The default pipit across much of Africa. Brown above and pale below, with a streaked back, well-marked face, and white outer tail feathers. There is considerable geographic variation, from pale and sandy to rich brown and rufous. Found in a variety of open and usually grassy habitats, both near water and in dry areas. Call is a sneezing “tzsht”. Song comprises consecutive series of rattles, given in flight. Very similar to other pipits; some of the key features to look for include the yellow base of the bill, streaked back, and white outer tail feathers.