Breeding males are striking and unmistakable: especially look for white wing patch, head pattern, and thick black streaks on underparts. Females and immatures are less obvious and might be mistaken for Canada Warbler, but combination of gray head, yellow underparts, white wingbars, and at least some dark streaks on the flanks is distinctive. Always look for tail pattern from below: basal half is white, tip is black. Breeds in coniferous forests, especially with dense understory. Migrants and wintering birds can be found in any wooded area or edge. Winters primarily in Central America and the Caribbean.