Taxonomic update -- August 2012

By Team eBird August 20, 2012

For North American birders, the split of Xantus's Murrelet into Guadalupe Murrelet and Scripps's Murrelet (shown here) is most likely to produce a new life bird. Photo by Brian Sullivan.

The eBird taxonomy (discussed in full here) is available for download. This update brings eBird up to date with Clements 6.7 (which will be released later this month), the most recent North American Classification Committee supplement (53rd supplement released in July 2012), and with South American Classification Committee decisions through June 2012.

These taxonomic updates involve three major elements. First, we must change the common name, scientific name, family, order, sort order, and several other elements everywhere that the name is used in our database. Second, we must add in a number of entirely new taxa, including newly described species, new hybrids that eBirders would like to report, or new groups that may someday become species. The third element is the most complicated: record conversion.

Although eBirders’ records are sacrosanct and we never edit your records in eBird, the one exception is these taxonomic updates. When these updates occur, the records submitted using eBird groups (Identifiable Subspecific Forms; ISSF) can always be assigned quite easily. We try to plan ahead by providing appropriate ISSF options for potential future splits. Thinking for example of the Whip-poor-will split from our January 2011 update, we originally provided two groups: Whip-poor-will (Eastern) and Whip-poor-will (Mexican). When we updated the records, all records of the subspecies group “Whip-poor-will (Eastern)” converted automatically to the species “Eastern Whip-poor-will”, ditto for Whip-poor-will (Mexican). However, all records reported at the species level as Whip-poor-will were now Eastern/Mexican Whip-poor-will, but we couldn’t be more specific. Since these two forms have distinctive songs, any singing whip-poor-will should have been identifiable. This left us with two options: 1) leave all records as Eastern/Mexican Whip-poor-will, which will not count on bird lists, and leave it to our users to update when they can; 2) make preliminary updates based on geography and date, and entrust our eBirders to fix the records if needed.

In the case of the whip-poor-wills, we felt that we could safely make assumptions. We converted all eastern records to Eastern Whip-poor-will and all western ones to Mexican Whip-poor-will. In most of Mexico, it is a safe assumption that a whip-poor-will will be the Mexican Whip-poor-will, but in winter in east Mexico, and from Belize/Guatemala south to Costa Rica, Eastern Whip-poor-will is possible. So for those records, we left them as Eastern/Mexican Whip-poor-wills. As you can see, this is complicated, so we ask that you use the subspecies groups (ISSFs) when possible in submitted records. (In January 2011 we warned that Yellow-rumped Warbler might be split into 2, 3,or 4 species, and while the AOU decided not to adopt this split at this stage, it still may do so in the future. Reporting at the subspecies level is good practice whenever it is possible!) New splits and other species level changes will be presented below after we have discussed some other changes.

A large number of individuals deserve thanks for this taxonomic update, beginning with our community of users who provide lots of feedback on what new hybrids or spuhs are needed and what taxonomic revisions elsewhere in the world we should be aware of. Particularly helpful were rather large sets of recommendations from Matt Brady, Jacob Socolar, and, in particular, from Don Roberson, one of our co-authors for the eBird/Clements taxonomy, who scoured the literature and put together countless proposals to revise family level taxonomy and revise the taxonomy and names, especially in Australasia, Malaysia, and Indonesia. We’d like to specially acknowledge the hard work of Tom Schulenberg, avian taxonomist for the Clements checklist, and especially Tom Fredericks, our database manager, who puts in countless hours helping us to update the checklists, filters, records, and multiple eBird output tables that keep our life lists, arrival date tables, bar charts, and maps up to date. Without these Toms, this update would not have been possible, so thanks to them both.


A couple big scale changes are sure to be noticed by everyone and are worth getting used to.
Modern genetics is providing much new information on the relationships of different orders and families of birds. The eBird/Clements taxonomy (like that of the AOU, BOU, and other ornithological committees) tries to keep up with the changes and carefully defines the sequence of the orders, families, genera, and species to reflect current thinking about their evolutionary origins. In general, nearest relatives appear next to each other on the list.
In 2012, there were several significant changes:
  • Parrots (Psittaciformes) and Passeriformes (Passerines) are are now believed to be each others’ closest relatives, and sister to Falcons & Caracaras (Falconiformes). Believe it or not, hawks (Accipitriformes) are not closely related to falcons, despite the apparent similarity, and falcons are technically closer to Ruby-crowned Kinglet or House Sparrow!
  • The sequences within hawks (Accipitriformes), Ovenbirds (Furnariidae), and Wrens (Troglodytidae), have been significantly reshuffled; note that many of these changes within Accipitriformes have not yet been adopted by the NACC (e.g., the placement of Golden Eagle), so the sequence of that family may appear somewhat unfamiliar to North American users.
  • Some familiar genera, especially those in nightjars (Caprimulgidae) and Fringillidae, have changed around. Also, Purple, House, and Cassin’s Finches are no longer referred to as Carpodacus — now they are Haemorhous !
  • The sequence of some New World suboscine families has been revised, from

    Furnariidae Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers

    Thamnophilidae Typical Antbirds

    Formicariidae Antthrushes

    Grallariidae Antpittas

    Conopophagidae Gnateaters

    Rhinocryptidae Tapaculos

    Melanopareiidae Crescentchests




    Thamnophilidae Typical Antbirds

    Melanopareiidae Crescentchests
    Conopophagidae Gnateaters
    Grallariidae Antpittas
    Rhinocryptidae Tapaculos
    Formicariidae Antthrushes
    Furnariidae Ovenbirds and Woodcreepers
In addition, eBird maintains the portion of the list that includes non-species taxa such as hybrids, spuhs, slashes, domestics, and forms. We rarely make significant changes in the sequence of these taxa, but this year we did make a significant change
  • In the past we had placed hybrids between the two parent species. Thus, “American Black Duck x Mallard (hybrid)” was placed on the list just after American Black Duck and before Mallard. Because of how our new “Jump to species” and other name searches work in eBird though, we changed the sequence so that “American Black Duck x Mallard (hybrid)” falls immediately after Mallard. This means that when one types “Mallard” in “Jump to species” or “add a species”, the first result is the species instead of the hybrid, which makes for easier data entry in most cases.


In every taxonomic update, it is the splits that generate the most excitement, since these are the actions that can net you an “armchair life bird” (i.e., one that you get without even going birding, when the taxonomy update is published!)

