A plain brown bird with a pale eyering and rusty-brown tail, best known for its rich, powerful song which can keep people awake when given at night. In areas of overlap, compare with extremely similar Thrush Nightingale; note present species’ unmarked pale underparts, often with a variable buffy wash, as well as its warmer-toned back and brighter rufous tail. Song is extremely variable, and can include whistles, trills, rattles, and warbled phrases; elements often repeated. Calls include a very difficult-to-locate “teek”, low rattles, and harsh rasping calls. Found in varied wooded and scrubby habitats, typically with shady understory. Winters in similarly varied tangled habitats. Typically rather shy and elusive.