Large, brown-winged blackbird of dry valleys in the high Andes of central and northern Bolivia. Prefers sparsely vegetated areas, such as Polylepis woodland, agricultural areas, towns, cactus forest, and scrublands. Brown wings are distinctive, but note that second-year blackbirds of other species (Chopi Blackbird, Shiny Cowbird) can show contrastingly brown retained juvenile wing feathers. Generally forages singly or in small groups, and sings from exposed perches. Song a simple, repeated two-part “pe-chew” given 3-8 times.