Below is a list of the species that were split into one or more species, as well as others where subspecies grups were “split” or particularly confusing name changes may have a bearing on your lists. For most of these, your records have been assigned to one or the other species based on geography. For several species, marked with **NOTE**! we could not convert all records or need you to double-check, since the distributions of these species overlap in some areas. Now that this conversion has happened, feel free to change your records in whatever way you see fit. We will be in touch via email about all these records in question as well.

For North American birders the changes are few. The two North American species that were split are the following:

  • Gray Hawk –> Split into two species, with those from central-western Costa Rica north now considered Gray Hawk Buteo plagiatus and those from southeastern Costa Rica south being Gray-lined Hawk Buteo nitidus.
  • Xantus’s Murrelet –> Split into Scripps’s Murrelet Synthiliboramphus scrippsi and Guadalupe Murrelet Synthiliboraphus hypoleucus. Unidentified Xantus’s Murrelets can still be submitted as “Scripps’s/Guadalupe Murrelet (Xantus’s Murrelet)”.

The NACC’s 53rd supplement detailed two other splits which already had been adopted by eBird/Clements: the split of Galapagos Shearwater (Puffinus subalaris) from Audubon’s Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri) and the recognition of Costa Rican Brush-Finch (Arremon costaricensis) and Black-headed Brush-Finch (Arremon atricapillus).

The full list of splits is listed below. Try making global range maps for all these birds since we now have all the data updated. Some of these maps are showing up for the first time ever! Those with “[NA]” are relevant to North America, those with “[SA]” are relevant to South America. Try searching in your browser for those tags, or others (Asia, Europe, Africa, Australasia).


[SA/Africa] Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes chrysocome is split, with an isolated population from remote Atlantic Islands gaining species status from the widespread nominate form which retains the name Rockhopper Penguin. Tristan Penguin was formerly listed in eBird as Rockhopper Penguin (Moseley’s). (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes chrysocome — RANGE: Cape Horn (South Africa), Falkland and Kerguelen Islands and subantarctic New Zealand islands (MAP) [Your records]
  • Tristan Penguin Eudyptes moseleyi — RANGE: Tristan da Cunha, Gough, St. Paul and Amsterdam islands (MAP) [Your records]
[Australasia/Pacific] Gould’s Petrel Pterodroma leucoptera is split into two species, each with two subspecies groups. (Records not specified as Collared Petrel have been assumed to pertain to Gould’s Petrel. If you have been lucky enough to see these birds, please check your records carefully and let us know if you find problems!)
  • Gould’s Petrel Pterodroma leucoptera — RANGE: Breeds New Caledonia and Cabbage Tree Is. (off e Australia); ranges s Pacific Ocean (MAP) [Your records]
  • Collared Petrel Pterodroma brevipes — RANGE: Fiji and Cook Islands (P. b. brevipes; “Collared”) and Banks Islands, northern Vanuatu (P. b. magnificens; “Magnificent”) (MAP) [Your records]
[Australasia] Little Eagle Hieraaetus morphnoides is split into two species which are easily separated by range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Pygmy Eagle Hieraaetus weiskei — RANGE: New Guinea; vagrant to Moluccas (Halmahera and Seram) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Little Eagle Hieraaetus morphnoides — RANGE: Open woodlands and savannas of Australia (MAP) [Your records]
[NA/SA] Gray Hawk Buteo nitidus is split into two species, which differ in subtleties of plumage and calls. They do not overlap in Costa Rica, but occur very close to each other in the extreme southeast of the country and should be identified with caution on the southeastern Pacific slope of Puntarenas. Please use Gray/Gray-lined Hawk to report any birds of uncertain identity. (Records updated to conform to range of new species. Please check your records very carefully in southeastern Costa Rica and western Panama (where Gray Hawk is unknown, but may occur.)
  • Gray Hawk Buteo plagiatus — RANGE: Lowlands of sw US to south-central Puntarenas, Costa Rica (MAP) [Your records]
  • Gray-lined Hawk Buteo nitidus — RANGE: SE Puntarenas, Costa Rica south to South America (MAP) [Your records]
[NA] Xantus’s Murrelet Synthliboramphus hypoleucus is split into two species, which differ in face pattern and calls, but overlap in occurrence during much of the year. Please use Scripps’s/Guadalupe Murrelet (Xantus’s Murrelet) to report individuals not conclusively identified to species.
*NOTE*! (Most records *not* updated. Records entered at the subspecies level were converted to the species, and some records with clear comments were also updated. In addition, nearshore records in southern California and Baja California from January to July were converted to Scripps’s, which is common there in that period. All other records remain as they were originally entered and are now shown on lists as “Scripps’s/Guadalupe Murrelet (Xantus’s Murrelet)”. This may result in a reduction of your list totals unless you assign your records to one of the new species (if you took note of what you saw!). The best way to review these records is to click Download My Data and scan the file you receive and then change the individual checklists.)
  • Scripps’s Murrelet Synthliboramphus scrippsi — RANGE: Channel Islands and islands off w coast of Baja California (MAP) [Your records]
  • Guadalupe Murrelet Synthliboramphus hypoleucus — RANGE: San Benito I. and Guadalupe I. (off Baja California) (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Island Collared-Dove Streptopelia bitorquata is split into two species, a widespread one and a Philippine endemic. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Island Collared-Dove Streptopelia bitorquata — RANGE: Java, Bali and Lombok to Sumbawa, Flores, Solor and Timor (MAP) [Your records]
  • Philippine Collared-Dove Streptopelia dusumieri — RANGE: Philippines and Sulu Archipelago; vagrant to n Borneo. Introduced to northern Marianas (Guam n to Saipan) (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Pompadour Green-Pigeon Treron pompadora is split into six species which do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Sri Lanka Green-Pigeon Treron pompadora — RANGE: Sri Lanka (MAP) [Your records]
  • Gray-fronted Green-Pigeon Treron affinis — RANGE: W India (western Ghats) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Andaman Green-Pigeon Treron chloropterus — RANGE: Andaman and Nicobar islands (MAP) [Your records]
  • Ashy-headed Green-Pigeon Treron phayrei — RANGE: Nepal and ne India to sw China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and s Vietnam (MAP) [Your records]
  • Philippine Green-Pigeon Treron axillaris — RANGE: Philippines (MAP) [Your records]
  • Buru Green-Pigeon Treron aromaticus — RANGE: S Moluccas (Buru), Tanahjampea, Kalao and Kalaotoa islands (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Maroon-chinned Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus epia is split into three species, all island endemics of eastern Indonesia that do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Maroon-chinned Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus epia — RANGE: Lowland forests of Sulawesi (MAP) [Your records]
  • Banggai Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus subgularis — RANGE: Banggai Islands (Peleng and Banggai) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Sula Fruit-Dove Ptilinopus mangoliensis — RANGE: Sula Islands (Taliabu, Seho and Mangole) (MAP) [Your records]

