Rather local large sparrow of foothills and highlands in central Costa Rica. Found in brushy woodland and edge and overgrown clearings; usually on or near the ground and often in pairs. Like other ground-sparrows, spends most of its time skulking in shady and often dense cover. Large black spot in middle of chest. Head pattern is distinctive: rusty cap, black forehead and cheek wrapping around a white face with a beady dark eye.