Typical niltava: male bright blue, female plain brown. Male is bright electric purplish-blue above and very dark blue below. Female is dark brown with rusty tones in the wings and an iridescent blue patch on the neck. Southeast Asian females have a pale powder-blue crown and nape. Lack of a bright white throat patch separates female from female Rufous-bellied and Fujian Niltavas. Small Niltava is similar in plumage, but much smaller and less heavyset. Male White-tailed Robin can be surprisingly similar but is proportionally smaller-headed and larger-bodied and has a wider tail with two bright white patches on it. Inhabits dense submontane forests, where it can be difficult to spot in dense foliage; often encountered making forays from a perch. Song is an ascending series of 3-4 short, highly musical whistled notes.