Small warbler, dull olive overall with intense yellow throat. Adult males have black mask bordered above by a white band. Females and immatures are duller but always have contrasting yellow throat and undertail coverts. Common and widespread breeder throughout North America. Found in shrubby wet areas, including marshes, forest edges, and fields. Often hides in thick vegetation, but males often perch conspicuously when singing. Listen for ringing “witchity-witchity-witchity” song and low, harsh call notes. Very short, rounded wings, which equates to it being a short-distance migrant: winters from the southern U.S. to Central America.