A large Galápagos finch with a bulky bill. Bill typically appears bulbous, showing a ridge along the upper edge that juts up where it meets the crown feathers. Bill is black on breeding male and dull orange on female and nonbreeding male. Adult male’s plumage is sooty-black; female is brown with paler underparts that are streaked with gray. Medium Ground-Finch has smaller, shallower bill lacking ridge along the top. However, bill size varies among individuals, and not all birds can be confidently identified. Common in arid habitats near the coast, and scarce in the highlands. Found on most islands, but absent from Baltra, Santa Fé, San Cristóbal, Española, Darwin, and Wolf. Formerly occurred on Floreana, but there are no recent records.