.

Record conversion was straightforward for these island endemics; check your records if you are lucky enough to have done South Pacific island birding!

  • Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus porphyraceus [map] [my records]
  • Purple-capped Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus ponapensis [map] [my records]
  • Kosrae Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus hernsheimi [map] [my records]

Yellowbill Ceuthmochares aereus is split into two species. Blue Malkoha Ceuthmochares aereus is a bird of west Africa occurring east to forests of w. Kenya and nw. Tanzania, while Green Malkoha Ceuthmochares australis occurs near the east coast of Africa from from South Africa north to coastal Kenya, as well as in central Ethiopia.

Record conversion was mostly straightforward, but, as always, please check your records. Interestingly, Green Malkoha shows some seasonal and sporadic movements that bring strays to the Kenyan highlands: records from around Nairobi are of that species. We have not yet heard of similar movements in Blue Malkoha.

Large Hawk-Cuckoo Hierococcyx sparverioides is split into two species, as each of our former monotypic groups is recognized as a separate species. Large Hawk-Cuckoo Hierococcyx sparverioides is a widespread breeder from Pakistan and India east to southern China, Myanmar, Thailand, and Indochina. It migrates south to winter in South and Southeast Asia, including southern India (Eastern and Western Ghats), Bangladesh, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Bali, the Philippines, Borneo, and Sulawesi. Dark Hawk-Cuckoo Hierococcyx bocki is a much more localized montane resident of the Malay Peninsula (one site in southern Thailand), Sumatra, and Borneo.

Record conversion from most of the range was easy, but in the areas where Dark Hawk-Cuckoo is resident all records are retained as Large/Dark Hawk-Cuckoo, since Large Hawk-Cuckoo is known from those same areas as a migrant. Records reported as the subspecies group were obviously converted to the species level. Please check your records from Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo and adjust to the correct species: birds showing breeding behavior should be Dark Hawk-Cuckoo, and photos and audio recordings may help sort out what you saw, so please load that rich media!

Band-winged Nightjar Systellura longirostris is split into two species, in accord with AOU-SACC (Proposal 677). The monotypic group Band-winged Nightjar (Tschudi’s) Systellura longirostris decussatus is elevated to species rank as Tschudi’s Nightjar Systellura decussata, which occurs only in the dry coastal deserts from northern Peru to northern Chile. This change is based on the revelation that the vocally distinct Tschudi’s Nightjar is not closely related to Band-winged Nightjar.

Record conversion was mostly straightforward, but check your records carefully (especially those in higher desert or Andean slopes, and those in northern Chile).

Like all nightjars, Tschudi's Nightjar is cryptic and hard to spot during daylight. We look forward to collecting images and audio via eBird-Macaulay Library for ever more poorly-known species like this.

Like all nightjars, Tschudi’s Nightjar is cryptic and hard to spot during daylight. We look forward to collecting images and audio via eBird-Macaulay Library for ever more poorly-known species like this. Photo by Peter Trimble/Macaulay Library.

Green Violetear Colibri thalassinus is split into two species, a monotypic Mexican Violetear Colibri thalassinus, of highland forests from Mexico to Nicaragua, and the polytypic Lesser Violetear Colibri cyanotus, which includes the eBird groups Lesser Violetear (Costa Rican) Colibri cyanotus cabanidis and Lesser Violetear (Andean) Colibri cyanotus cyanotus/crissalis. This split follows actions by AOU-NACC. Mexican Violetear is the only one known from the US and Canada, and is a far-ranging vagrant that has occurred north to California, Colorado, Ontario and Maine. However, while vagrancy in Lesser Violetear is not known and while the species are not thought to overlap, all individuals should be checked carefully: look for Mexican Violetear’s larger size, more golden vs. emerald sheen to the plumage (especially uppertail and rump), the blue chin, and blue area on the central breast.

Record conversion was straightforward since these species don’t overlap, but, as always, check your records carefully.

Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus coeruliceps has had a lot of revisions over the past few years, and that name is now gone from eBird. First Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus momota was split into five species: Amazonian, Trinidad, Andean, Whooping, and Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus coeruliceps (the scientific name was moving around because of rules of nomenclature). Following those splits, Blue-crowned was the Middle American species from southern Mexico to central Panama. This year, in accord with AOU-NACC (Chesser et al. 2016), Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus coeruliceps is split into two species, Blue-capped Motmot Momotus coeruliceps which is the only form with an entirely blue cap and occurs from northeast Mexico (Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon) south to central Veracruz. The other species is Lesson’s Motmot Momotus lessonii and involves birds from southern Veracruz and Oaxaca south to central Panama (the easternmost birds are in the heavily visited El Valle area and until recently were thought to be Whooping Motmots here; the two-noted vs. one-noted songs helped clarify the species ID).

Apparently the two species do come in contact, and seem to hybridize, in central Veracruz. We learned this after this split was finalized in eBird, so expect these additions for the 2017 taxonomy update: Blue-capped x Lesson’s Motmot (hybrid) and Blue-capped/Lesson’s Motmot. In the meantime, known or suspected hybrids, or uncertain birds in the overlap zone should be entered as motmot sp. with comments, audio recordings, and photos.

All other motmots from the Blue-crowned Motmots have dark in the central crown, but this Blue-capped Motmot from Veracruz shows that species' unique entirely blue cap. Photo Margarita López/Macaulay Library.

All other motmots from the Blue-crowned Motmots have dark in the central crown, but this Blue-capped Motmot from Veracruz shows that species’ unique entirely blue cap. Photo Margarita López/Macaulay Library.

Hispaniolan Parakeet Psittacara chloropterus is split into two species, one extant and one extinct, in accord with AOU-NACC. The extinct Puerto Rican Parakeet Psittacara maugei has not been reported in eBird. This split follows Olson (2015), who argued that maugei and chloropterus differ “in plumage and particularly in bill morphology, such that a probable difference in diet is suggested”.

  • Hispaniolan Parakeet Psittacara chloropterus [map] [my records]
  • Puerto Rican Parakeet Psittacara maugei

Stipple-throated Antwren  Epinecrophylla haematonota is split into three species in accord with AOU-SACC (Proposal 589), and the names from our (former) monotypic groups change significantly: the monotypic group Stipple-throated Antwren (Napo) Epinecrophylla haematonota haematonota becomes Fulvous-throated Antwren Epinecrophylla haematonota, and occurs in se Colombia, Brasil, e Ecuador, and ne Peru north and east of the Amazon and Napo Rivers; the monotypic group Stipple-throated Antwren (Negro) Epinecrophylla haematonota pyrrhonota becomes Rufous-backed Antwren Epinecrophylla pyrrhonota  and occurs in Peru and Brasil south of the Amazon, with the southern border poorly known; and Madeira Antwren Epinecrophylla amazonica occurs in southern Peru, southwestern Brasil, and Bolivia. See also the lumps section, since Roosevelt Antwren and Madeira Antwren were lumped with this same initiative.All of these English names are provisional, pending a final decision on this issue by AOU-SACC (see Proposal 696).

Record conversion was tricky in some cases, and please check all your records. In particular, the range limits of Rufous-backed and Madeira Antwrens still have some questions. Documented records supported with rich media (especially audio recordings) are strongly encouraged.

  • Fulvous-throated Antwren Epinecrophylla pyrrhonota [map] [my records]
  • Rufous-backed Antwren Epinecrophylla haematonota [map] [my records]
  • Madeira Antwren Epinecrophylla amazonica [map] [my records]

Rufous Gnateater  Conopophaga lineata is split with the recognition of Ceara Gnateater Conopophaga cearae. This split was long anticipated, based on vocal differences between cearae and other subspecies of Rufous Gnateater and was confirmed with genetic data showing that Ceara Gnateater is more closely related to Ash-throated Gnateater (Conopophaga peruviana) than it is to Rufous Gnateater.

Record conversion was straightforward; both species occur in Ceara, but Rufous Gnateater is restricted to the far south of that state where Ceara Gnateater does not occur.

Vilcabamba Thistletail Asthenes vilcabambae is split as Asthenes vilcabambae ayacuchensis is elevated to species rank as Ayacucho Thistletail Asthenes ayacuchensis, based on vocal and genetic differences.

Record conversion was straightforward, with Ayacucho Thistletail known only from Ayacucho and Vilcabamaba Thistletail known only from Cuzco and southern Junín.

Lesser Elaenia Elaenia chiriquensis is split with the recognition of Elaenia chiriquensis brachyptera is elevated to species rank as Coopmans’s Elaenia (Elaenia brachyptera), in accord with AOU-SACC (Proposal 686). This split is based primarily on vocal differences between Coopmans’s and Lesser elaenias, as well as on a relatively deep genetic divergence between Coopmans’s Elaenia and the two other subspecies of Lesser Elaenia. Lesser Elaenia is widespread, but Coopmans’s has a limited range on the Pacific slope of southwestern Colombia (Nariño) and northwestern Ecuador, as well as the east slope of the Andes of Ecuador.

Please check your records with care, as the range of Coopmans’s Elaenia relative to Lesser Elaenia, especially at the north and east margins of the range, is still being worked out. As always, records supported by media (especially audio recordings) are strongly encouraged to help contribute to the understanding of the range of this newly-recognized species.

White-eared Catbird Ailuroedus buccoides is split into three species. Their ranges are listed below.

Record conversion was tricky in Papua New Guinea. Please check your records with care.

  • White-eared Catbird Ailuroedus buccoides [map] [my records] – western Papuan Islands and northwestern New Guinea, east through southern lowlands to upper Kikori River
  • Ochre-breasted Catbird Ailuroedus stonii [map] [my records] – S New Guinea (Mimika River to upper Fly River) and s coastal New Guinea (Hall Sound to Port Moresby)
  • Tan-capped Catbird Ailuroedus geislerorum [map] [my records] – Yapen I. and n New Guinea lowlands of southeastern New Guinea (north side of Owen Stanley Range)

Spotted Catbird  Ailuroedus melanotis is split into six species. Their ranges are listed below.

Record conversion was tricky in Papua New Guinea. Please check your records with care.

  • Spotted Catbird Ailuroedus maculosus [map] [my records] – E Queensland (Atherton Tablelands to Burdekin River)
  • Black-eared Catbird Ailuroedus melanotis [map] [my records] – south and west New Guinea, Aru Islands, and NE Queensland (McIlwraith Range)
  • Huon Catbird Ailuroedus astigmaticus [map] [my records] – NE New Guinea (mountains of Huon Peninsula)
  • Black-capped Catbird Ailuroedus melanocephalus [map] [my records] – Mountains of se New Guinea
  • Northern Catbird Ailuroedus jobiensis [map] [my records] – north-central New Guinea (north slope of Western, Border, and Eastern Ranges, and coastal ranges from Foja Mountains east to Adelbert Mountains)
  • Arfak Catbird Ailuroedus arfakianus [map] [my records] – Misool I. (w Papuan islands) and W New Guinea (Arfak Mountains of Vogelkop Peninsula)

Striated Grasswren  Amytornis striatus is split into four species: Pilbara Grasswren Amytornis whitei; Sandhill Grasswren Amytornis oweni; Rusty Grasswren Amytornis rowleyi; and Striated Grasswren Amytornis striatus. Pilbara Grasswren is restricted to the Pilbara area of West Australia; Sandhill Grasswren occurs in central western Australia, from Western Australia to southwestern Northern Territory and south-central South Australia; Striated Grasswren occurs widely in southeastern South Australia, northwestern Victoria, and New South Wales; and Rusty Grasswren occurs only in the Forsyth Range of central Queensland.

Record conversion was straightforward, as these species are all allopatric (i.e., they do not come in contact).

Thick-billed Grasswren  Amytornis textilis is split into two species, Western Grasswren Amytornis textilis, which occurs in West Australia and the Gawler Range area of South Australia; and Thick-billed Grasswren which occurs in central South Australia and points east.

Record conversion was straightforward, although the records in South Australia are not separated by very much and should be checked.

Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoraliswhich was split into multiple species in previous updates, is now split further with the recognition of two additional species from within Golden Whistler: the monotypic group Golden Whistler (Balim Valley) Pachycephala pectoralis balim is elevated to species rank as Baliem Whistler Pachycephala balim, and occurs in n. New Guinea (Balim and Bele valleys); and the Western Whistler, endemic to West Australia, is split as well. The latter split was complicated since a former eBird subspecies group “Golden Whistler (fuliginosa)” was thought to pertain to birds in West Australia and South Australia, but the split actually divided that subspecies group into West Australia birds (Western Whistler) and South Australia birds, which retain the subspecies group Golden Whistler (fuliginosa).

Blue-crested Flycatcher Myiagra azureocapilla is split into two species, a monotypic Azure-crested Flycatcher Myiagra azureocapilla endemic to Taveuni in the southeastern portion of Fiji and a polytypic Chestnut-throated Flycatcher Myiagra castaneigularis, including subspecies castaneigularis and whitneyi, that occurs elsewhere in Fiji.

Record conversion was straightforward, since Azure-crested is unique to Taveuni.

  • Azure-crested Flycatcher Myiagra azureocapilla [map] [my records]
  • Chestnut-throated Flycatcher Myiagra castaneigularis [map] [my records]

Western Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma californica is split into two species: California Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma californica, which is equivalent to the former eBird group Western Scrub-Jay (Coastal) Aphelocoma californica [californica Group], and Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma woodhouseii, which includes the eBird groups Western Scrub-Jay (Woodhouse’s) Aphelocoma californica [woodhouseii Group] and Western Scrub-Jay (Sumichrast’s) Aphelocoma californica sumichrasti/remota. California Scrub-Jay occurs from southern British Columbia (rare) south through western Washington and Oregon south to Baja California Sur, including most of California except the eastern deserts from Mono Lake to eastern San Bernardino County. Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay (Woodhouse’s) occurs from eastern California and southern Idaho east to the Front Range of Colorado, the Hill Country of Texas and south to central Mexico. Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay (Sumichrast’s) occurs in southern Mexico, from Veracruz and Puebla south to Oaxaca and Guerrero.