[Asia] White-eyed Imperial-Pigeon Ducula perspicillata is split into two species, which do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)

  • Spectacled Imperial-Pigeon Ducula perspicillata — RANGE: N Moluccas and Kofiau I. (w Papuan islands) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Seram Imperial-Pigeon Ducula neglecta — RANGE: S Moluccas (Boano, Seram, Ambon and Saparua) (MAP) [Your records]

[Asia] Long-tailed Mountain-Pigeon Gymnophaps mada is split into two species, both island endemics that do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)

  • Buru Mountain-Pigeon Gymnophaps mada — RANGE: Montane forests of Buru (s Moluccas) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Seram Mountain-Pigeon Gymnophaps stalkeri — RANGE: Montane forests of Seram (s Moluccas) (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Philippine Scops-Owl Otus megalotis is split into three species, which occur on different combinations of islands in the Philippines and do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Philippine Scops-Owl Otus megalotis — RANGE: Philippines (Luzon, Catanduanes and Marinduque) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Everett’s Scops-Owl Otus everetti — RANGE: Philippines (Bohol, Samar, Biliran, Leyte, Mindando and Basilan) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Negros Scops-Owl Otus nigrorum — RANGE: Negros (Philippines) (MAP) [Your records]
[Europe/Asia] When Himalayan Owl Strix nivicola was split from Tawny Owl Strix aluco in Clements Checklist 6.6 (Aug 2011), it incorrectly retained subspecies ma and yamadae in Tawny Owl. We reassign these two subspecies to the correct species, Himalayan Owl. (Records updated to conform to revised range of species.)
  • Tawny Owl Strix aluco — RANGE: Europe, the Middle East, and Asia as far east as nw India and Pakistan (MAP) [Your records]
  • Himalayan Owl Strix nivicola — RANGE: Nepal to China, Korea, Indochina, and Taiwan (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Moluccan Hawk-Owl Ninox squamipila is split into into three species, which do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Halmahera Hawk-Owl Ninox hypogramma — RANGE: N Moluccas (Halmahera, Ternate and Bacan) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Tanimbar Hawk-Owl Ninox forbesi — RANGE: Tanimbar Islands (Arafura Sea) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Hantu Hawk-Owl Ninox squamipila — RANGE: Buru and Seram (s Moluccas) (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Moluccan Swiftlet Aerodramus infuscatus is split into three species, which theoretically do not overlap in range. As with most swifts, field identification is a challenge! (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Sulawesi Swiftlet Aerodramus sororum — RANGE: Sulawesi, Sangihe, Siau and Taliabu islands (MAP) [Your records]
  • Halmahera Swiftlet Aerodramus infuscatus — RANGE: N Moluccas (Halmahera, Ternate and Morotai) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Seram Swiftlet Aerodramus ceramensis — RANGE: S Moluccas (Buru, Boano, Seram and Ambon) (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Silvery Kingfisher Ceyx argentatus is split into two species, which occur in the central and southern Philippines and do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Northern Silvery-Kingfisher Ceyx flumenicolus — RANGE: Central Philippines (Bohol, Samar and Leyte) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Southern Silvery-Kingfisher Ceyx argentatus — RANGE: S Philippines (Basilan, Dinagat and Mindanao) (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] An endemic Philippine subspecies is split from the widespread White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis — RANGE: Widespread in Asia (MAP) [Your records]
  • Brown-breasted Kingfisher Halcyon gularis — RANGE: Philippine Islands (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] The Philippine subspecies americanus of Blue-throated Bee-eater Merops viridis is elevated to species rank. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Blue-throated Bee-eater Merops viridis — RANGE: S China, Thailand and Indochina to Sumatra, Borneo and Java (MAP) [Your records]
  • Rufous-crowned Bee-eater Merops americanus — RANGE: Philippine Islands (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Although no splits have occurred in this group, the name Tarictic Hornbill had been in use since Clements’ 4th edition. However, this name was the source of much confusion, since older guides used this for the superspecies, and eBird had a number of erroneous records entered this way. When possible, we prefer to use new names for even the nominate form after a split. In this case, Tarictic Hornbill has been renamed Visayan Hornbill to clarify this confusion. (Records updated to conform to range of these species.)
  • Luzon Hornbill Penelopides manillae — RANGE: Philippines (Luzon, Marinduque and Catanduanes) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Mindoro Hornbill Penelopides mindorensis — RANGE: Mindoro (central Philippines) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Visayan Hornbill Penelopides panini — RANGE: Panay, Masbate, Guimaras, Negros, Pan de Azucar, Sicogon, and Ticao Islands (MAP) [Your records]
  • Samar Hornbill Penelopides samarensis — RANGE: Philippines (Samar, Leyte, Calicoan and Bohol) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Mindanao Hornbill Penelopides affinis — RANGE: Philippines;(Mindanao) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Sulawesi Hornbill Penelopides exarhatus — RANGE: Sulawesi and nearby islands (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Common Flameback Dinopium javanense is split into two species, one a Philippine endemic. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Common Flameback Dinopium javanense — RANGE: Southeast Asia from India to Indonesia (MAP) [Your records]
  • Spot-throated Flameback Dinopium everetti — RANGE: S Philippines (Balabac, Palawan and Calamian Islands) (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Greater Flameback Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus is split into six species, which include four endemic to the Philippines and one to Java and points east. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Greater Flameback Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus — RANGE: India to the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Javan Flameback Chrysocolaptes strictus — RANGE: E Java, Bali and Kangean Islands (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Luzon Flameback Chrysocolaptes haematribon — RANGE: N Philippines (Luzon, Polillo, Catanduanes and Marinduque) (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Yellow-faced Flameback Chrysocolaptes xanthocephalus — RANGE: Philippines (Negros, Guimaras, Panay, Masbate and Ticao) (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Buff-spotted Flameback Chrysocolaptes lucidus — RANGE: Philippines (Bohol, Leyte, Samar, Biliran and Panaon, Mindanao and Samal (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Red-headed Flameback Chrysocolaptes erythrocephalus RANGE: Philippines (Balabac, Palawan, Busuanga and Calamian Is.) (MAP) [ Your records]
[Asia] Sooty Woodpecker Mulleripicus funebris is split into two species, which roughly occur in the northern and southern Philippines and do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Northern Sooty-Woodpecker Mulleripicus funebris — RANGE: Philippines (Luzon, Catanduanes, Marinduque, and Polillo Islands) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Southern Sooty-Woodpecker Mulleripicus fuliginosus — RANGE: Philippines (Samar, Leyte and Mindanao) (MAP) [ Your records]
[Asia] Subspecies mindorensis of Blue-crowned Racquet-tail Prioniturus discurus is elevated to species rank; the two species do not overlap in range. (Records updated to match the revised range of these subspecies.)
  • Blue-crowned Racquet-tail Prioniturus discurus — RANGE: Philippines (Negros, Bohol, Samar, Leyte, Masbate, Cebu, Mindanao, Basilan and islands in Sulu Archipelago) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Mindoro Racquet-tail Prioniturus mindorensis — RANGE: Mindoro (n-central Philippines) (MAP) [ Your records]
