Large woodpecker; scarce and local in larger patches of humid forest from Panama to Bolivia. Two subspecies; one found in foothills and subtropics on the east slope of Andes from southern Colombia to northern Bolivia, the other in lowlands and foothills on the west slope of Andes from Panama to Ecuador. Could be confused with several other Campephilus species, but look for rich reddish underparts with no barring, black back with no prominent white stripes, and buffy stripes on the face. Typically shier than other large woodpeckers and found in more mature forest. Occurs singly or in pairs, usually in the lower to middle levels of the forest.