[NOTE: Record conversion will be complete for these species on 17 August. Please allow this process to finish.] Record conversion was straightforward in most areas, but eastern California and western Nevada have very complex contact zones (and in fact some hybridization is known in these areas); please check your records from those areas, report future sightings from the area with care (and with documentation!), and use the California/Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay option when warranted. In addition to resident populations that come in contact, some Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jays stray westward and southward to the deserts of Kern, Riverside, and Imperial (and very rarely, maybe Los Angeles) Counties in fall and winter. A few well-documented vagrants (California Scrub-Jays in Idaho and Montana, and Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jays in Washington) were reported correctly to species. All records from Oregon were presumed to be California Scrub-Jay except the few records specifically reported as Woodhouse’s (note that Oregon still lacks a record accepted by the state Bird Records Committee and these eBird records may be marked as “not valid”).

  • California Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma californica [map] [my records]
  • Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay Aphelocoma woodhouseii [map] [my records]
California Scrub-Jay, larger and bigger-billed than Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay and with a more prominent blue spur on the breast sides. Photo by Brian Sullivan/Macaulay Library.

California Scrub-Jay, larger and bigger-billed than Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay and with a more prominent blue spur on the breast sides. Photo by Brian Sullivan/Macaulay Library.

Woodhouse's Scrub-Jay is slimmer, narrower-billed, duskier below, and has a less distinct bluish breast spur than California Scrub-Jay. Photo by Chris Wood.

Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay is slimmer, narrower-billed, duskier below, and has a less distinct bluish breast spur than California Scrub-Jay. Photo by Chris Wood/Macaulay Library.

Greater Short-toed Lark  Calandrella brachydactyla is split into two species, since genetics have revealed that subspecies dukhunensis is more closely related to Hume’s Lark Calandrella acutirostris than it is to other subspecies of Greater Short-toed Lark, and so is elevated to species rank as Sykes’s Short-toed Lark Alaudala dukhunensis.

Record conversion for these larks was complex, although records west of India were presumed to be Greater Short-toed Lark and those east of India presumed to be Sykes’s Short-toed Lark. While southern India and eastern India records were assumed to be Sykes’s, those in central and western India could not be safely assigned. Please check your records of this species in the Indian subcontinent carefully.

  • Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla [map] [my records]
  • Sykes’s Short-toed Lark Calandrella dukhunensis [map] [my records]

Lesser Short-toed Lark  Calandrella rufescens is split into two species, Lesser Short-toed Lark Alaudala rufescens and Asian Short-toed Lark Alaudala cheleensis. Note that the genus also changes from Calandrella to Alauda. Lesser Short-toed basically occurs from se Afghanistan to sw Siberia and west, while Asian Short-toed Lark occurs from Turkestan, e. Transbaikalia, and sw. Mongolia east.

While these species largely break along clean biogeographical lines (Lesser Short-toed in western Asia and Europe, Asian Short-toed in east Asia) please do carefully check records from Russia, Kazakhstan, and the other “stans” (e.g., Uzbekistan) since the contact zone is not extremely well-known and both species are migratory. If your records are uncertain, the Lesser/Asian Short-toed Lark option will be useful.

Crested Lark is widespread, darker, and slim-billed compared to its cousin the Maghreb Lark. They do overlap in Morocco. this sharp image was taken by Otto Samwald in Greece.

The widespread Crested Lark is darker, more distinctly marked on the face and breast, and slim-billed compared to its cousin the Maghreb Lark. They do overlap in Morocco. Photo Otto Samwald/Macaulay Library.

ssp. macrorhyncha

This Maghreb Lark photographed in its limited range in Morocco shows the paler plumage and larger bill relative to Crested Lark above. Photo by Otto Samwald/Macaulay Library.

Crested Lark  Galerida cristata is split into two species with the recognition of the large-billed Maghreb Lark Galerida macrorhyncha (photo above) as a species, based on genetic and morphological divergence, with evidence of assortative mating at a narrow contact zone.

[NOTE: Record conversion will be complete for these species on 17 August. Please allow this process to finish.] Record conversion was not easy in this case, since each species comes in contact with each of the others. Please check your records with care and make sure they are assigned to the correct species.

Varied Tit  Sittiparus varius is split into four species: Chestnut-bellied Tit Sittiparus castaneoventris which occurs only on Taiwan; Iriomote Tit Sittiparus olivaceus which occurs only on Iriomote in the southern Ryukyu Islands; Varied Tit Sittiparus varius, which is widespread from Russia and Japan through much of China; and Owston’s Tit Sittiparus owstoni which occurs only in the south Izu Islands of Miyake-jima, Mikura-jima and Hachijo-jima.

Record conversion was straightforward here, since the species do not overlap. However, if anyone has observed Varied Tit as a vagrant away from its home range (it has occurred on Taiwan as a vagrant), please enter those records.

Chickadees and tits are often expressions in black, white, and gray, but the Varied Tit complex of east Asia is a notable exception. Chestnut-bellied Tit is one of four recently recognized species split from Varied Tit and is endemic to Taiwan, where this bird was photographed by Ting-Wei Hung.

Chickadees and tits are often expressions in black, white, and gray, but the Varied Tit complex of east Asia is a notable exception. Chestnut-bellied Tit is one of four recently recognized species split from Varied Tit and is endemic to Taiwan, where this bird was photographed. Photo Ting-Wei Hung/Macaulay Library.

Plain Wren  Cantorchilus modestus is split into three species, in accord with NACC: Cabanis’s Wren Cantorchilus modestus, Canebrake Wren Cantorchilus zeledoni, and Isthmian Wren Cantorchilus elutus. This split is based on differences in vocalizations and on genetic divergence, but identification is subtle. Canebrake is most distinctive, with a grayish cast to the head and the most distinctive voice. Cabanis’s and Isthmian are much more subtle and their differences were not generally recognized until the paper that elucidated this split. Cabanis’s occurs in southern Mexico and northern Central America, the Pacific slope of Nicaragua, and the Pacific slope of Costa Rica south to about Jaco, while Isthmian Wren occurs on the Pacific Slope of Costa Rica from about Jaco south, and on the Pacific Slope of western Panama and the Canal Zone on both Pacific and Atlantic Slopes.

[NOTE: Record conversion will be complete for these species on 17 August. Please allow this process to finish.] Record conversion was not easy in this case, since each species comes in contact with each of the others. Please check your records with care and make sure they are assigned to the correct species.

Gray-breasted Wood-Wren  Henicorhina leucophrys is split, as our former monotypic subspecies group Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (anachoreta) Henicorhina leucophrys anachoreta is elevated to species level in accord with AOU-SACC (Proposal 700) as Santa Marta Wood-Wren Henicorhina anachoreta. Santa Marta Wood-Wren occurs at the higher elevations, but comes in contact with Gray-breasted Wood-Wren at lower elevations in the high foothills of the Santa Marta range. They are vocally distinct.

Record conversion is very difficult here, since both species come in contact in a certain elevational band in the Santa Marta mountains of northern Colombia. We were able to change *only* those records that specifically mentioned the anachoreta subspecies in their comments

  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren Henicorhina leucophrys [map] [my records]
  • Santa Marta Wood-Wren  Henicorhina anachoreta [map] [my records]

Plain-backed Thrush  Zoothera mollissima is split into three species, one of which is newly described: Alpine Thrush Zoothera mollissima; the newly described Himalayan Thrush Zoothera salimalii; and Sichuan Thrush Zoothera griseiceps (Alström et al. 2016). The ranges of these three species are still being worked out and eBirders can help by photographing and audio recording songs and calls for any birds encountered and submitting via eBird. Current range statements from the Clements checklist are as follows: Alpine Thrush breeds in the Himalayas from northern Pakistan to southeastern Tibet and south-central China (Sichuan); winters at lower elevations, south to Yunnan (China); Himalayan Thrush breeds in the eastern Himalayas from eastern Nepal to south-central China (Sichuan and Yunnan); winter range poorly known, but reported from northeastern India to northern Vietnam (Tonkin); and Sichuan Thrush breeds south-central China (central Sichuan); winter range poorly known, but reported from northern Vietnam (Tonkin).

Record conversion here is very provisional. With the exception of records that specifically mentioned the new species, most records were converted to one of the below slash options.

Two slash options are very useful here. Alpine/Himalayan Thrush can be used for silent birds, poorly seen birds and records from well before the split that occur in the western portion of the range (India, Nepal, Bhutan) where only those two species are known. The second option, Alpine/Sichuan Thrush should be considered Alpine/Himalayan/Sichuan Thrush and can be used for birds in China where all three species are thought to occur (all three species occur in Sichuan, for example). Also, all three species are somewhat migratory, so records away from the breeding areas must be very well documented if reported at the species level; otherwise, Alpine/Sichuan Thrush should be used (and this name will be corrected with our next update in 2017).

  • Alpine/Himalayan Thrush Zoothera mollissima/salimalii
  • Alpine/Sichuan Thrush Zoothera mollissima/griseiceps

Three-striped Warbler  Basileuterus tristriatus is split into three species in accord with AOU-NACC, based “on differences in genetics and vocalizations”. Costa Rican Warbler occurs in highlands of Costa Rica and western Panama, while the rather poorly-known Tacarcuna Warbler occurs in the highlands of eastern Panama and extreme western Colombia.

Record conversion was straightforward, as these three species are not thought to come in contact.


Several subspecies groups were split or lumped as well and these are summarized below. To review your records of any of these, simply open your Life List on eBird and use a browser search to search for the species name in question. Click the species to open all reports for that species; your subspecies reports will appear in this list and you can review those for accuracy. Selected revisions are listed below; for a complete listing of these changes see the Clements updates.

Little Egret: The former polytypic group Little Egret (Little) Egretta garzetta garzetta/nigripes, which is distinct from sometimes split Little Egret (Dimorphic) Egretta garzetta dimorpha of Africa, is further split into two monotypic groups. Little Egret (Western) Egretta garzetta garzetta is the familiar and widespread form in much of the world, while Little Egret (Australasian) Egretta garzetta nigripes is restricted to Indonesia, Papua, and Australia. The Australasian form is distinctive in having dark feet, and stray Egretta garzetta garzetta have appeared a few times in Australia; the northern and western limits of nigripes in Borneo and Malaysia need more documentation, so we encourage reports from those regions to be accompanied by rich media that show the foot color.

  • Little Egret (Western) Egretta garzetta garzetta 
  • Little Egret (Australasian) Egretta garzetta nigripes

Whimbrel: The subspecies alboaxillaris may be the next form of curlew to go extinct in the world, and would share that ignominious distinction with Eskimo Curlew of North America and Slender-billed Curlew of Eurasia (hope is probably lost for both, sadly). Thankfully, it persists in very small numbers (<100) in the steppes of central Asia and keen-eyed birders in Africa should watch for it among wintering Whimbrel there. As a result, Whimbrel (Eurasian) Numenius phaeopus phaeopus/alboaxillaris is divided into two monotypic groups, which makes all subspecies of Whimbrel distinct reporting options in eBird. We also add a form to address Whimbrels with white rumps where details of underwing and rump pattern cannot be assessed. Thus, birders have these options for reporting Whimbrel below the species level.

  • Whimbrel (European) Numenius phaeopus phaeopus
  • Whimbrel (Steppe) Numenius phaeopus alboaxillaris
  • Whimbrel (Siberian) Numenius phaeopus variegatus
  • Whimbrel (White-rumped) Numenius phaeopus phaeopus/alboaxillaris/variegatus
  • Whimbrel (Hudsonian) Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus
One of the rarest birds reported in eBird, this "Steppe" Whimbrel is critically endangered and separated from nominate phaeopus by its gleaming white underwings and paler rump. Gary Allport not only documented this first African record in many decades, but also pushed us to recognize this subspecies group in eBird. We always welcome recommendations for taxonomic revision! Photo Gary Allport/Macaulay Library.

One of the rarest birds reported in eBird, this “Steppe” Whimbrel is critically endangered and distinguished from nominate phaeopus by its gleaming white underwings and paler rump. Gary Allport not only documented this first African record in many decades, but also pushed us to recognize this subspecies group in eBird. We always welcome recommendations for taxonomic revision! Photo Gary Allport/Macaulay Library.

Band-winged Nightjar: The polytypic group Band-winged Nightjar (Band-winged) Systellura longirostris [longirostris Group] has been divided into a new set of groups as follows. The last subspecies (mochaensis) is the only one that is not a new group in 2016 and the overarching group Band-winged Nightjar [S. l. longirostris Group] is deleted; we attempted to convert the records to the correct subspecies group. We expect further splits within Band-winged Nightjar (following this year’s recognition of Tschudi’s Nightjar; see above).

  • Band-winged Nightjar (Tepui) Systellura longirostris roraimae – Tepuis of s Venezuela
  • Band-winged Nightjar (Rufous-naped) Systellura longirostris ruficervix – Andes from western Venezuela and Colombia south to northern Peru (Cajamarca)
  • Band-winged Nightjar (atripunctata) Systellura longirostris atripunctata – Andes of Peru to Bolivia, nw Argentina and n Chile
  • Band-winged Nightjar (Austral) Systellura longirostris bifasciata/patagonica – Chile to western, central, and southern Argentina; southernmost populations are migratory, migrating to northern Argentina and Paraguay
  • Band-winged Nightjar (longirostris) Systellura longirostris longirostris – SE Brazil to Paraguay, Uruguay and ne Argentina
  • Band-winged Nightjar (Mocha) Systellura longirostris mochaensis – Is. Mocha and Ascención, c Chile

Southern Boobook: Southern Boobook had included three groups in the 2015 taxonomy: Southern Boobook (Boobook), Southern Boobook (Tasmanian) and the polytypic group Southern Boobook (Morepork) Ninox novaeseelandiae [novaeseelandiae Group]; the latter group is redefined as follows:

  • Southern Boobook (Morepork) Ninox novaeseelandiae [novaeseelandiae Group] – New Zealand, Norfolk Island, and Lord Howe Island (extinct).
  • Southern Boobook (Roti) Ninox novaeseelandiae rotiensis – Roti (Lesser Sundas)
  • Southern Boobook (Timor) Ninox novaeseelandiae fusca – Timor (e Lesser Sundas)
  • Southern Boobook (Alor) Ninox novaeseelandiae plesseni – Pandar and Alor, Lesser Sundas, Indonesia
  • Southern Boobook (Red) Ninox novaeseelandiae lurida – NE Australia (ne Queensland between Cooktown and Paluma)

Mouse-colored Tyrannulet: The polytypic group Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Mouse-colored) Phaeomyias murina [murina Group] is split into two groups. There may be species-level splits in the future for this species.

  • Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Northern) Phaeomyias murina incomta/eremonoma – Pacific lowlands of southwestern Costa Rica and Panama to Colombia to Venezuela, the Guianas and n Brazil; Trinidad
  • Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Amazonian) Phaeomyias murina murina/wagae – Tropical e Peru to nw Bolivia and w Amazonian Brazil to southern Bolivia to Paraguay, northwestern Argentina, and southeastern Brazil; northern distributional limit not certain, may occur farther north in eastern South America

Vermilion Flycatcher: The polytypic Vermilion Flycatcher (obscurus Group) Pyrocephalus rubinus [obscurus Group] is split into three groups; there is suggestion that each Vermilion Flycatcher group should be recognized at the species level, so these are worth paying attention to. The differences are in vocalizations and female plumage; males may not be safely identified.

  • Vermilion Flycatcher (Northern) Pyrocephalus rubinus [mexicanus Group] – USA south to Nicaragua.
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (saturatus) Pyrocephalus rubinus saturatus – northern Colombia to Venezuela Guyana, and n Brasil.
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (obscurus Group) Pyrocephalus rubinus [obscurus Group] – w. Colombia s. to n. Chile.

The subspecies group Vermilion Flycatcher (Austral) Pyrocephalus rubinus rubinus is retained, and the polytypic group Vermilion Flycatcher (Galapagos) Pyrocephalus rubinus nanus/dubius is split into two monotypic groups; dubius is extinct and a single island endemic, while nanus occurs on multiple islands and remains relatively common.

  • Vermilion Flycatcher (Galapagos) Pyrocephalus rubinus nanus
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (San Cristobal) Pyrocephalus rubinus dubius

Black-throated Tit: Black-throated Tit (Red-headed) Aegithalos concinnus iredalei is split from the Black-throated Tit (Black-throated) Aegithalos concinnus [concinnus Group]; it occurs in the Himalayas (ne Pakistan to n India and s Tibet) so that range is no longer applicable for Black-throated Tit (Black-throated). Black-throated Tit (Gray-crowned) Aegithalos concinnus annamensis remains unchanged and is restricted to S Laos (Bolavens Plateau) and Vietnam (central and s Annam). The three forms are thus:

  • Black-throated Tit (Red-headed) Aegithalos concinnus iredalei
  • Black-throated Tit (Black-throated) Aegithalos concinnus [concinnus Group]  
  • Black-throated Tit (Gray-crowned) Aegithalos concinnus annamensis

Gray-breasted Wood-Wren: In addition to the split of Santa Marta Wood-Wren (see above), we remove subspecies hilaris from the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Andean) Henicorhina leucophrys [leucophrys Group].

  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (hilaris) Henicorhina leucophrys hilaris – Subtropical mts. of sw Ecuador
  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Andean) Henicorhina leucophrys leucophrys/boliviana -Andes of Colombia to Ecuador and Peru to subtrop. mts. of w Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz and Santa Cruz)

Thick-billed Flowerpecker: The polytypic group Thick-billed Flowerpecker (Thick-billed) Dicaeum agile [agile Group] is broken into two groups: Thick-billed Flowerpecker (Indian) Dicaeum agile agile/zeylonicum, which occurs in NE Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka; and Thick-billed Flowerpecker (obsoletum Group) Dicaeum agile [obsoletum Group], which occurs in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and Lesser Sundas. Thick-billed Flowerpecker (Striped) Dicaeum agile [aeruginosum Group] of the Philippines remains unchanged. Thus, the groups are:

  • Thick-billed Flowerpecker (Indian) Dicaeum agile agile/zeylonicum
  • Thick-billed Flowerpecker (obsoletum Group) Dicaeum agile [obsoletum Group]
  • Thick-billed Flowerpecker (Striped) Dicaeum agile [aeruginosum Group]


In eBird taxonomic revision, lumps are very easy to deal with. Usually the taxa become subspecies groups, so there is no changing of records necessary, just a recalculation of lists as the species drop to identifiable subspecies. Whenever possible, we encourage birders to continue reporting at the subspecies level, but whenever you select these options, be sure you understand the taxa that you are using; do not try to guess at the subspecies based on the name! This section also includes invalid species descriptions: these are rare but occur when an original description of a species or subspecies is proven to be a hybrid, rare variant, or other form of natural variation that does not represent a species. Full details for can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page.

Vietnam Partridge Arborophila merlini is lumped with Scaly-breasted Partridge Arborophila chloropus.

  • Scaly-breasted Partridge Arborophila chloropus [map] [my records]

Caribbean Coot  Fulica caribaea is lumped with American Coot Fulica americana, in accord with AOU-NACC; this action is “based on evidence of non-assortative mating  and lack of diagnosable morphological or vocal differences”. AOU-NACC no longer recognizes caribaea as a valid taxon (so it is not eligible in eBird as a subspecies group). Since its main field mark — the white frontal shield of “caribaea” — has been used to carefully distinguish those birds from red-shielded American Coots, however, we have thus changed the pre-split records to one of two taxa: American Coot (Red-shielded), which is the common form in Canada, the US, and Middle America, and American Coot (White-shielded), which predominates in the Caribbean. Roberson and Baptista (1988) pointed out that these coots also seem to differ on measurements, which could suggest that Fulica americana caribaea should in fact be recognized as a subspecies. However, from a field birder’s perspective there is basically no way to distinguish a “Caribbean Coot” from a white-shielded American Coot, a form which Roberson and Baptista (1988) discussed, described, and illustrated in their article. Therefore, we encourage eBirders to continue to report their coots based on shield color and to report white-shielded coots as American Coot (White-shielded) anywhere in the range (not just the Caribbean). This will take adjustment for North American birders, but is the best course going forward to preserve data in the Caribbean on shield color ratios in different places and to align historical reports with modern thinking about coot taxonomy in this complex.

The red frontal shield on this bird would have identified it as an American Coot in 2016 (as opposed to Caribbean Coot), but now identifies it as the Red-shielded form of American Coot.

The red frontal shield on this coot in Idaho would have identified it as an American Coot in 2016 (as opposed to Caribbean Coot), but now identifies it as the Red-shielded form of American Coot. Photo Denise Hughes/Macaulay Library.


When first observed, this was considered a rare Caribbean Coot for Bermuda. Now, with the lump, this is considered American Coot (White-shielded), although since this shield morph predominates in the Caribbean, this was likely a stray from the south rather than a rare variant from the North American continent. Photo Andrew Dobson/Macaulay Library.

Forest Dove Columba simplex is lumped with Lemon Dove Columba larvata. We recognize simplex as a monotypic group, Lemon Dove (Sao Tome) Columba larvata simplex. Position simplex immediately following the entry for Lemon Dove (Principe) Columba larvata principalis.

Barbary Falcon  Falco pelegrinoides is lumped with Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus, although we continue to recognize this taxon as a monotypic group, Peregrine Falcon (Barbary) Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides.

Port Lincoln Parrot  Barnardius zonarius and Mallee Ringneck  Barnardius barnardi are lumped as Australian Ringneck Barnardius zonarius. The four subspecific forms in this species are retained and we continue to encourage reporting at the subspecies group level.

Pittas: Last year’s split of Red-bellied Pitta into 17 species has been realigned a bit. Below are six lumps that emerge from a reconsideration of the species-limits in this complex group.

Sulu Pitta  Erythropitta yairocho and Talaud Pitta  Erythropitta inspeculata, both poorly known, are lumped with Blue-breasted Pitta Erythropitta erythrogaster. Sulu Pitta is not considered to be distinctive enough for an identifiable subspecies group, and thus is considered a subspecies (Pitta erythrogaster yairocho. ) in the Clements Checklist, Talaud Pitta is retained as a subspecies group: Blue-breasted Pitta (Talaud) Erythropitta erythrogaster inspeculata.

Buru Pitta  Erythropitta rubrinucha and Seram Pitta  Erythropitta piroensis are lumped as South Moluccan Pitta Erythropitta rubrinucha. Neither is retained as an identifiable subspecies group.

Habenicht’s Pitta  Erythropitta habenichti and D’Entrecasteaux Pitta  Erythropitta finschii are lumped with Papuan Pitta Erythropitta macklotii, and become Erythropitta macklotii habenichti and Erythropitta macklotii finschii, respectively. Neither of these is judged distinctive enough to be retained as a field identifiable subspecies group.

Roosevelt Antwren  Epinecrophylla dentei is a recently described species that was added, provisionally, to eBird/Clements Checklist 6.8, pending review by AOU-SACC of this proposed new species. Based on current information, AOU-SACC has voted to not recognize dentei as a species (AOU-SACC Proposal 589), opting instead to consider dentei as a subspecies of the recently split Madeira Antwren Epinecrophylla amazonica. Consequently we follow AOU-SACC in treating dentei as a subspecies, although we recognize it as a monotypic group, Madeira Antwren (Roosevelt) Epinecrophylla amazonica dentei.

Sanford’s Bowerbird  Archboldia sanfordi is lumped with Archbold’s Bowerbird Archboldia papuensis, and becomes Archboldia papuensis sanfordi.


Each year, a few newly described species or populations newly recognized for their distinctiveness are named and added to the eBird/Clements taxonomy. This just goes to show how much remains to be learned about the birds of the World! Full details for can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page.

  • Perija Tapaculo Scytalopus perijanus [map] [my records] – This is newly recognized, but was listed in eBird previous as Perija Tapaculo (undescribed form). It occurs in the Sierra de Perijá, Colombia and possibly Venezuela.
  • Himalayan Thrush Zoothera salimalii [map] [my records] – See above under the split of Plain-backed Thrush; this species is newly described but discussed with the recongition of Alpine and Sichuan Thrushes above.


The following new subspecies groups are now available for data entry. When you are certain you have seen representatives of these groups, and ideally have identified them critically based on their field marks, please report them to eBird. Please do not guess based on the name, such as “Northern” and “Southern” or “African” and “Asian”; make sure you understand the differences being represented before reporting at so specific a level.