[Indian Ocean] The Mascarinus parrot on the Seychelles was formerly considered subspecies barklyi within Lesser Vasa-Parrot Mascarinus niger (formerly known as Black Parrot), is now split as a species endemic to the Seychelles.
  • Seychelles Parrot Mascarinus barklyi — RANGE: Seychelles (Praslin and Curieuse) (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Lesser Vasa-Parrot Mascarinus niger — RANGE: Madagascar and Comoro Islands (MAP) [ Your records]
[Asia] Banded Pitta Pitta irena is split into three species which do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Malayan Banded-Pitta Pitta irena — RANGE: S Peninsular Thailand, Malay Peninsula and Sumatra (MAP) [Your records]
  • Bornean Banded-Pitta Pitta schwaneri — RANGE: Borneo (MAP) [Your records]
  • Javan Banded-Pitta Pitta guajana — RANGE: Java and Bali (MAP) [Your records]
[NA/SA] Dull-mantled Antbird Myrmeciza laemosticta is split into two species, one native to North America and one native to South America. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Dull-mantled Antbird Myrmeciza laemosticta — RANGE: Caribbean slope of e Costa Rica and both slopes of Panama (MAP) [Your records]
  • Magdalena Antbird Myrmeciza palliata — RANGE: N slope of Andes of Colombia and nw Venezuela (Zulia, Mérida) (MAP) [Your records]
[SA] An isolated population of the widespread Common Scale-backed Antbird Willisornis poecilinotus that occurs south of the Amazon River and east of the Xingu River is recognized as a new species. Note that Common Scale-backed Antbird has five other distinct subspecies groups that could be recognized as species in the future as well. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Common Scale-backed Antbird Willisornis poecilinotus — RANGE: Occurs widely in Amazonia from s Venezuela and the Guianas south to Brazil and west to Peru and Ecuador (MAP) [Your records]
  • Xingu Scale-backed Antbird Willisornis vidua — RANGE: E Amazonian Brazil s of R. Amazon from the east bank of R. Canumã , both banks of R. Tapajos, and east bank of R. Teles Pires, east to w Maranhão (MAP) [Your records]
[SA] Thrush-like Schiffornis Schiffornis turdina was formerly considered to be one widespread species that occurred from southern Mexico across much of South America. A study of genetics and vocalizations has revealed that at least five species are involved.
**NOTE**! (While we assigned most records to one species or another, much of this range is presumptive. we were unwilling to assign records from certain areas in Panama and Peru, so you may need to check your data in detail to make sure you records are assigned properly if you know what species you observed. Please assign your records with caution and use Schiffornis sp. to report birds whose identity you are unsure of. Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Olivaceous Schiffornis Schiffornis olivacea — RANGE: Tropical se Venezuela (Bolívar) and adjacent Guyana (MAP) [Your records]
  • Northern Schiffornis Schiffornis veraepacis — RANGE: Discontinuously (?) from southern Mexico to w Ecuador (s to Loja) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Foothill Schiffornis Schiffornis aenea — RANGE: E Andes of Ecuador and adjacent n Peru (Piura and Cajamarca) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Rufous-winged Schiffornis Schiffornis stenorhyncha — RANGE:
    Tropical e Panama, n Colombia, and nw Venezuela (MAP) [Your records]
  • Brown-winged Schiffornis Schiffornis turdina — RANGE: Widespread in Amazonia: S Venezuela, Tropical French Guiana, Suriname and ne Brazil to se Peru and s Brazil and ne Argentina (MAP) [Your records]
[Australia] Green Catbird Ailuroedus crassirostris and Spotted Catbird Ailuroedus melanotis have long been recognized as distinct species in eBird and Clements, but there was an error in how the subspecies were assigned to the different species. Subspecies joanae and maculosus are transferred from Green Catbird Ailuroedus crassirostris to Spotted Catbird Ailuroedus melanotis. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Spotted Catbird Ailuroedus melanotis — RANGE: New Guinea and NE Queensland south to Atherton Tablelands to Burdekin River) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Green Catbird Ailuroedus crassirostris — RANGE: E Australia (Dawes Range, Queensland to Jervis Bay, NSW) E Australia (se Queensland and e New South Wales) (MAP) [Your records]
[Australasia] The Broad-billed Fairywren (Campbell’s) group split from Broad-billed Fairywren Chenorhamphus grayi to species rank as Campbell’s Fairywren Chenorhamphus campbelli; although both species occur in New Guinea, their ranges do not overlap. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Broad-billed Fairywren Chenorhamphus grayi — RANGE: N New Guinea (Vogelkop to Sepik River) and Salawati I. (MAP) [Your records]
  • Campbell’s Fairywren Chenorhamphus campbelli — RANGE: SE New Guinea (middle Strickland River and Mt. Bosavi area) (MAP) [Your records]
[Australia] Chestnut-breasted Quail-thrush Cinclosoma castaneothorax is split into two species, which are widely separated by range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Chestnut-breasted Quail-thrush Cinclosoma castaneothorax — RANGE: S-central Queensland and adjacent nw New South Wales (MAP) [Your records]
  • Western Quail-thrush Cinclosoma marginatum — RANGE: Arid c Western Australia and adjacent sw Northern Territory (MAP) [Your records]
[Australia] Cinnamon Quail-thrush Cinclosoma cinnamomeum is split into two species that do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Cinnamon Quail-thrush Cinclosoma cinnamomeum — RANGE: SE Qld. to nw NSW, cent. and ne SA and se NT (MAP) [Your records]
  • Nullarbor Quail-Thrush Cinclosoma alisteri — RANGE: SE Western Australia and adjacent sw South Australia (MAP) [Your records]
[Australasia] Melanesian Cuckooshrike Coracina caledonica is split into two species, which do not overlap in range. Note that all cuckooshrikes are now spelled “Cuckooshrike” rather than “Cuckoo-shrike” (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • North Melanesian Cuckooshrike Coracina welchmani — RANGE: Solomon Islands (MAP) [Your records]
  • South Melanesian Cuckooshrike Coracina caledonica — RANGE: Vanuatu, Loyalty Islands, and New Caledonia (MAP) [Your records]
[Australasia] An island endemic is split from the widespread White-bellied Cuckooshrike Coracina papuensis (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • White-bellied Cuckooshrike Coracina papuensis — RANGE: Widely in Australasia, including Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Australia (MAP) [Your records]
  • Manus Cuckooshrike Coracina ingens — RANGE: Admiralty Islands (Manus and Los Negros) (MAP) [Your records]
[Australasia] White-winged Triller Lalage sueurii is split into two species which do not overlap in range. Note the confusing scenario where the White-winged Triller takes a new scientific name (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • White-shouldered Triller Lalage sueurii — RANGE: E Java, Bali, Sulawesi subregion and Lesser Sundas (MAP) [Your records]
  • White-winged Triller Lalage tricolor — RANGE: Port Moresby area (New Guinea); s Torres Strait islands; mainland Australia (MAP) [Your records]
[Australasia] An island endemic population is split from the widespread species Varied Triller Lalage leucomela. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Varied Triller Lalage leucomela — RANGE: Widespread in Australasia, including New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, and Australia (MAP) [Your records]
  • Mussau Triller Lalage conjuncta — RANGE: St. Matthias I. (Bismarck Archipelago) (MAP) [Your records]
[Australasia] Two subspecies from the widespread Common Cicadabird Edolisoma tenuirostre are split but do not overlap in range (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Manus Cicadabird Edolisoma admiralitatis — RANGE: Manus I. (Admiralty Islands) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Makira Cicadabird Edolisoma salomonis — RANGE: San Cristóbal (Solomon Islands) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Common Cicadabird Edolisoma tenuirostre — RANGE: Widespread in Australasia from Sulawesi to New Guinea and Australia (MAP) [Your records]

