Large tanager with strikingly different male and female plumages. Male is all black; the white shoulder patch is rarely visible, and even then it’s just a sliver. Compare with White-shouldered Tanager, which always shows a bold white shoulder patch. Female is uniformly rufous with no distinguishing features. On both sexes, look for the stout pointed bill. Usually found in pairs, sometimes following a mixed-species flock. Not a forest bird; look for it in more open areas, shrubby edges, and second growth.