  • Brown Tinamou (castaneus) Crypturellus obsoletus castaneus
  • Brown Tinamou (Brown) Crypturellus obsoletus [obsoletus Group]
  • White-capped Albatross (cauta) Thalassarche cauta cauta
  • White-capped Albatross (steadi) Thalassarche cauta steadi
  • Little Egret (Australasian) Egretta garzetta nigripes
  • Gray-cowled Wood-Rail (Gray-cowled) Aramides cajaneus cajaneus
  • Gray-cowled Wood-Rail (Gray-backed) Aramides cajaneus avicenniae
  • Eurasian Oystercatcher (Western) Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus/longipes
  • Eurasian Oystercatcher (Far Eastern) Haematopus ostralegus osculans
  • Whimbrel (Steppe) Numenius phaeopus alboaxillaris
  • Gray-green Fruit-Dove (chrysogaster) Ptilinopus purpuratus chrysogaster
  • Gray-green Fruit-Dove (purpuratus/frater) Ptilinopus purpuratus purpuratus/frater
  • Oriental Scops-Owl (Oriental) Otus sunia [sunia Group]
  • Oriental Scops-Owl (Walden’s) Otus sunia modestus
  • Southern Boobook (Roti) Ninox novaeseelandiae rotiensis
  • Southern Boobook (Timor) Ninox novaeseelandiae fusca
  • Southern Boobook (Alor) Ninox novaeseelandiae plesseni
  • Southern Boobook (Red) Ninox novaeseelandiae lurida
  • Band-winged Nightjar (Rufous-naped) Systellura longirostris ruficervix
  • Band-winged Nightjar (atripunctata) Systellura longirostris atripunctata
  • Band-winged Nightjar (Austral) Systellura longirostris bifasciata/patagonica
  • Band-winged Nightjar (longirostris) Systellura longirostris longirostris
  • Band-rumped Swift (aetherodroma) Chaetura spinicaudus aetherodroma
  • Band-rumped Swift (spinicaudus/latirostris) Chaetura spinicaudus spinicaudus/latirostris
  • Band-rumped Swift (aethalea) Chaetura spinicaudus aethalea
  • Gray-rumped Swift (phaeopygos) Chaetura cinereiventris phaeopygos
  • Gray-rumped Swift (occidentalis) Chaetura cinereiventris occidentalis
  • Speckled Hummingbird (melanogenys Group) Adelomyia melanogenys [melanogenys Group]
  • Speckled Hummingbird (maculata) Adelomyia melanogenys maculata
  • Speckled Hummingbird (inornata Adelomyia melanogenys inornata
  • Indian Roller (Indian) Coracias benghalensis benghalensis/indicus
  • Indian Roller (Black-billed) Coracias benghalensis affinis
  • Red-breasted Sapsucker (ruber) Sphyrapicus ruber ruber
  • Red-breasted Sapsucker (daggetti) Sphyrapicus ruber daggetti
  • Crimson-breasted Woodpecker (Scarlet-breasted) Dendrocopos cathpharius [cathpharius Group]
  • Crimson-breasted Woodpecker (Crimson-breasted) Dendrocopos cathpharius [pernyii Group]
  • White-backed Woodpecker (Lilford’s) Dendrocopos leucotos lilfordi
  • White-backed Woodpecker (White-backed) Dendrocopos leucotos [leucotos Group]
  • White-backed Woodpecker (Amami) Dendrocopos leucotos owstoni
  • Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker (Eurasian) Picoides tridactylus [tridactylus Group]
  • Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker (Dark-bodied) Picoides tridactylus funebris
  • Black-rumped Flameback (Black-rumped) Dinopium benghalense [benghalense Group]
  • Black-rumped Flameback (Red-backed) Dinopium benghalense psarodes
  • Greater Flameback (Malabar) Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus socialis
  • Greater Flameback (Greater) Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus [guttacristatus Group]
  • Blue-breasted Pitta (Blue-breasted) Erythropitta erythrogaster [erythrogaster Group]
  • Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Northern) Phaeomyias murina incomta/eremonoma
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (Northern) Pyrocephalus rubinus [mexicanus Group]
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (saturatus) Pyrocephalus rubinus saturatus
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (obscurus Group) Pyrocephalus rubinus [obscurus Group]
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (San Cristobal) Pyrocephalus rubinus dubius
  • Sooty-crowned Flycatcher (phaeocephalus) Myiarchus phaeocephalus phaeocephalus
  • Sooty-crowned Flycatcher (interior) Myiarchus phaeocephalus interior
  • Cardinal Myzomela (Loyalty) Myzomela cardinalis lifuensis
  • Cardinal Myzomela (Cardinal) Myzomela cardinalis [cardinalis Group]
  • Cardinal Myzomela (Samoan) Myzomela cardinalis nigriventris
  • Silktail (Taveuni) Lamprolia victoriae victoriae
  • Silktail (Natewa) Lamprolia victoriae klinesmithi
  • Blyth’s Paradise-Flycatcher (Blyth’s) Terpsiphone affinis [affinis Group]
  • Blyth’s Paradise-Flycatcher (Lesser Sundas) Terpsiphone affinis floris/sumbaensis
  • Fiji Shrikebill (Manua) Clytorhynchus vitiensis powelli
  • Fiji Shrikebill (Fiji) Clytorhynchus vitiensis [vitiensis Group]
  • Fiji Shrikebill (Fortuna) Clytorhynchus vitiensis fortunae
  • Fiji Shrikebill (Dusky) Clytorhynchus vitiensis keppeli
  • Black-and-white Monarch (Solomons) Symposiachrus barbatus barbatus
  • Black-and-white Monarch (White-cheeked) Symposiachrus barbatus malaitae
  • Blanford’s Lark (blanfordi) Calandrella blanfordi blanfordi
  • Blanford’s Lark (eremica/daaroodensis) Calandrella blandfordi eremica/daaroodensis
  • Black-throated Tit (Red-headed) Aegithalos concinnus iredalei
  • White-breasted Wood-Wren (Choco) Henicorhina leucosticta inornata/eucharis
  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (hilaris) Henicorhina leucophrys hilaris
  • Light-vented Bulbul (sinensis) Pycnonotus sinensis sinensis
  • Light-vented Bulbul (hainanus) Pycnonotus sinensis hainanus
  • Light-vented Bulbul (formosae/orii) Pycnonotus sinensis formosae/orii
  • Flavescent Bulbul (Flavescent) Pycnonotus flavescens [flavescens Group]
  • Flavescent Bulbul (Pale-faced) Pycnonotus flavescens leucops
  • Black Bulbul (psaroides Group) Hypsipetes leucocephalus [psaroides Group]
  • Black Bulbul (Black) Hypsipetes leucocephalus sinensis/ambiens
  • Black Bulbul (leucocephalus Group) Hypsipetes leucocephalus [leucocephalus Group]
  • Black Bulbul (perniger) Hypsipetes leucocephalus perniger
  • Black Bulbul (Gray-winged) Hypsipetes leucocephalus nigerrimus
  • Japanese White-eye (Japanese) Zosterops japonicus [japonicus Group]
  • Japanese White-eye (simplex/haianus) Zosterops japonicus simplex/haianus
  • Coral-billed Scimitar-Babbler (Black-crowned) Pomatorhinus ferruginosus ferruginosus
  • Coral-billed Scimitar-Babbler (Phayre’s) Pomatorhinus ferruginosus phayrei/stanfordi
  • Coral-billed Scimitar-Babbler (albogularis Group) Pomatorhinus ferruginosus [albogularis Group]
  • Spotted Flycatcher (Spotted) Muscicapa striata [striata Group]
  • Spotted Flycatcher (Mediterranean) Muscicapa striata tyrrhenica/balearica
  • Blue Rock-Thrush (pandoo) Monticola solitarius pandoo
  • Black-billed Thrush (Drab) Turdus ignobilis [ignobilis Group]
  • Black-billed Thrush (Amazonian) Turdus ignobilis debilis
  • Black-billed Thrush (Campina) Turdus ignobilis arthuri
  • Polynesian Starling (Polynesian) Aplonis tabuensis [tabuensis Group]
  • Polynesian Starling (Manua) Aplonis tabuensis manuae
  • Thick-billed Flowerpecker (obsoletum Group) Dicaeum agile [obsoletum Group]
  • Citrine Wagtail (Gray-backed) Motacilla citreola citreola/werae
  • Citrine Wagtail (Black-backed) Motacilla citreola calcarata
  • Water Pipit (Western) Anthus spinoletta spinoletta
  • Water Pipit (Caucasian) Anthus spinoletta coutellii
  • Water Pipit (Blakiston’s) Anthus spinoletta blakistoni
  • Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (septentrionalis) Geospiza difficilis septentrionalis
  • Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (acutirostris) Geospiza difficilis acutirostris
  • Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (difficilis) Geospiza difficilis difficilis
  • Large Cactus-Finch (darwinii) Geospiza conirostris darwinii
  • Large Cactus-Finch (conirostris) Geospiza conirostris conirostris
  • Large Cactus-Finch (propinqua) Geospiza conirostris propinqua
  • Black-faced Bunting (spodocephala/sordida) Emberiza spodocephala spodocephala/sordida
  • Black-faced Bunting (personata) Emberiza spodocephala personata
  • Yellow-mantled Widowbird (Yellow-shouldered) Euplectes macroura macrocercus
  • Yellow-mantled Widowbird (Yellow-mantled) Euplectes macroura macroura/conradsi
  • Black-throated Finch (Black-rumped) Poephila cincta atropygialis
  • Black-throated Finch (White-rumped) Poephila cincta cincta
  • Chestnut Munia (Chestnut) Lonchura atricapilla [atricapilla Group]
  • Chestnut Munia (formosana) Lonchura atricapilla formosana
Vermilion Flycatcher

Male Vermilion Flycatchers are showy and unmistakable, but the females may hold the keys to identification if Vermilion Flycatcher is split into multiple species. This female will look very dusky and smudgy to North American birders who are familiar with Vermilion Flycatcher (Northern) and is a member of the austral migrant group, which can be reported as Vermilion Flycatcher (Austral) in eBird. Watch for these to appear in Amazonia (e.g., eastern Peru) from April to October. Photo Chris Wood/Macaulay Library.


eBird has a long list of field identifiable hybrids. These are always listed in taxonomic order (the species that comes first sequentially is listed first) and are always followed by “hybrid”. If you identified a hybrid, especially any of the below, please do report it to eBird (hopefully with photos)! eBird also maintains a much shorter lists of intergrades (hybrids between subspecies groups); these are followed by the phrase “intergrade” and can be identified from the scientific name by the structure of the names which indicates that it is a subspecies. Hybrids and intergrades are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Emperor x Cackling Goose (hybrid) Chen canagica x Branta hutchinsii
  • Mute x Trumpeter Swan (hybrid) Cygnus olor x buccinator
  • Wood x Mandarin Duck (hybrid) Aix sponsa x galericulata
  • Mallard x Indian Spot-billed Duck (hybrid) Anas platyrhynchos x poecilorhyncha
  • Mallard x Eastern Spot-billed Duck (hybrid) Anas platyrhynchos x zonorhyncha
  • Northern Shoveler x Garganey (hybrid) Anas clypeata x querquedula
  • Northern Pintail x Baikal Teal (hybrid) Anas acuta x formosa
  • Ferruginous Duck x Baer’s Pochard (hybrid) Aythya nyroca x baeri
  • Ferruginous x Tufted Duck (hybrid) Aythya nyroca x fuligula
  • Common Eider x Common Merganser (hybrid) Somateria mollissima x Mergus merganser
  • Eurasian Capercaillie x Black Grouse (hybrid) Tetrao urogallus x tetrix
  • Great White x Dalmatian Pelican (hybrid) Pelecanus onocrotalus x crispus
  • Lesser x Greater Spotted Eagle (hybrid) Clanga pomarina x clanga
  • Black-backed x Gray-headed Swamphen (hybrid) Porphyrio indicus x poliocephalus
  • Red-gartered x Slate-colored Coot (hybrid) Fulica armillata x ardesiaca
  • Black-winged x Black-necked Stilt (hybrid) Himantopus himantopus x mexicanus
  • Mediterranean x Mew Gull (hybrid) Ichthyaetus melanocephalus x Larus canus
  • Great x Chinese Crested Tern (hybrid) Thalasseus bergii x bernsteini
  • Asian x Pacific Emerald Dove (hybrid) Chalcophaps indica x longirostris
  • Ruby-throated x Black-chinned Hummingbird (hybrid) Archilochus colubris x alexandri
  • Broad-tailed x Calliope Hummingbird (hybrid) Selasphorus platycercus x calliope
  • Rufous x Calliope Hummingbird (hybrid) Selasphorus rufus x calliope
  • Indian Roller (Indian x Black-billed) Coracias benghalensis benghalensis/indicus x affinis
  • Hoffmann’s x Golden-fronted Woodpecker (hybrid) Melanerpes hoffmannii x aurifrons
  • Crimson-crested x Cream-backed Woodpecker (hybrid) Campephilus melanoleucos x leucopogon
  • Eurasian Green x Gray-headed Woodpecker (hybrid) Picus viridis x canus
  • Black-rumped Flameback (Black-rumped x Red-backed) Dinopium benghalense puncticolle x psarodes
  • lorikeet sp. (hybrid) Glossopsitta/Trichoglossus sp. (hybrid)
  • Red-crowned x Red-lored Parrot (hybrid) Amazona viridigenalis x autumnalis
  • Western x Eastern Wood-Pewee (hybrid) Contopus sordidulus x virens
  • Tropical x Gray Kingbird (hybrid) Tyrannus melancholicus x dominicensis
  • Red-backed x Red-tailed Shrike (hybrid) Lanius collurio x phoenicuroides
  • Red-backed x Woodchat Shrike (hybrid) Lanius collurio x senator
  • Black-headed x African Paradise-Flycatcher (hybrid) Terpsiphone rufiventer x viridis
  • Karoo x Barlow’s Lark (hybrid) Calendulauda albescens x barlowi
  • Eastern x Mountain Bluebird (hybrid) Sialia sialis x currucoides
  • Veery x Bicknell’s Thrush (hybrid) Catharus fuscescens x bicknelli
  • Yellow x Prairie Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga petechia x discolor
  • Black-throated Gray x Townsend’s Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga nigrescens x townsendi
  • Golden-fronted x Spectacled Redstart (hybrid) Myioborus ornatus x melanocephalus
  • Dark-eyed x Yellow-eyed Junco (hybrid) Junco hyemalis x phaeonotus
  • Canyon x Abert’s Towhee (hybrid) Melozone fusca x aberti
  • Black-headed x Red-headed Bunting (hybrid) Emberiza melanocephala x bruniceps
  • Blue Grosbeak x Indigo Bunting (hybrid) Passerina caerulea x cyanea
  • House x Italian Sparrow (hybrid) Passer domesticus x italiae
  • Spanish x Eurasian Tree Sparrow (hybrid) Passer hispaniolensis x montanus


Within eBird, we also have forms for taxa that are field identifiable (or likely potential species) and worth tracking, but are not formally described. These include undescribed species and undescribed subspecies groups (both noted with “undescribed form”), slashes at a level between subspecies group and species (e.g., “Whimbrel (White-rumped)” below) and miscellaneous other options. This year’s update includes five “undescribed forms”: a controversial Sporophila seedeater that is mired in a nomenclatural debate; a subtle spinetail from Amazonian Brasil, a subtle tapaculo from Peru, a Macropygia cuckoo-dove from Palawan (sw. of the Philippines), and Painted Manakin. Forms are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Leach’s/Townsend’s Storm-Petrel (white-rumped) Oceanodroma leucorhoa/socorroensis (white-rumped)
  • Whimbrel (White-rumped) Numenius phaeopus phaeopus/alboaxillaris/variegatus
  • Palawan Cuckoo-Dove (undescribed form) Macropygia [undescribed form]
  • Lambayeque Tapaculo (undescribed form) Scytalopus [undescribed Lambayeque form]
  • Araguaia River Spinetail (undescribed species) Certhiaxis [undescribed species]
  • Painted Manakin (undescribed form) Machaeropterus [undescribed form]
  • Ibera Seedeater (undescribed form) Sporophila [undescribed form]


eBird has certain domesticated species that are regularly seen in a feral or wild state. The distinction between a “Domestic” and a wild type bird of the same species is in its appearance, and domestics are always identifiable as having domestic ancestry, often in their white, yellow, or otherwise abnormal plumage, or less often, in their size or shape (e.g., Graylag Goose (Domestic type) is larger and more pot-bellied than wild Graylag Geese). Domestics are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist. We have not added any domestics for 2016.

  • No additions for 2016!