[Australasia] Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis is a striking bird of Australasia and the South Pacific and formerly was considered to be one exceptionally diverse species. Modern thinking, supported by molecular evidence, is that the populations that were formerly lumped under a widespread Golden Whistler actually included populations from no fewer than eleven (!!) species as follows. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)

  • New Caledonian Whistler Pachycephala caledonica — RANGE: New Caledonia, Vanuatu, and nearby islands. Subspecies littayei, cucullata, chlorura, intacta, and vanikorensis are transferred from Golden Whistler to New Caledonian Whistler. (MAP) [Your records]
  • White-throated Whistler Pachycephala vitiensis — RANGE: Utupua I. (Solomon Islands), N Santa Cruz Islands, and parts of Fiji (Kandavu Islands, S Lau archipelago, and Ngau). Subspecies utupuae, ornata, kandavensis, lauana, and vitiensis are transferred from Golden Whistler to White-throated Whistler. (MAP) [Your records]
  • Fiji Whistler Pachycephala graeffii — RANGE: Fiji. A suite of subspecies koroana, torquata, ambigua, optata, graeffii, aurantiiventris, and bella are transferred from Golden Whistler to Fiji Whistler. (MAP) [Your records]
  • Bismarck Whistler Pachycephala citreogaster — RANGE: Bismarck Archipelago off e New Guinea and nearby islands. Subspecies tabarensis, ottomeyeri, goodsoni, citreogaster, sexuvaria, collaris, misimae, and rosseliana are transferred from Golden Whistler to Bismarck Whistler. (MAP) [Your records]
  • Oriole Whistler Pachycephala orioloides — RANGE: Solomon Islands. Subspecies whitneyi, bougainvillei, orioloides, cinnamomea, sanfordi, pavuvu, centralis, melanoptera, melanonota, and christophori are transferred from Golden Whistler to Oriole Whistler. (MAP) [Your records]
  • Rennell Whistler Pachycephala feminina — RANGE: Rennell (se Solomon Islands). Subspecies feminina is elevated to species rank. (MAP) [Your records]
  • Rusty-breasted Whistler Pachycephala fulvotincta — RANGE: E Java and Bali to Lesser Sundas. Subspecies javana, teysmanni, everetti, fulvotincta, and fulviventris are transferred from Golden Whistler to Rusty-breasted Whistler. (MAP) [Your records]
  • Yellow-throated Whistler Pachycephala macrorhyncha — RANGE: Moluccas to w Sundas. Subspecies pelengensis, clio, buruensis, macrorhyncha, calliope, compar, par, dammeriana, sharpei, and fuscoflava are transferred from Golden Whistler to Yellow-throated Whistler. (MAP) [Your records]
  • Black-chinned Whistler Pachycephala mentalis — RANGE: N Moluccas (Bacan, Halmahera, Morotai, Tidore and Ternate) and S Moluccas (Obi and Bisa). Subspecies mentalis, tidorensis, and obiensis are transferred from Golden Whistler to Black-chinned Whistler. (MAP) [Your records]
  • Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis — RANGE: Australia (eastern and western), Tasmania, Norfolk and or Howe Islands (Eastern group) and Balim Valley, New Guinea (Balim Valley group). (MAP) [Your records]
  • Black-tailed Whistler Pachycephala melanura — RANGE:
    Islands off se New Guinea to n Australia. Subspecies fergussonis from Fergusson I. (D’Entrecasteaux Archipelago) is transferred from Golden Whistler to the Black-tailed Whistler.(MAP) [Your records]
[Africa] Common Fiscal Lanius collaris is split into northern and southern species, but note that an isolated population of Southern Fiscal in southern Tanzania may overlap with Northern Fiscal and has been shown to hybridize, so report your records from this area with caution and use “Northern/Southern Fiscal (Common Fiscal)” to report birds of uncertain identity. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Northern Fiscal Lanius humeralis — RANGE: Guinea to Eritrea and Ethiopia south to s Tanzania, n Mozambique, Angola, Zambia and Malawi (MAP) [Your records]
  • Southern Fiscal Lanius collaris — RANGE: NE and s-central Tanzania and nw Namibia, sw Angola to Zimbabwe south to Cape Province (South Africa) (MAP) [Your records]
[Australasia] Buru Oriole Oriolus bouroensis is split into two species, which do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Buru Oriole Oriolus bouroensis — RANGE: Buru (s Moluccas) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Tanimbar Oriole Oriolus decipiens — RANGE: Tanimbar Islands (Arafura Sea) (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia/Australasia] Subspecies meeki and longirostris had previously been erroneously assigned to Hair-crested Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus, but are now moved to Spangled Drongo Dicrurus bracteatus following Mayr and Diamond (2001. The Birds of Northern Melanesia. Oxford Univ. Press, New York) and others. Although the two species don’t overlap in range, note that each occupies different islands in the Moluccas and identification there should be made with care. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Hair-crested Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus — RANGE: India, Southeast Asia, Malaysia, certain islands in the Moluccas, and Philippines (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Spangled Drongo Dicrurus bracteatus — RANGE: Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Australia (MAP) [Your records]

