Large slender pipit with considerable variation across its range. African and South Asian birds average browner, warmer-colored, and more heavily streaked on the breast than the grayer-toned Middle Eastern subspecies. All subspecies possess a pale eyebrow, a long tail, and a relatively long bill. As with many other pipits, can be frustratingly difficult to distinguish in the field. Prefers dry, open areas with clumps of vegetation and scattered rocks and boulders, typically on slopes. Calls include squeaky sparrowlike chirps and sweet, two-noted whistles. Song doesn’t quite sound like a song: a series of plaintive whistles, two-noted chirps, and other call-like vocalizations strung up together with pauses in between.