As with hybrids, eBird has a long list of “slashes” and “spuhs”. These are useful in the field if you get a good enough look at a bird to know it, for example, a scoter, but not to tell if it was a Common Scoter, Black Scoter, Surf Scoter, or White-winged Scoter. You can use “scoter sp.”, in such instances. If you are able to narrow it down to two (or in rare cases, three or four) species options, we have “slashes”, which mention the full common name (and scientific name) for the species that are potential species for your observation (e.g., Surf/Black Scoter). This list is being regularly updated as observers let us know what field identification problems they encounter. Slashes and spuhs are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Common/Somali Ostrich Struthio camelus/molybdophanes
  • Chloephaga sp. Chloephaga sp.
  • Common/Rain Quail Coturnix coturnix/coromandelica
  • Tibetan/Himalayan Snowcock Tetraogallus tibetanus/himalayensis
  • Leach’s/Townsend’s Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa/socorroensis
  • Leach’s/Townsend’s/Ainley’s Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa/socorroensis/cheimomnestes
  • Black-crowned/Rufous Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax/caledonicus
  • Japanese/Malayan Night-Heron Gorsachius goisagi/melanolophus
  • spoonbill sp. Platalea sp.
  • White-backed/Cape Griffon Gyps africanus/coprotheres
  • Japanese Sparrowhawk/Besra Accipiter gularis/virgatus
  • Golden/Bald Eagle Aquila chrysaetos/Haliaeetus leucocephalus
  • Haliaeetus sp. Haliaeetus sp.
  • Common/Great Black Hawk Buteogallus anthracinus/urubitinga
  • Buteogallus sp. Buteogallus sp.
  • Common/Himalayan Buzzard Buteo buteo/refectus
  • Common/Himalayan/Eastern Buzzard Buteo buteo/refectus/japonicus
  • Himalayan/Eastern Buzzard Buteo refectus/japonicus
  • Water/Brown-cheeked Rail Rallus aquaticus/indicus
  • Little/Baillon’s Crake Zapornia parva/pusilla
  • Zapornia sp. Zapornia sp.
  • Black-backed/Gray-headed Swamphen Porphyrio indicus/poliocephalus
  • Far Eastern/Eurasian Curlew Numenius madagascariensis/arquata
  • Rock/Purple Sandpiper Calidris ptilocnemis/maritima
  • Common/Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa nebularia/guttifer
  • Black-headed/Brown-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus/brunnicephalus
  • Herring/Glaucous-winged Gull Larus argentatus/glaucescens
  • Lesser/Greater Roadrunner Geococcyx velox/californianus
  • malkoha sp. Cuculidae sp. (malkoha sp.)
  • Yellow-billed/Pearly-breasted Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus/euleri
  • Cercococcyx sp. Cercococcyx sp.
  • Pacific/Cook’s Swift Apus pacificus/cooki
  • Little/House Swift Apus affinis/nipalensis
  • Oreotrochilus sp. Oreotrochilus sp.
  • woodstar sp. Trochilidae sp. (woodstar sp.)
  • african trogon sp. Apaloderma sp.
  • woodhoopoe/scimitarbill sp. Phoeniculus/Rhinopomastus sp.
  • White-barred/Ocellated Piculet Picumnus cirratus/dorbignyanus
  • Hoffmann’s/Golden-fronted Woodpecker Melanerpes hoffmannii/aurifrons
  • Crimson-breasted/Darjeeling Woodpecker Dendrocopos cathpharius/darjellensis
  • Ladder-backed/Nuttall’s Woodpecker Picoides scalaris/nuttallii
  • racquet-tail sp. Prioniturus sp.
  • Neophema sp. Neophema sp.
  • Undulated/Fulvous Antshrike Frederickena unduliger/fulva
  • Blackish/Riparian Antbird Cercomacroides nigrescens/fuscicauda
  • Duida/Inambari Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes duidae/fatimalimae
  • Cryptic Treehunter/Alagoas Foliage-Gleaner Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti/Philydor novaesi
  • Yellow-chinned/Red-and-white Spinetail Certhiaxis cinnamomeus/mustelinus
  • White-winged/Hudson’s Black-Tyrant Knipolegus aterrimus/hudsoni
  • Venezuelan/Panama Flycatcher Myiarchus venezuelensis/panamensis
  • miner sp. (Manorina sp.) Manorina sp.
  • Brown/Tasmanian Thornbill Acanthiza pusilla/ewingii
  • Ashy/Brown-rumped Minivet Pericrocotus divaricatus/cantonensis
  • minivet sp. (red minivet sp.) Pericrocotus sp. (red minivet sp.)
  • minivet sp. (gray minivet sp.) Pericrocotus sp. (grey minivet sp.)
  • Red-tailed/Isabelline/Brown Shrike Lanius phoenicuroides/isabellinus/cristatus
  • Japanese/Amur Paradise-Flycatcher Terpsiphone atrocaudata/incei
  • Amur/Blyth’s Paradise-Flycatcher Terpsiphone incei/affinis
  • Blyth’s/Indian Paradise-Flycatcher Terpsiphone affinis/paradisi
  • paradise-flycatcher sp. Terpsiphone sp.
  • treepie sp. Dendrocitta/Crypsirina/Temnurus sp.
  • Petroica sp. Petroica sp.
  • Calandrella/Alaudala sp. Calandrella/Alaudala sp.
  • Thekla/Crested Lark Galerida theklae/cristata
  • Eurasian Crag-Martin/Rock Martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris/fuligula
  • Chestnut-bellied/Varied Tit Sittiparus castaneoventris/varius
  • Black-capped/Mountain Chickadee Poecile atricapillus/gambeli
  • Moustached/Coraya Wren Pheugopedius genibarbis/coraya
  • Cabanis’s/Canebrake Wren Cantorchilus modestus/zeledoni
  • Cabanis’s/Isthmian Wren Cantorchilus modestus/elutus
  • Styan’s/Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus taivanus/sinensis
  • Dusky/Smoky Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus/fuligiventer
  • Tickell’s/Alpine Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus affinis/occisinensis
  • Dusky/Yellow-streaked/Radde’s Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus/armandii/schwarzi
  • Pale-rumped/Sichuan Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus chloronotus/forresti
  • Limestone Leaf/Sulphur-breasted Warbler Phylloscopus calciatilis/ricketti
  • Golden-spectacled/Whistler’s Warbler Seicercus burkii/whistleri
  • Gray-crowned/Whistler’s Warbler Seicercus tephrocephalus/whistleri
  • Martens’s/Bianchi’s Warbler Seicercus omeiensis/valentini
  • Seicercus sp. (Golden-spectacled Warbler complex) Seicercus sp. (burkii complex)
  • Great/Oriental/Clamorous Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus/orientalis/stentoreus
  • Gray’s/Sakhalin Grasshopper-Warbler Locustella fasciolata/amnicola
  • Chinese/Baikal Bush-Warbler Locustella tacsanowskia/davidi
  • Baikal/Spotted Bush-Warbler Locustella davidi/thoracica
  • Brown/Russet Bush-Warbler Locustella luteoventris/mandelli
  • Yellow-bellied/Ashy Prinia Prinia flaviventris/socialis
  • Lesser/Greater Necklaced Laughingthrush Garrulax monileger/Ianthocincla pectoralis
  • Muscicapa/Bradornis sp. Muscicapa/Bradornis sp.
  • Pied/Cyprus Wheatear Oenanthe pleschanka/cypriaca
  • Alpine/Himalayan Thrush Zoothera mollissima/salimalii
  • Alpine/Sichuan Thrush Zoothera mollissima/griseiceps
  • Bassian/Russet-tailed Thrush Zoothera lunulata/heinei
  • Olive/Karoo Thrush Turdus olivaceus/smithi
  • Purple/Green Cochoa Cochoa purpurea/viridis
  • Brown/Gray Trembler Cinclocerthia ruficauda/gutturalis
  • Jungle/Crested Myna Acridotheres fuscus/cristatellus
  • Jerdon’s/Golden-fronted Leafbird Chloropsis jerdoni/aurifrons
  • Richard’s/Blyth’s Pipit Anthus richardi/godlewskii
  • Black-throated Gray/Townsend’s Warbler Setophaga nigrescens/townsendi
  • Pallas’s/Reed Bunting Emberiza pallasi/schoeniclus
  • Streaked/Great Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilloides/rubicilla
  • Italian/Spanish Sparrow Passer italiae/hispaniolensis
  • quelea sp. Quelea sp.


A persistent problem in eBird is when birders assume a subspecies group without fully understanding the status, occurrence, range, or field marks of the relevant options. While we want to collect carefully identified records of subspecies, and while known status is always a factor in bird identification, making incorrect assumptions is very dangerous for eBird data quality. An example would be Willet (Eastern) Tringa semipalmata semipalmata and Willet (Western) Tringa semipalmata inornata. Incautious observers regularly report Willet (Eastern) because they are standing on the Atlantic coast without understanding the (very subtle!) field identification characteristics or true status of “Western” Willet. In fact, subspecies inornata (which as a breeding bird is the more westerly of the two, breeding in the interior of the USA and southern Canada, and is the only form on the Pacific coast) is also the common wintering Willet in the southeastern USA and Gulf coast and returning migrants may return to the winter range as early as 1 July (and some birds oversummer!). “Eastern” Willet (which breeds exclusively in Gulf coast and East coast saltmarshes) actually winters almost exclusively in South America, and is very rare in Canada, the USA, and Caribbean after 1 September. Thus, while Willets on the East Coast that are obviously breeding can be identified as “Eastern Willet”, and those carefully identified by plumage and/or structure can be identified with care, the mere presence of a Willet on the East Coast does not allow one to identify it to subspecies. For those that do not understand all these nuances, we encourage conservative reporting as simply “Willet”.

This is not a problem unique to Willets. We often see birders assume an identification of a subspecies group with an “Eastern” or “Northern” moniker in the name, or appearing on the eBird filter, can be safely reported. While this is sometimes true, it is always important to understand the status and field marks for the subspecies you report. And since subspecies groups are often subtle, we always encourage adding photos or notes to support your identification.

To help minimize some of the problems of erroneous assumptions of subspecies group in eBird, in our 2015 taxonomic update we undertook an “ambiguation” process. Several subspecies groups that were formerly described with “eastern” and “western”, or similar geographical monikers, had their names changed to use the formal subspecific epithet. For example, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Northern) is now Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (fulgens) and Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Southern) is now Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (autumnalis). This is intended to be a cautionary flag for eBirders: if you see a subspecies group with this name (always in lowercase), it is a very tricky identification issue and one you should only report if you fully understand it. In general, these taxa will not appear on eBird filters and must be intentionally sought in eBird using “Add a species”. This year, we only added a taxa species for this type of name change (this is also listed in “Common Name changes” below):

  • Northern Fulmar (Pacific) —> Northern Fulmar (rodgersii)

A second process involved the removal of subspecies groups in places where the subspecies groups were not possible to safely identify in the field and not possible to validate in our review process, even with excellent documentation. The species involved in this include:

  • Double-crested Cormorant: The “white-crested” and “dark-crested” forms are illustrated in field guides and in breeding condition (the only time this species shows obvious crests). Most eastern birds are obviously dark-crested and most western birds are obviously white-crested. However, further research has shown that occasional white-crested birds occur in the east and occasional dark-crested birds occur in the west and that this happens at rates unlikely for vagrancy. It seems most likely that this field mark is not reliable to identify these forms, and since no other field marks are known, we remove these subspecies group options since they subspecies groups are not safely identifiable in the field. We encourage birders to continue to take note of crest color in breeding plumage cormorants and to submit photos to document what you see and add species comments to help better understand this issue.


See the Clements Checklist updates (here) of the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia that is split into unique species on each continent; the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash). Other general changes, including corrections and decisions to use an alternate common name, have been made here. One change to note this year involves the umlauts; what was a Anglicized name (e.g., Krueper’s Nuthatch) now more accurately reflects Mr. Krüper for whom the nuthatch was named (Krüper’s Nuthatch). Watch for similar changes for birds names after Mr. Rüppell.