[Asia] Blue Fantail Rhipidura superciliaris is split into two species, which do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)

  • Mindanao Blue-Fantail Rhipidura superciliaris — RANGE: Philippines (Mindanao) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Visayan Blue-Fantail Rhipidura samarensis — RANGE: Philippines (Bohol, Leyte and Samar) (MAP) [Your records]

[Asia] Blue-headed Fantail Rhipidura cyaniceps is split into two species, which do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)

  • Blue-headed Fantail Rhipidura cyaniceps — RANGE: Northern Philippines (MAP) [Your records]
  • Visayan Fantail Rhipidura albiventris — RANGE: Philippines (Guimaras, Masbate, Negros, Panay and Ticao) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Tablas Fantail Rhipidura sauli — RANGE: Philippines (Tablas) (MAP) [Your records]

[Australasia] Within Carola’s Parotia Parotia carolae, subspecies berlepschi is elevated to species rank. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)

  • Carola’s Parotia Parotia carolae — RANGE: Widespread in New Guinea (MAP) [Your records]
  • Bronze Parotia Parotia berlepschi — RANGE: W New Guinea (Van Rees and [?] Foya mountains) (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch Sitta castanea is split into three species. Although they do not overlap, Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch nearly overlaps with Burmese Nuthatch in Thailand and with Indian Nuthatch at the base of the Himalayas, where Indian Nuthatch is more apt to occur at low elevations. Any records from those regions should be carefully checked. (Records updated to conform to range of new species, but we do need your help in double-checking!)
  • Indian Nuthatch Sitta castanea — RANGE: Foothills of n and central India (western Ghats) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch Sitta cinnamoventris — RANGE: Pakistan to s Yunnan (China), n Thailand, n Vietnam, n and central Laos (MAP) [Your records]
  • Burmese Nuthatch Sitta neglecta — RANGE: Myanmar to se Yunnan, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, s Vietnam (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Golden Bulbul Alophoixus affinis is split into three species, which are island endemics that do not overlap (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Northern Golden-Bulbul Alophoixus longirostris — RANGE: Sangihe, Togian, Banggai Islands, Sula Islands, and n Moluccas (MAP) [Your records]
  • Buru Golden-Bulbul Alophoixus mystacalis — RANGE: Buru (s Moluccas) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Seram Golden-Bulbul Alophoixus affinis — RANGE: Seram and Ambon (s Moluccas) (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Chestnut-capped Laughingthrush Garrulax mitratus is split into two species, a widespread one and one restricted to Borneo. They do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Chestnut-capped Laughingthrush Garrulax mitratus — RANGE: Malay Peninsula and Sumatra (MAP) [Your records]
  • Chestnut-hooded Laughingthrush Garrulax treacheri — RANGE: Borneo (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Red-faced Liocichla Liocichla phoenicea is split into two species. Both are widespread, but their ranges do not overlap. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Red-faced Liocichla Liocichla phoenicea — RANGE: Nepal and northern India to nw Myanmar and nw Yunnan (China) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Scarlet-faced Liocichla Liocichla ripponi — RANGE: S China (se Yunnan) to n Laos and n Tonkin, E Myanmar and nw Thailand (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Two subspecies, siamensis (N plateau of Thailand and Vietnam) and umbrosa (Borneo), should be part of Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa latirostris, not Brown-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa williamsoni as previously treated. This results in a significant change in the range of each species.
**NOTE**! This change is a very difficult one for us to update. The species do overlap broadly, since migrant Asian Brown Flycatchers winter throughout the range of resident Brown-streaked Flycatchers. It is unclear when users have been following the previous (flawed) treatment or when they had been following the correct treatment below. If you have seen these species, especially on the Malay Peninsula where they overlap, please check them carefully and make sure your records are assigned to the correct species (or Muscicapa sp. if you are unsure.) (Records updated to conform to range of new species.
  • Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa latirostris — RANGE:
    Siberia to Japan, s China, India, n Thailand and n Vietnam, and Borneo; winters on Malay Peninsula and south to Greater Sundas (MAP) [Your records]
  • Brown-streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa williamsoni — RANGE: S Myanmar to pen. Thailand, Malaya, s Vietnam and Sumatra (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Subspecies superciliaris of White-browed Shama Copsychus luzoniensis is elevated to species rank. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • White-browed Shama Copsychus luzoniensis — RANGE: N Philippines (MAP) [Your records]
  • Visayan Shama Copsychus superciliaris — RANGE: Philippines (Ticao, Masbate, Panay and Negros) (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] An island endemic population on Tanimbar is split out from the widespread Rufous-chested Flycatcher Ficedula dumetoria. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Rufous-chested Flycatcher Ficedula dumetoria — RANGE:
    Peninsular Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Bali and w Lesser Sundas (MAP) [Your records]
  • Tanimbar Flycatcher Ficedula riedeli — RANGE: Tanimbar Islands (Larat and Yamdena) (MAP) [Your records]
[Europe/Asia/Africa/NA] Stonechat Saxicola torquatus is split into three species. European Stonechat Saxicola rubicola occurs throughout much of Europe and winters in N Africa; Siberian Stonechat Saxicola maurus breeds throughout much of northern Asia and winters in south Asia and the Middle East; and African Stonechat Saxicola torquatus breeds throughout much of Africa. This split was based on a series of phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data (reviewed by Sangster et al. 2011. Taxonomic recommendations for British birds: Seventh report. Ibis 153: 883–892). Note that this split departs from the North American Classification Committee and that while we follow that committee in almost all cases, we do depart when the British Ornithological Union splits species like this that are primarily European or Asian and not regular in North America. A couple other splits in their report (Whimbrel, Sandwich Tern) are not followed at this point by the NACC or by eBird/Clements.

