Active and attractive warbler of highlands and foothills. Favors evergreen and pine-oak forest and edge. Usually in pairs, foraging mainly at low to middle levels, at times even on the ground, and joins mixed-species feeding flocks. White-tipped tail usually fanned and flipped from side to side. Sexes look alike: head and upperparts slaty gray with blacker face and small rusty cap. Belly is red in Mexico, orange-red in northern Central America, and yellow from Costa Rica to South America.