  • Tinamou sp. —> tinamou sp.
  • Brant x Snow Goose (hybrid) —> Snow Goose x Brant (hybrid)
  • Graylag Goose x Canada Goose (hybrid) —> Graylag x Canada Goose (hybrid)
  • Red-throated Piping-Guan (White-crested) —> Red-throated Piping-Guan (Gray-crested)
  • Red-throated Piping-Guan (Gray-crested) —> Red-throated Piping-Guan (White-crested)
  • Taiwan Bamboo-Partidge —> Taiwan Bamboo-Partridge
  • Northern Fulmar (Pacific) —> Northern Fulmar (rodgersii)
  • Great-winged Petrel (Great-winged) —> Great-winged Petrel
  • Great-winged Petrel (Gray-faced) —> Gray-faced Petrel
  • Great-winged Petrel —> Great-winged/Gray-faced Petrel
  • Levantine/Balearic Shearwater —> Yelkouan/Balearic Shearwater
  • Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Townsend’s) —> Townsend’s Storm-Petrel
  • Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Chapman’s/Townsend’s) —> Leach’s/Townsend’s Storm-Petrel (dark-rumped)
  • Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Ainley’s) —> Ainley’s Storm-Petrel
  • Indian/Little Cormorant —> Little/Indian Cormorant
  • Double-crested/Great Cormorant —> Great/Double-crested Cormorant
  • Little Egret (Little) —> Little Egret (Western)
  • Little Egret x Snowy Egret (hybrid) —> Little x Snowy Egret (hybrid)
  • Rueppell’s Griffon —> Rüppell’s Griffon
  • White-backed Vulture/Rueppell’s Griffon —> White-backed Vulture/Rüppell’s Griffon
  • Rueppell’s/Eurasian Griffon —> Rüppell’s/Eurasian Griffon
  • Crowned Hawk-Eagle —> Crowned Eagle
  • Crowned Eagle —> Chaco Eagle
  • Rueppell’s Bustard —> Rüppell’s Bustard
  • Gray-necked Wood-Rail —> Russet-naped/Gray-cowled Wood-Rail
  • Porzana sp. —> Hapalocrex/Porzana/Zapornia sp.
  • American/Caribbean Coot —> American Coot
  • American Coot —> American Coot (Red-shielded)
  • Caribbean Coot —> American Coot (White-shielded)
  • Whimbrel (American) —> Whimbrel (Hudsonian)
  • Andean Snipe —> Jameson’s Snipe
  • Fairy Tern —> Australian Fairy Tern
  • Little x Fairy Tern (hybrid) —> Little x Australian Fairy Tern (hybrid)
  • Little/Fairy Tern —> Little/Australian Fairy Tern
  • Forest Dove —> Lemon Dove (Sao Tome)
  • Dusky Cuckoo-Dove —> Flores Sea Cuckoo-Dove
  • Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove —> Amboyna Cuckoo-Dove
  • Emerald Dove (Common) —> Asian Emerald Dove
  • Emerald Dove (Pacific) —> Pacific Emerald Dove
  • Emerald Dove —> Asian/Pacific Emerald Dove
  • ground-dove/Inca Dove —> ground-dove/Inca Dove sp.
  • Pinon Imperial-Pigeon —> Pinon’s Imperial-Pigeon
  • Pinon Imperial-Pigeon (Gray-headed) —> Pinon’s Imperial-Pigeon (Gray-headed)
  • Pinon Imperial-Pigeon (Pink-headed) —> Pinon’s Imperial-Pigeon (Pink-headed)
  • Yellowbill (Blue) —> Blue Malkoha
  • Yellowbill (Green) —> Green Malkoha
  • Klaas’s/Dideric Cuckoo —> Dideric/Klaas’s Cuckoo
  • Square-tailed/Fork-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo —> Fork-tailed/Square-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo
  • Large Hawk-Cuckoo (Large) —> Large Hawk-Cuckoo
  • Large Hawk-Cuckoo (Dark) —> Dark Hawk-Cuckoo
  • Large Hawk-Cuckoo —> Large/Dark Hawk-Cuckoo
  • Common/African Cuckoo —> African/Common Cuckoo
  • Band-winged Nightjar (Tschudi’s) —> Tschudi’s Nightjar
  • Philippine Needletail —> Philippine Spinetailed Swift
  • Green Violetear (Northern) —> Mexican Violetear
  • Green Violetear (Costa Rican) —> Lesser Violetear (Costa Rican)
  • Green Violetear (Andean) —> Lesser Violetear (Andean)
  • Green/Sparkling Violetear —> Lesser/Sparkling Violetear
  • Violet-crowned Plovercrest —> Purple-crowned Plovercrest
  • Black Scimitar-bill —> Black Scimitarbill
  • Common Scimitar-bill —> Common Scimitarbill
  • Abyssinian Scimitar-bill —> Abyssinian Scimitarbill
  • Blue-crowned Motmot (Blue-crowned) —> Blue-capped Motmot
  • Blue-crowned Motmot (Lesson’s) —> Lesson’s Motmot
  • Western Puffbird —> Western Striolated-Puffbird
  • Striolated Puffbird —> Eastern Striolated-Puffbird
  • Striolated Puffbird (Natterer’s) —> Eastern Striolated-Puffbird (Natterer’s)
  • Striolated Puffbird (Eastern) —> Eastern Striolated-Puffbird (torridus)
  • Acorn Woodpecker (San Lucan) —> Acorn Woodpecker (Narrow-fronted)
  • Golden-fronted Woodpecker (East Mexico) —> Golden-fronted Woodpecker (Velasquez’s )
  • Barbary Falcon —> Peregrine Falcon (Barbary)
  • cacatua sp. —> corella/cockatoo sp.
  • Port Lincoln Parrot —> Australian Ringneck
  • Port Lincoln Parrot (Twenty-eight) —> Australian Ringneck (Twenty-eight)
  • Port Lincoln Parrot (Port Lincoln) —> Australian Ringneck (Port Lincoln)
  • Mallee Ringneck (Mallee) —> Australian Ringneck (Mallee)
  • Mallee Ringneck (Cloncurry) —> Australian Ringneck (Cloncurry)
  • Rueppell’s Parrot —> Rüppell’s Parrot
  • Talaud Pitta —> Blue-breasted Pitta (Talaud)
  • Moluccan Pitta —> North Moluccan Pitta
  • Stipple-throated Antwren (Negro) —> Fulvous-throated Antwren
  • Stipple-throated Antwren (Napo) —> Rufous-backed Antwren
  • Stipple-throated Antwren (Madeira) —> Madeira Antwren (Madeira)
  • Roosevelt Antwren —> Madeira Antwren (Roosevelt)
  • Schistocichla sp. —> Myrmelastes sp.
  • Rufous Gnateater (Ceara) —> Ceara Gnateater
  • Rufous Gnateater (Rufous) —> Rufous Gnateater
  • Perija Tapaculo (undescribed form) —> Perija Tapaculo
  • Apurimac Tapaculo (undescribed form) —> Ayacucho Tapaculo (undescribed form)
  • miner sp. —> miner sp. (Geositta sp.)
  • Vilcabamba Thistletail (Ayacucho) —> Ayacucho Thistletail
  • Vilcabamba Thistletail (Vilcabamba) —> Vilcabamba Thistletail
  • Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Mouse-colored) —> Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Amazonian)
  • Golden-faced Tyrannulet (Coopman’s) —> Golden-faced Tyrannulet (Coopmans’s)
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (rubinus) —> Vermilion Flycatcher (Austral)
  • Spotted Catbird —> Black-eared Catbird
  • Striated Grasswren (Pilbara) —> Pilbara Grasswren
  • Thick-billed Grasswren —> Western Grasswren
  • Thick-billed Grasswren (Western) —> Western Grasswren (Western)
  • Thick-billed Grasswren (Gawler Range) —> Western Grasswren (Gawler Range)
  • Thick-billed Grasswren (Eastern) —> Thick-billed Grasswren
  • Somali Boubou —> Coastal Boubou
  • Golden Whistler (Balim Valley) —> Baliem Whistler
  • Golden Whistler (Eastern) —> Golden Whistler (Golden)
  • Golden Whistler (Western) —> Golden Whistler (fuliginosa)
  • Cassin’s Vireo (San Lucan) —> Cassin’s Vireo (San Lucas)
  • Plumbeous/Cassin’s Vireo —> Cassin’s/Plumbeous Vireo
  • Warbling/Philadelphia Vireo —> Philadelphia/Warbling Vireo
  • Japanese/Amur Paradise-Flycatcher —> Amur/Blyth’s/Indian Paradise-Flycatcher
  • Kulambangra Monarch —> Kolombangra Monarch
  • Blue-crested Flycatcher —> Azure-crested Flycatcher
  • Blue x Green Jay (hybrid) —> Green x Blue Jay (hybrid)
  • Western Scrub-Jay (Coastal) —> California Scrub-Jay
  • Western Scrub-Jay (Woodhouse’s) —> Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay (Woodhouse’s)
  • Western Scrub-Jay (Sumichrast’s) —> Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay (Sumichrast’s)
  • Western Scrub-Jay —> California/Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay
  • Calandra/Bimaculated Lark —> Bimaculated/Calandra Lark
  • Lesser Short-toed Lark (Asian) —> Asian Short-toed Lark
  • Lesser Short-toed Lark (Lesser) —> Lesser Short-toed Lark
  • Greater/Lesser Short-toed Lark —> Greater/Asian/Lesser Short-toed Lark
  • Lesser Short-toed Lark —> Asian/Lesser Short-toed Lark
  • Sky Lark —> Eurasian Skylark
  • Sky Lark (European) —> Eurasian Skylark (European)
  • Sky Lark (Asian) —> Eurasian Skylark (Asian)
  • Sky Lark/Oriental Skylark —> Eurasian/Oriental Skylark
  • Crested Lark (Crested) —> Crested Lark
  • Crested Lark (Maghreb) —> Maghreb Lark
  • Crested Lark —> Crested/Maghreb Lark
  • Crested/Thekla Lark —> Thekla/Crested/Maghreb Lark
  • Cliff Swallow (pyrrhonota/ganieri) —> Cliff Swallow (pyrrhonota Group)
  • Varied Tit (Chestnut-bellied) —> Chestnut-bellied Tit
  • Varied Tit (Iriomote) —> Iriomote Tit
  • Varied Tit (Varied) —> Varied Tit
  • Varied Tit (Owston’s) —> Owston’s Tit
  • Bushtit (Black-eared) —> Bushtit (melanotis Group)
  • Krueper’s Nuthatch —> Krüper’s Nuthatch
  • Rufous-naped Wren (West Mexico) —> Rufous-naped Wren (Sclater’s)
  • Rufous-naped Wren (Guatemalan) —> Rufous-naped Wren (Rufous-backed)
  • Plain Wren —> Cabanis’s Wren
  • Plain Wren (Canebrake) —> Canebrake Wren
  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (anachoreta) —> Santa Marta Wood-Wren
  • Brownish-flanked/Yellow-bellied Bush-Warbler —> Brownish-flanked/Yellowish-bellied Bush-Warbler
  • Kulambangra Leaf Warbler —> Kolombangra Leaf Warbler
  • Cisticola sp. —> cisticola sp.
  • Philippine Tailorbird —> Visayan Tailorbird
  • Prinia sp. —> prinia sp.
  • Rueppell’s Warbler —> Rüppell’s Warbler
  • Subalpine/Montoni’s Warbler —> Subalpine/Moltoni’s Warbler
  • Kulambangra White-eye —> Kolombangra White-eye
  • Sulawesi Streaked Flycatcher —> Sulawesi Brown Flycatcher
  • Rueppell’s Robin-Chat —> Rüppell’s Robin-Chat
  • Siberian Stonechat (Przewalksi’s) —> Siberian Stonechat (Przevalski’s)
  • Rueppell’s Chat —> Rüppell’s Chat
  • White-tailed Wheatear —> White-crowned Wheatear
  • Olive-tailed Thrush —> Bassian Thrush
  • Island Thrush (Kulambangra) —> Island Thrush (Kolombangra)
  • American Robin (San Lucan) —> American Robin (San Lucas)
  • Rueppell’s Starling —> Rüppell’s Starling
  • Thick-billed Flowerpecker (Thick-billed) —> Thick-billed Flowerpecker (Indian)
  • Red-striped Flowerpecker —> Red-keeled Flowerpecker
  • Red-keeled Flowerpecker —> Black-belted Flowerpecker
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (flavissima/lutea) —> Western Yellow Wagtail (lutea/flavissima)
  • Richard’s/Oriental Pipit —> Richard’s/Paddyfield Pipit
  • Przevalski’s Rosefinch —> Przevalski’s Pinktail
  • Common Yellowthroat (occidentalis Group) —> Common Yellowthroat (melanops Group)
  • Three-striped Warbler (Costa Rican) —> Costa Rican Warbler
  • Three-striped Warbler (Tacarcuna) —> Tacarcuna Warbler
  • Rufous-bellied Saltator —> Rufous-bellied Mountain-Tanager
  • Dark-eyed Junco (Slate-colored/Cassiar) —> Dark-eyed Junco (Slate-colored/cismontanus)
  • Slaty Brushfinch (Taczanowki’s) —> Slaty Brushfinch (Taczanowski’s)
  • Tawny-headed Mountain-Finch —> Sillem’s Rosefinch
  • Rueppell’s Weaver —> Rüppell’s Weaver
  • Yellow-shouldered Widowbird —> Yellow-mantled Widowbird


See the Clements Checklist updates (to be posted soon here) for full discussion of the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia that is split into unique species on each continent; the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash).