**NOTE**! Most Stonechat records were fairly easy to assign to one of the new species. We assumed all reports from Europe were the expected form (now European Stonechat) unless specifically noted as being Siberian Stonechat, which is an occasional fall vagrant to Europe. Please review your European records to make sure they are correctly assigned. In Northwest Africa, birds north of the Sahara were presumed to be European Stonechats unless indicated and south of the Sahara all were assumed to be African Stonechats. In most of Asia, all were presumed to be Siberian Stonechats, but note that you may want to review your records and specify if you saw any that pertained to either of the two groups (Stejneger’s stejnegeri or Siberian maurus Group). In the Middle East, however, where European and Siberian are both almost equally likely to occur, we left all reports as European/Siberian Stonechat Saxicola rubicola/maurus unless they had been specifically noted as being of one or the other species. If you have reported Stonechat from the Middle East, please review the records carefully and adjust them to the correct species if you know which is was!
  • European Stonechat Saxicola rubicola — RANGE: Europe and North Africa, west to central Turkey; winters widely in North Africa east to the Middle East (MAP) [Your records]
  • Siberian Stonechat Saxicola maurus — RANGE: Widely in Asia, from western Turkey and the Ural River region east to eastern Russia; winters in south Asia and the Middle East (MAP) [Your records]
  • African Stonechat Saxicola torquatus — RANGE: Mountains of sw Arabia and Yemen south through Africa (MAP) [Your records]
[SA] A recently described Turdus, similar to Hauxwell’s Thrush Turdus hauxwelli, was recently recognized from varzea forest along the Amazon River and its tributaries. It was presumably overlooked previously due to its similarity to Hauxwell’s Thrush, but has subtle plumage differences and it is vocally distinct and
**NOTE**! These species overlap almost completely, so assigning them based on range is simply not possible. The records in eBird are of birds specifically identified as Varzea Thrush, but if you have observed Hauxwell’s in an area of potential overlap, please consider changing it to Turdus sp. (with next year’s update we will add Hauxwell’s/Varzea Thrush, but that option is not currently available within eBird) if you were unsure of the species involved, or adding notes to support the identification and to help clarify the range of these two taxa, which is still incompletely known. Note that Varzea Thrush was previously in eBird as a form: Hauxwell’s Thrush (Gray-tailed).
  • Hauxwell’s Thrush Turdus hauxwelli — RANGE: SE Colombia to n Bolivia, s Venezuela and w Amazonian Brazil (MAP) [Your records]
  • Varzea Thrush Turdus sanchezorum — RANGE: N and c Amazonian Peru, sw Amazonian Brazil (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Subspecies rabori of Stripe-breasted Rhabdornis Rhabdornis inornatus is elevated to species rank. The two species do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Stripe-breasted Rhabdornis Rhabdornis inornatus RANGE: Philippines (montane forests of Samar, Leyte, Biliran, and Mindanao) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Visayan Rhabdornis Rhabdornis rabori — RANGE: Philippines (Negros) (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] Flame-breasted Flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrothorax is split into two species, which each occur on specific islands and do not overlap. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Halmahera Flowerpecker Dicaeum schistaceiceps — RANGE: Moluccas (Morotai, Halmahera, Kasiruta, Bacan, Obi and Bisa) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Buru Flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrothorax — RANGE: Buru (s Moluccas) (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] The widespread Asian species Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra is split into three species: a widespread one and two Philippine endemics (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Orange-tufted Spiderhunter Arachnothera flammifera — RANGE:
    Philippines (Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Mindanao, Dinagat, Basilan and Biliran) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Pale Spiderhunter Arachnothera dilutior — RANGE: SW Philippines (Palawan) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra — RANGE: India and Southeast Asia to Borneo and Java (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] An isolated Bornean population is split from Streaky-breasted Spiderhunter Arachnothera affinis. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Streaky-breasted Spiderhunter Arachnothera affinis — RANGE: Java and Bali (MAP) [Your records]
  • Bornean Spiderhunter Arachnothera everetti — RANGE: Mts. of n and central Borneo (MAP) [Your records]
[SA] Capped Seedeater Sporophila bouvreuil is split into two species, following the acceptance of a SACC proposal. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Copper Seedeater Sporophila bouvreuil — RANGE: E and c South America, from Suriname and French Guiana s to s Brazil (MAP) [Your records]
  • Pearly-bellied Seedeater Sporophila pileata — RANGE: E Paraguay to s Brazil (s Mato Grosso) and ne Argentina (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia/Africa] House Bunting Emberiza striolata is split into two species, which look quite different and do not overlap in range. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • House Bunting Emberiza sahari — RANGE: Mountains of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia to Mali and se Niger (MAP) [Your records]
  • Striolated Bunting Emberiza striolata — RANGE: Middle East and Northeast Africa east to India (MAP) [Your records]
[Europe] The distinctive gray Azorean bullfinches are recognized as a different species from the widespread form. (Records updated to conform to range of new species.)
  • Azores Bullfinch Pyrrhula murina — RANGE: San Miguel (Azores) (MAP) [Your records]
  • Eurasian Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula — RANGE: Eurasia (MAP) [Your records]
[Asia] When we split Spotted Rosefinch Carpodacus severtzowi from Great Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilla, we incorrectly left two subspecies with Great Rosefinch. We now move these two subspecies (diabolicus and kobsensis) to the correct species, Spotted Rosefinch. (Records updated to conform to revised range of both species.)
  • Great Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilla — RANGE: Caucasus; winters to Transcaucasus (MAP) [Your records]
  • Spotted Rosefinch Carpodacus severtzovi — RANGE: NE Afghanistan to se China (MAP) [Your records]
[Europe] The enigmatic population Passer sparrows in Italy have been variously considered a subspecies of House Sparrow, a hybrid between House Sparrow and Spanish Sparrow, or a species. Although the origin may in fact have been due to hybridization, it is increasingly recognized as a species, and we follow suit here recognizing it as Italian Sparrow Passer italiae.
**NOTE**! Records from the edges of the species’ range in northern Italy, southeastern France, southern Switzerland, southern Austria, and southwestern Croatia should be carefully checked. Since this taxon was not even available as a subspecies, we had made some broad-brush assumptions and tentatively considered those inside Italy to be Italian Sparrows and those in neighboring countries to be House Sparrows. Although the species’ ranges do follow these lines remarkably well, this is certainly incorrect in many cases, since some House Sparrows occur in Italy and some Italian Sparrows appear in neighboring regions. This may not be correct in many cases; please review these yourself for this region!
  • Italian Sparrow Passer italiae — RANGE: Corsica, Italy, and adjacent parts of se France, s Switzerland, and s Austria (MAP) [Your records]
  • House Sparrow Passer domesticus — RANGE: Um, like practically everywhere on the planet (except Italy and Corsica!) (MAP) [ Your records]


