Typical brown buzzard that is endemic to Madagascar. Found throughout the island in many different habitats, though absent from pure grassland. Voice is a series of increasingly strident wails, often given in flight. Distinguished in flight from Madagascar Cuckoo-Hawk by larger size, less paddle-shaped wings, and the pale panels toward the tips of the wings. When perched, look for a paler chest and heavily marked belly, whereas Madagascar Cuckoo-Hawk shows the opposite. Separated from immature Madagascar Harrier-Hawk by dark head and lack of pale fringes on the wing.