  • Swan x Graylag Goose (Domestic type) (hybrid): Anser cygnoides x anser (Domestic type) (hybrid) —> Anser cygnoides x anser (Domestic type)
  • Snow Goose x Brant (hybrid): Branta bernicla x Chen caerulescens —> Chen caerulescens x Branta bernicla
  • Trumpeter x Tundra Swan (hybrid): Cygnus buccinator x cygnus —> Cygnus buccinator x columbianus
  • Trumpeter x Whooper Swan (hybrid): Cygnus buccinator x columbianus —> Cygnus buccinator x cygnus
  • White-winged Duck: Cairina scutulata —> Asarcornis scutulata
  • Great-winged Petrel: Pterodroma macroptera macroptera —> Pterodroma macroptera
  • Gray-faced Petrel: Pterodroma macroptera gouldi —> Pterodroma gouldi
  • Great-winged/Gray-faced Petrel: Pterodroma macroptera —> Pterodroma macroptera/gouldi
  • Townsend’s Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma leucorhoa socorroensis —> Oceanodroma socorroensis
  • Leach’s/Townsend’s Storm-Petrel (dark-rumped): Oceanodroma leucorhoa chapmani/soccorroensis —> Oceanodroma leucorhoa/socorroensis (dark-rumped)
  • Ainley’s Storm-Petrel: Oceanodroma leucorhoa cheimomnestes —> Oceanodroma cheimomnestes
  • Little Pied Cormorant: Phalacrocorax melanoleucos —> Microcarbo melanoleucos
  • Long-tailed Cormorant: Phalacrocorax africanus —> Microcarbo africanus
  • Crowned Cormorant: Phalacrocorax coronatus —> Microcarbo coronatus
  • Little Cormorant: Phalacrocorax niger —> Microcarbo niger
  • Pygmy Cormorant: Phalacrocorax pygmeus —> Microcarbo pygmeus
  • Little/Indian Cormorant: Phalacrocorax fuscicollis/niger —> Microcarbo niger/Phalacrocorax fuscicollis
  • Great/Double-crested Cormorant: Phalacrocorax auritus/carbo —> Phalacrocorax carbo/auritus
  • cormorant sp.: Phalacrocorax sp. —> Phalacrocoracidae sp.
  • Little Egret (Western): Egretta garzetta [garzetta Group] —> Egretta garzetta garzetta
  • hawk sp.: Accipitridae sp. —> Accipitridae sp. (hawk sp.)
  • eagle sp.: Haliaeetus/Aquila sp. —> Accipitridae sp. (eagle sp.)
  • Yellow-breasted Crake: Porzana flaviventer —> Hapalocrex flaviventer
  • Russet-naped/Gray-cowled Wood-Rail: Aramides cajaneus —> Aramides albiventris/cajaneus
  • White-browed Crake: Porzana cinerea —> Amaurornis cinerea
  • Striped Crake: Aenigmatolimnas marginalis —> Amaurornis marginalis
  • Ruddy-breasted Crake: Porzana fusca —> Zapornia fusca
  • Band-bellied Crake: Porzana paykullii —> Zapornia paykullii
  • Brown Crake: Amaurornis akool —> Zapornia akool
  • Black Crake: Amaurornis flavirostra —> Zapornia flavirostra
  • Little Crake: Porzana parva —> Zapornia parva
  • Baillon’s Crake: Porzana pusilla —> Zapornia pusilla
  • Baillon’s Crake (Western): Porzana pusilla intermedia —> Zapornia pusilla intermedia
  • Baillon’s Crake (Eastern): Porzana pusilla pusilla —> Zapornia pusilla pusilla
  • Baillon’s Crake (Australasian): Porzana pusilla [palustris Group] —> Zapornia pusilla [palustris Group]
  • Laysan Rail: Porzana palmeri —> Zapornia palmeri
  • Sakalava Rail: Amaurornis olivieri —> Zapornia olivieri
  • Black-tailed Crake: Amaurornis bicolor —> Zapornia bicolor
  • Hawaiian Rail: Porzana sandwichensis —> Zapornia sandwichensis
  • Henderson Island Crake: Porzana atra —> Zapornia atra
  • Spotless Crake: Porzana tabuensis —> Zapornia tabuensis
  • Kosrae Crake: Porzana monasa —> Zapornia monasa
  • Hapalocrex/Porzana/Zapornia sp.: Porzana sp. —> Hapalocrex/Porzana/Zapornia sp.
  • American Coot: Fulica americana/caribaea —> Fulica americana
  • American Coot (Red-shielded): Fulica americana —> Fulica americana (Red-shielded)
  • American Coot (White-shielded): Fulica caribaea —> Fulica americana (White-shielded)
  • Siberian Crane: Grus leucogeranus —> Leucogeranus leucogeranus
  • Sandhill Crane: Grus canadensis —> Antigone canadensis
  • Sandhill Crane (canadensis): Grus canadensis canadensis —> Antigone canadensis canadensis
  • Sandhill Crane (tabida/rowani): Grus canadensis tabida/rowani —> Antigone canadensis tabida/rowani
  • Sandhill Crane (pulla): Grus canadensis pulla —> Antigone canadensis pulla
  • Sandhill Crane (pratensis): Grus canadensis pratensis —> Antigone canadensis pratensis
  • Sandhill Crane (nesiotes): Grus canadensis nesiotes —> Antigone canadensis nesiotes
  • Sarus Crane: Grus antigone —> Antigone antigone
  • Brolga: Grus rubicunda —> Antigone rubicunda
  • White-naped Crane: Grus vipio —> Antigone vipio
  • Sandhill x Common Crane (hybrid): Grus canadensis x grus —> Antigone canadensis x Grus grus
  • Sandhill x Whooping Crane (hybrid): Grus canadensis x americana —> Antigone canadensis x Grus americana
  • Whimbrel (European): Numenius phaeopus phaeopus/alboaxillaris —> Numenius phaeopus phaeopus
  • Lemon Dove (Sao Tome): Columba simplex —> Columba larvata simplex
  • Flores Sea Cuckoo-Dove: Macropygia magna —> Macropygia macassariensis
  • Asian Emerald Dove: Chalcophaps indica [indica Group] —> Chalcophaps indica
  • Pacific Emerald Dove: Chalcophaps indica [longirostris Group] —> Chalcophaps longirostris
  • Asian/Pacific Emerald Dove: Chalcophaps indica —> Chalcophaps indica/longirostris
  • White-browed Coucal (White-browed): Centropus superciliosus [superciliosus Group] —> Centropus superciliosus superciliosus/loandae
  • White-browed Coucal (Burchell’s): Centropus superciliosus burchellii —> Centropus superciliosus burchellii/fasciipygialis
  • Raffles’s Malkoha: Phaenicophaeus chlorophaeus —> Rhinortha chlorophaea
  • Blue Malkoha: Ceuthmochares aereus aereus/flavirostris —> Ceuthmochares aereus
  • Green Malkoha: Ceuthmochares aereus australis —> Ceuthmochares australis
  • Sirkeer Malkoha: Phaenicophaeus leschenaultii —> Taccocua leschenaultii
  • Red-billed Malkoha: Phaenicophaeus javanicus —> Zanclostomus javanicus
  • Yellow-billed Malkoha: Phaenicophaeus calyorhynchus —> Rhamphococcyx calyorhynchus
  • Red-crested Malkoha: Phaenicophaeus superciliosus —> Dasylophus superciliosus
  • Scale-feathered Malkoha: Phaenicophaeus cumingi —> Dasylophus cumingi
  • Long-tailed Koel: Eudynamys taitensis —> Urodynamis taitensis
  • Dideric/Klaas’s Cuckoo: Chrysococcyx klaas/caprius —> Chrysococcyx caprius/klaas
  • Long-billed Cuckoo: Rhamphomantis megarhynchus —> Chrysococcyx megarhynchus
  • Fork-tailed/Square-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo: Surniculus lugubris/dicruroides —> Surniculus dicruroides/lugubris
  • Large Hawk-Cuckoo: Hierococcyx sparverioides sparverioides —> Hierococcyx sparverioides
  • Dark Hawk-Cuckoo: Hierococcyx sparverioides bocki —> Hierococcyx bocki
  • Large/Dark Hawk-Cuckoo: Hierococcyx sparverioides —> Hierococcyx sparverioides/bocki
  • African/Common Cuckoo: Cuculus canorus/gularis —> Cuculus gularis/canorus
  • Tschudi’s Nightjar: Systellura longirostris decussatus —> Systellura decussata
  • Mexican Violetear: Colibri thalassinus thalassinus —> Colibri thalassinus
  • Lesser Violetear (Costa Rican): Colibri thalassinus cabanidis —> Colibri cyanotus cabanidis
  • Lesser Violetear (Andean): Colibri thalassinus cyanotus/crissalis —> Colibri cyanotus cyanotus/crissalis
  • Lesser/Sparkling Violetear: Colibri thalassinus/coruscans —> Colibri cyanotus/coruscans
  • Narcondam Hornbill: Rhyticeros narcondami. —> Rhyticeros narcondami
  • Blue-capped Motmot: Momotus coeruliceps coeruliceps —> Momotus coeruliceps
  • Lesson’s Motmot: Momotus coeruliceps [lessonii Group] —> Momotus lessonii
  • Green Barbet (Malawi): Stactolaema olivacea rungweensis/belcheri —> Stactolaema olivacea belcheri/rungweensis
  • Golden-fronted Woodpecker (Northern): Melanerpes aurifrons [aurifrons Group] —> Melanerpes aurifrons aurifrons
  • Helmeted Woodpecker: Dryocopus galeatus —> Celeus galeatus
  • Peregrine Falcon (Barbary): Falco pelegrinoides —> Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides
  • Australian Ringneck (Port Lincoln): Barnardius zonarius zonarius/occidentalis —> Barnardius zonarius zonarius
  • Australian Ringneck (Mallee): Barnardius barnardi barnardi/whitei —> Barnardius zonarius barnardi
  • Australian Ringneck (Cloncurry): Barnardius barnardi macgillivrayi —> Barnardius zonarius macgillivrayi
  • Golden Parakeet: Guarouba guarouba —> Guaruba guaruba
  • Blue-breasted Pitta (Talaud): Erythropitta inspeculata —> Erythropitta erythrogaster inspeculata
  • Fulvous-throated Antwren: Epinecrophylla haematonota pyrrhonota —> Epinecrophylla pyrrhonota
  • Rufous-backed Antwren: Epinecrophylla haematonota haematonota —> Epinecrophylla haematonota
  • Madeira Antwren (Madeira): Epinecrophylla haematonota amazonica —> Epinecrophylla amazonica amazonica
  • Madeira Antwren (Roosevelt): Epinecrophylla dentei —> Epinecrophylla amazonica dentei
  • antwren sp.: Thamnophilidae (antwren sp.) —> Thamnophilidae sp. (antwren sp.)
  • Slate-colored Antbird: Schistocichla schistacea —> Myrmelastes schistaceus
  • Roraiman Antbird: Schistocichla saturata —> Myrmelastes saturatus
  • Plumbeous Antbird: Myrmeciza hyperythra —> Myrmelastes hyperythrus
  • Spot-winged Antbird: Schistocichla leucostigma —> Myrmelastes leucostigma
  • Humaita Antbird: Schistocichla humaythae —> Myrmelastes humaythae
  • Brownish-headed Antbird: Schistocichla brunneiceps —> Myrmelastes brunneiceps
  • Rufous-faced Antbird: Schistocichla rufifacies —> Myrmelastes rufifacies
  • Caura Antbird: Schistocichla caurensis —> Myrmelastes caurensis
  • Myrmelastes sp.: Schistocichla sp. —> Myrmelastes sp.
  • Chestnut-backed Antbird: Myrmeciza exsul —> Poliocrania exsul
  • Gray-headed Antbird: Myrmeciza griseiceps —> Ampelornis griseiceps
  • Dull-mantled Antbird: Myrmeciza laemosticta —> Sipia laemosticta
  • Magdalena Antbird: Myrmeciza palliata —> Sipia palliata
  • Esmeraldas Antbird: Myrmeciza nigricauda —> Sipia nigricauda
  • Stub-tailed Antbird: Myrmeciza berlepschi —> Sipia berlepschi
  • Chestnut-tailed Antbird: Myrmeciza hemimelaena —> Sciaphylax hemimelaena
  • Chestnut-tailed Antbird (hemimelaena): Myrmeciza hemimelaena hemimelaena —> Sciaphylax hemimelaena hemimelaena
  • Chestnut-tailed Antbird (pallens): Myrmeciza hemimelaena pallens —> Sciaphylax hemimelaena pallens
  • Aripuana Antbird (undescribed form): Myrmeciza [undescribed form] —> Sciaphylax [undescribed form]
  • Zimmer’s Antbird: Myrmeciza castanea —> Sciaphylax castanea
  • Chestnut-tailed/Zimmer’s Antbird: Myrmeciza hemimelaena/castanea —> Sciaphylax hemimelaena/castanea
  • Ferruginous-backed Antbird: Myrmeciza ferruginea —> Myrmoderus ferrugineus
  • Scalloped Antbird: Myrmeciza ruficauda —> Myrmoderus ruficauda
  • White-bibbed Antbird: Myrmeciza loricata —> Myrmoderus loricatus
  • Squamate Antbird: Myrmeciza squamosa —> Myrmoderus squamosus
  • White-shouldered Antbird: Myrmeciza melanoceps —> Akletos melanoceps
  • Goeldi’s Antbird: Myrmeciza goeldii —> Akletos goeldii
  • Sooty Antbird: Myrmeciza fortis —> Hafferia fortis
  • Zeledon’s Antbird: Myrmeciza zeledoni —> Hafferia zeledoni
  • Zeledon’s Antbird (Zeledon’s): Myrmeciza zeledoni zeledoni —> Hafferia zeledoni zeledoni
  • Zeledon’s Antbird (Choco): Myrmeciza zeledoni macrorhyncha —> Hafferia zeledoni berlepschi
  • Blue-lored Antbird: Myrmeciza immaculata —> Hafferia immaculata
  • Blue-lored Antbird (Andean): Myrmeciza immaculata immaculata/brunnea —> Hafferia immaculata immaculata
  • Blue-lored Antbird (Concepcion): Myrmeciza immaculata concepcion —> Hafferia immaculata concepcion
  • Yapacana Antbird: Myrmeciza disjuncta —> Aprositornis disjuncta
  • Black-throated Antbird: Myrmeciza atrothorax —> Myrmophylax atrothorax
  • Gray-bellied Antbird: Myrmeciza pelzelni —> Ammonastes pelzelni
  • antbird sp.: Thamnophilidae (antbird sp.) —> Thamnophilidae sp. (antbird sp.)
  • Ceara Gnateater: Conopophaga lineata cearae —> Conopophaga cearae
  • Rufous Gnateater: Conopophaga lineata lineata/vulgaris —> Conopophaga lineata
  • Perija Tapaculo: Scytalopus [undescribed Perija form] —> Scytalopus perijanus
  • Ayacucho Tapaculo (undescribed form): Scytalopus [undescribed Apurimac form] —> Scytalopus [undescribed Ayacucho form]
  • Cocoa Woodcreeper (Lawrence’s): Xiphorhynchus susurrans [nanus Group] —> Xiphorhynchus susurrans [nana Group]
  • Bolivian Recurvebill: Syndactyla striatus —> Syndactyla striata
  • foliage-gleaner sp.: Anabacerthia/Syndactyla sp. —> Furnariidae sp. (foliage-gleaner sp.)
  • Ayacucho Thistletail: Asthenes vilcabambae ayacuchensis —> Asthenes ayacuchensis
  • Vilcabamba Thistletail: Asthenes vilcabambae vilcabambae —> Asthenes vilcabambae
  • Bahia Spinetail: Synallaxis whitneyi —> Synallaxis cinerea
  • Chapada Flycatcher: Suiriri islerorum —> Suiriri affinis
  • Suiriri/Chapada Flycatcher: Suiriri suiriri/islerorum —> Suiriri suiriri/affinis
  • Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Amazonian): Phaeomyias murina [murina Group] —> Phaeomyias murina murina/wagae
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (Galapagos): Pyrocephalus rubinus nanus/dubius —> Pyrocephalus rubinus nanus
  • Pilbara Grasswren: Amytornis striatus whitei —> Amytornis whitei
  • Thick-billed Grasswren: Amytornis textilis modestus —> Amytornis modestus
