Large dotterel endemic to New Zealand. Pale gray-brown above, white to off-white below in non-breeding season. When breeding, underparts are varying levels of orange-red. Southern subspecies is larger and darker than northern subspecies, with more extensive red. Northern breeds on beaches and sandspits around most of the North Island coast, but sparsely on west coast and southern east coast. Many move to estuaries after breeding. Southern breeds only on subalpine habitat of Stewart Island, with some individuals traveling to estuaries and mudflats to feed. Southern winters along estuaries and rivers of Stewart Island and Awarua Bay, Southland; some birds wander farther during winter.