Scarce and local in the Andean foothills of extreme northern Chile, but widespread in much of southern South America. Favors brushy hedgerows and scrubby thickets, usually in villages and around agricultural terraces. Sexes look similar and bold face pattern is distinctive, in combination with big orange bill. Juvenile has a dusky bill and duller face pattern, but soon attains adult appearance. Loud bright song can draw attention, but often sings from a concealed perch.