  • Marsh Tchagra (Anchieta’s): Tchagra minutus reichenowi/anchietae —> Tchagra minutus anchietae/reichenowi
  • Coastal Boubou: Laniarius erlangeri —> Laniarius nigerrimus
  • Baliem Whistler: Pachycephala pectoralis balim —> Pachycephala balim
  • Gray-backed Fiscal: Lanius excubitorius —> Lanius excubitoroides
  • White-rumped Shrike: Eurocephalus rueppelli —> Eurocephalus ruppelli
  • Cassin’s/Plumbeous Vireo: Vireo plumbeus/cassinii —> Vireo cassinii/plumbeus
  • solitary vireo sp.: Vireo plumbeus/cassinii/solitarius —> Vireo cassinii/solitarius/plumbeus
  • Philadelphia/Warbling Vireo: Vireo gilvus/philadelphicus —> Vireo philadelphicus/gilvus
  • Western Black-headed Oriole: Oriolus brachyrhynchus —> Oriolus brachyrynchus
  • Ashy Drongo (Island White-faced): Dicrurus leucophaeus periophthalmicus/siberu —> Dicrurus leucophaeus [periophthalmicus Group]
  • Amur/Blyth’s/Indian Paradise-Flycatcher: Terpsiphone atrocaudata/incei —> Terpsiphone incei/affinis/paradisi
  • Torrent-lark: Grallina bruijni —> Grallina bruijnii
  • Green x Blue Jay (hybrid): Cyanocitta cristata x Cyanocorax yncas —> Cyanocorax yncas x Cyanocitta cristata
  • California Scrub-Jay: Aphelocoma californica [californica Group] —> Aphelocoma californica
  • Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay (Woodhouse’s): Aphelocoma californica [woodhouseii Group] —> Aphelocoma woodhouseii [woodhouseii Group]
  • Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay (Sumichrast’s): Aphelocoma californica sumichrasti/remota —> Aphelocoma woodhouseii sumichrasti/remota
  • California/Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay: Aphelocoma californica —> Aphelocoma californica/woodhouseii
  • Red-billed Blue-Magpie: Urocissa erythrorhyncha —> Urocissa erythroryncha
  • Yellow-billed/Red-billed Blue-Magpie: Urocissa flavirostris/erythrorhyncha —> Urocissa flavirostris/erythroryncha
  • Madagascar Lark: Mirafra hova —> Eremopterix hova
  • Horned Lark (Tibetan): Eremophila alpestris [elwesi Group] —> Eremophila alpestris [longirostris Group]
  • Bimaculated/Calandra Lark: Melanocorypha calandra/bimaculata —> Melanocorypha bimaculata/calandra
  • Somali Short-toed Lark: Calandrella somalica —> Alaudala somalica
  • Somali Short-toed Lark (Somali): Calandrella somalica [somalica Group] —> Alaudala somalica [somalica Group]
  • Somali Short-toed Lark (Athi): Calandrella somalica athensis —> Alaudala somalica athensis
  • Asian Short-toed Lark: Calandrella rufescens [cheleensis Group] —> Alaudala cheleensis
  • Lesser Short-toed Lark: Calandrella rufescens [rufescens Group] —> Alaudala rufescens
  • Greater/Asian/Lesser Short-toed Lark: Calandrella brachydactyla/rufescens —> Calandrella brachydactyla/Alaudala cheleensis/Alaudala rufescens
  • Asian/Lesser Short-toed Lark: Calandrella rufescens —> Alaudala cheleensis/rufescens
  • Sand Lark: Calandrella raytal —> Alaudala raytal
  • Short-tailed Lark: Pseudalaemon fremantlii —> Spizocorys fremantlii
  • White-winged Lark: Melanocorypha leucoptera —> Alauda leucoptera
  • Crested Lark: Galerida cristata [cristata Group] —> Galerida cristata
  • Maghreb Lark: Galerida cristata macrorhyncha/randoni —> Galerida macrorhyncha
  • Crested/Maghreb Lark: Galerida cristata —> Galerida cristata/macrorhyncha
  • Thekla/Crested/Maghreb Lark: Galerida cristata/theklae —> Galerida theklae/cristata/macrorhyncha
  • Chestnut-bellied Tit: Sittiparus varius castaneoventris —> Sittiparus castaneoventris
  • Iriomote Tit: Sittiparus varius olivaceus —> Sittiparus olivaceus
  • Varied Tit: Sittiparus varius [varius Group] —> Sittiparus varius
  • Owston’s Tit: Sittiparus varius owstoni —> Sittiparus owstoni
  • Bushtit (Interior): Psaltriparus minimus [plumbeus Group] —> Psaltriparus minimus plumbeus
  • White-breasted Nuthatch (Interior West): Sitta carolinensis [mexicana Group] —> Sitta carolinensis [lagunae Group]
  • Rufous-naped Wren (Sclater’s): Campylorhynchus rufinucha humilis/nigricaudatus —> Campylorhynchus rufinucha humilis
  • Canebrake Wren: Cantorchilus modestus zeledoni —> Cantorchilus zeledoni
  • White-breasted Wood-Wren (Cherrie’s): Henicorhina leucosticta [pittieri Group] —> Henicorhina leucosticta pittieri/costaricensis
  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Andean): Henicorhina leucophrys [leucophrys Group] —> Henicorhina leucophrys leucophrys/boliviana
  • Santa Marta Wood-Wren: Henicorhina leucophrys anachoreta —> Henicorhina anachoreta
  • Orange-spotted Bulbul (Orange-spotted): Pycnonotus bimaculatus bimaculatus/barat —> Pycnonotus bimaculatus bimaculatus/tenggerensis
  • Island Leaf Warbler: Phylloscopus poliocephalus —> Phylloscopus maforensis
  • Island Leaf Warbler (Halmahera): Phylloscopus poliocephalus henrietta —> Phylloscopus maforensis henrietta
  • Island Leaf Warbler (Bacan): Phylloscopus poliocephalus waterstradti —> Phylloscopus maforensis waterstradti
  • Island Leaf Warbler (Buru): Phylloscopus poliocephalus everetti —> Phylloscopus maforensis everetti
  • Island Leaf Warbler (Seram): Phylloscopus poliocephalus ceramensis —> Phylloscopus maforensis ceramensis
  • Island Leaf Warbler (Taliabu) (undescribed form): Phylloscopus poliocephalus [undescribed form 1] —> Phylloscopus maforensis [undescribed form 1]
  • Island Leaf Warbler (Banggai) (undescribed form): Phylloscopus poliocephalus [undescribed form 2] —> Phylloscopus maforensis [undescribed form 2]
  • Island Leaf Warbler (Kai): Phylloscopus poliocephalus avicola —> Phylloscopus maforensis avicola
  • Island Leaf Warbler (Numfor): Phylloscopus poliocephalus maforensis —> Phylloscopus maforensis maforensis
  • Island Leaf Warbler (Biak): Phylloscopus poliocephalus misoriensis —> Phylloscopus maforensis misoriensis
  • Island Leaf Warbler (New Guinea): Phylloscopus poliocephalus [poliocephalus Group] —> Phylloscopus maforensis [poliocephalus Group]
  • Island Leaf Warbler (South Pacific): Phylloscopus poliocephalus [matthiae Group] —> Phylloscopus maforensis [matthiae Group]
  • Rüppell’s Warbler: Sylvia rueppelli —> Sylvia ruppeli
  • Great Parrotbill: Conostoma oemodium —> Conostoma aemodium
  • Principe Speirops: Zosterops leucophoeus —> Zosterops leucophaeus
  • Santa Cruz White-eye: Zosterops santaecrucis —> Zosterops sanctaecrucis
  • Spot-necked Babbler: Stachyris striolata —> Stachyris strialata
  • Usambara Hyliota: Hyliota usambarae —> Hyliota usambara
  • Asian Brown Flycatcher: Muscicapa latirostris —> Muscicapa dauurica
  • Sulawesi Brown Flycatcher: Muscicapa sodhi —> Muscicapa sodhii
  • Asian Brown/Brown-streaked Flycatcher: Muscicapa latirostris/williamsoni —> Muscicapa dauurica/williamsoni
  • Boehm’s Flycatcher: Muscicapa boehmi —> Bradornis boehmi
  • Ussher’s Flycatcher: Muscicapa ussheri —> Bradornis ussheri
  • Sooty Flycatcher: Muscicapa infuscata —> Bradornis fuliginosus
  • Dusky-blue Flycatcher: Muscicapa comitata —> Bradornis comitatus
  • Pale Flycatcher: Bradornis pallidus —> Agricola pallidus
  • Pale Flycatcher (Pale): Bradornis pallidus [pallidus Group] —> Agricola pallidus [pallidus Group]
  • Pale Flycatcher (Wajir): Bradornis pallidus bafirawari —> Agricola pallidus bafirawari
  • Pale Flycatcher (East Coast): Bradornis pallidus subalaris/erlangeri —> Agricola pallidus subalaris/erlangeri
  • Chat Flycatcher: Bradornis infuscatus —> Agricola infuscatus
  • Gray-throated Tit-Flycatcher: Myioparus griseigularis —> Fraseria griseigularis
  • Gray Tit-Flycatcher: Myioparus plumbeus —> Fraseria plumbea
  • Olivaceous Flycatcher: Muscicapa olivascens —> Fraseria olivascens
  • Olivaceous Flycatcher (Olivaceous): Muscicapa olivascens olivascens —> Fraseria olivascens olivascens
  • Olivaceous Flycatcher (Mt. Nimba): Muscicapa olivascens nimbae —> Fraseria olivascens nimbae
  • Chapin’s Flycatcher: Muscicapa lendu —> Fraseria lendu
  • Chapin’s Flycatcher (Chapin’s): Muscicapa lendu lendu —> Fraseria lendu lendu
  • Chapin’s Flycatcher (Itombwe): Muscicapa lendu itombwensis —> Fraseria lendu itombwensis
  • Tessmann’s Flycatcher: Muscicapa tessmanni —> Fraseria tessmanni
  • Ashy Flycatcher: Muscicapa caerulescens —> Fraseria caerulescens
  • Herero Chat: Namibornis herero —> Melaenornis herero
  • Silverbird: Empidornis semipartitus —> Melaenornis semipartitus
  • Fiscal Flycatcher: Sigelus silens —> Melaenornis silens
  • Karoo Scrub-Robin: Cercotrichas coryphaeus —> Cercotrichas coryphoeus
  • Lesser Shortwing: Brachypteryx leucophrys —> Brachypteryx leucophris
  • Korean/Green-backed/Narcissus Flycatcher: Ficedula zanthopygia/elisae/narcissana —> Ficedula zanthopygia/elisae/narcissina
  • Rusty-tailed Flycatcher: Muscicapa ruficauda —> Ficedula ruficauda
  • Blue-capped Redstart: Phoenicurus caeruleocephala —> Phoenicurus coeruleocephala
  • Eastern Bluebird (Eastern): Sialia sialis [sialis Group] —> Sialia sialis sialis/bermudensis
  • Swainson’s Thrush (Olive-backed): Catharus ustulatus swainsoni —> Catharus ustulatus [swainsoni Group]
  • Island Thrush (Stresemann’s): Turdus poliocephalus stresemanni/whiteheadi —> Turdus poliocephalus whiteheadi/stresemanni
  • Dusky/Naumann’s Thrush: Turdus naumanni/eunomus —> Turdus eunomus/ naumanni
  • Thick-billed Flowerpecker (Indian): Dicaeum agile [agile Group] —> Dicaeum agile agile/zeylonicum
  • Bocage’s Sunbird: Nectarinia bocagei —> Nectarinia bocagii
  • Souimanga Sunbird: Cinnyris souimanga —> Cinnyris sovimanga
  • Souimanga Sunbird (Sooty-bellied): Cinnyris souimanga aldabrensis —> Cinnyris sovimanga aldabrensis
  • Souimanga Sunbird (Yellow-bellied): Cinnyris souimanga souimanga —> Cinnyris sovimanga sovimanga
  • Souimanga Sunbird (White-bellied): Cinnyris souimanga apolis —> Cinnyris sovimanga apolis
  • Souimanga Sunbird (Abbott’s): Cinnyris souimanga abbotti/buchenorum —> Cinnyris sovimanga abbotti/buchenorum
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (lutea/flavissima): Motacilla flava flavissima/lutea —> Motacilla flava lutea/flavissima
  • Long-billed Pipit (Persian): Anthus similis decaptus/jerdoni —> Anthus similis jerdoni/decaptus
  • Golden-winged x Blue-winged Warbler (hybrid): Vermivora cyanoptera x chrysoptera —> Vermivora chrysoptera x cyanoptera
  • Brewster’s Warbler (hybrid): Vermivora cyanoptera x chrysoptera (F1 hybrid) —> Vermivora chrysoptera x cyanoptera (F1 hybrid)
  • Lawrence’s Warbler (hybrid): Vermivora cyanoptera x chrysoptera (F2 backcross) —> Vermivora chrysoptera x cyanoptera (F2 backcross)
  • Golden-winged/Blue-winged Warbler: Vermivora cyanoptera/chrysoptera —> Vermivora chrysoptera/cyanoptera
  • Common Yellowthroat (melanops Group): Geothlypis trichas [occidentalis Group] —> Geothlypis trichas [melanops Group]
  • Yellow Warbler (Mangrove x Golden): Setophaga petechia (Mangrove x Golden intergrade) —> Setophaga petechia [erithachorides Group x petechia Group]
  • Costa Rican Warbler: Basileuterus tristriatus chitrensis —> Basileuterus melanotis
  • Tacarcuna Warbler: Basileuterus tristriatus tacarcunae —> Basileuterus tacarcunae
  • Three-striped Warbler (San Lucas) (undescribed form): Basileuterus tristriatus [undescribed form] —> Basileuterus tristriatus sanlucasensis
  • Rufous-bellied Mountain-Tanager: Saltator rufiventris —> Pseudosaltator rufiventris
  • American Tree Sparrow/Spizella sp.: Spizella/Spizelloides sp. —> Spizelloides/Spizella sp.
  • Scrub Blackbird: Dives warszewiczi —> Dives warczewiczi
  • Spot-winged Rosefinch: Carpodacus rhodopeplus —> Carpodacus rodopeplus
  • Sillem’s Rosefinch: Leucosticte sillemi —> Carpodacus sillemi
  • Buff-shouldered Widowbird: Euplectes psammocromius —> Euplectes psammacromius


Each year there are a few quirks of the process that are worth explaining.

American Coots: Please be sure to read the section on the coot split above. The treatment of our familiar American Coot (pre-split) as American Coot (red-shieldeD) may take a bit of getting used to.

The “Mendocino County” shrike: In winter 2013-2014 there was a mysterious shrike, originally identified as a Brown Shrike, in Mendocino County, California. Over time, and as the bird molted, it became clear that the bird was not a Brown Shrike and showed some characters of Red-backed Shrike. In the end, that species seemed not to fit perfectly either. The best hypothesis currently is that the bird was a Red-backed x Red-tailed Shrike, as published by Pyle et al. 2015 (note however that the California Bird Records Committee, which has not accepted it as a Brown Shrike, has not yet and may not take a formal position on the correct identification). Since this option was not available in eBird until this update, we have changed these records on behalf of observers. While this is a more exciting record (neither species is recorded from North America) it also does not count on eBird lists.


You can download full 2016 taxonomy (v2016) from the links at the bottom of our Taxonomy Page, including XLSX and CSV formats and both clean versions and one with the changes annotated (four files).