New species continue to be described from remote corners of the world, mostly in the Tropics of South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Amazingly, with the speed of information exchange these days, many birders have already seen these new species by the time their formal scientific description is published. When we are aware of an undescribed form, we have been trying to add it to eBird to allow for these sightings to be recorded and collected, even before the species is official (see the expanded list of eBird “forms” below for some of the species we are now including prior to formal description). With this taxonomic update, four new species are recognized because of new discoveries. Please enter them if you have seen them!
  • Bryan’s Shearwater Puffinus bryani — RANGE: Range poorly known; discovered on Midway Island (Hawaii), but probably breeds Bonin Islands (Japan) (No eBird Records) [Enter your records]
  • Urrao Antpitta Grallaria urraoensis — RANGE: Northern part of Western Andes of Colombia (Antioquia) (MAP) [Enter your records]
  • Alta Floresta Antpitta Hylopezus whittakeri — RANGE:

    Amazonian Brazil (south of the Amazon, between the Madeira and the Xingu) (MAP) [Enter your records]

  • Sira Barbet Capito fitzpatricki RANGE: Southern Cerros del Sira, Ucayali, Peru (MAP) [Enter your records]. This species was discovered by Cornell University students and named in honor of John Fitzpatrick, one of the visionaries behind eBird back in 2000! Read more!
  • Antioquia Wren Thryophilus sernai — RANGE: Arid Cauca Valley, Antioquia, Colombia (MAP) [Enter your records]


Lumps tend to be much less popular than the splits (since people may lose a bird off their life list!) and there are just two species that have been combined in this update. On the plus side, these actions do not require any action on your part since they are all automatic.

[Australia] Gray-headed Whistler Pachycephala griseiceps is lumped with Gray Whistler Pachycephala simplex, although we continue to recognize the two former species as groups:

  • Gray Whistler (Gray) Pachycephala simplex/dubia — RANGE: Australia (n Northern Territory) and SE New Guinea and D’Entrecasteaux Archipelago. (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Gray Whistler (Gray-headed) Pachycephala simplex [griseiceps Group] — RANGE: New Guinea, nearby islands, and n Queensland. (MAP) [ Your records]

[Asia] The recently described Naung Mung Scimitar-Babbler Jabouilleia naungmungensis now is considered to be a subspecies of the more widespread Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler Jabouilleia danjoui; we retain naungmungensis as a group, however, Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler (Naung Mung).

  • Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler (Short-tailed) Jabouilleia danjoui danjoui/parvirostris RANGE: Central Vietnam (Langbian Plateau and Col des Nuages) (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler (Naung Mung) Jabouilleia danjoui naungmungensis — RANGE: Sub-Himalayan Myanmar (MAP) [ Your records]

[Africa] Lump Amber Mountain Rock-Thrush Monticola erythronota and Benson’s Rock-Thrush Monticola bensoni are lumped into Forest Rock-Thrush, but all three groups are retained.

  • Forest Rock-Thrush (Amber Mountain) Monticola sharpei erythronotus — RANGE: Highland forest of northernmost Madagascar (Montagne d’Ambre) (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Forest Rock-Thrush (Forest) Monticola sharpei sharpei — RANGE: Humid forest in e-c Madagascar (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Forest Rock-Thrush (Benson’s) Monticola sharpei bensoni — RANGE: Montane rocky areas of s-c Madagascar (MAP) [ Your records]
[SA/NA] White-bellied Warbler is now lumped with Golden-crowned Warbler, in accord with a recently-accepted SACC proposal
Golden-crowned Warbler (White-bellied). It is retained as a group within Golden-crowned Warbler:
  • Golden-crowned Warbler (White-bellied) — Basileuterus culicivorus hypoleucus– RANGE: Lowlands of e Bolivia to ne Paraguay and s-central Brazil.

**NOTE**: If you are trying to check your new eBird life list totals by adding splits and subtracting lumps, please note that you may also need to subtract the few species above (e.g., stonechats) where we were unable to convert all records to a species.


A few changes are worth highlighting, but do not fit easily into other categories. These are listed below:

[SA] A distinctive, large Andean population is split from the group Common Gallinule (American), so please double-check your records if you have reported Common Gallinules to subspecies group from the highlands of South America. (Records updated to conform to range of new subspecies groups. Please check out work!)
  • Common Gallinule (American) Gallinula galeata [galeata Group] — RANGE: Widely in North and South America (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Common Gallinule (Altiplano) Gallinula galeata garmani — RANGE: Andes of Peru to Chile, Bolivia and nw Argentina (MAP) [ Your records]

[Asia] The form that we had listed as White-faced Plover (undescribed form) Charadrius [undescribed form] has now been shown to be a subspecies of Kentish Plover, which has had a fair amount of taxonomic confusion over the past century. This is now listed in eBird as Kentish Plover (White-faced) Charadrius alexandrinus dealbatus.

[NA] The identifiable subspecies group Sandhill Crane (rowani) Grus canadensis rowani is no longer included in the eBird taxonomy, and instead is lumped with the group Sandhill Crane (Greater) Grus canadensis tabida. The reason for this merger is that we do not believe the subspecies are field-identifiable under normal field conditions.

[NA/SA] We have changed our treatment of identifiable subspecies groups in Vermiculated Screech-Owl. The former group “Vermiculated Screech-Owl (Vermiculated) Megascops guatemalae vermiculatus is no longer recognized as a group. Instead, “Vermiculated Screech-Owl (Choco) Megascops guatemalae centralis” is now available. These forms have been confused in the literature before and our past treatment exacerbated the problem. Most reports in eBird of M. g. vermiculatus actually were meant to pertain to V. g. centralis. (Records of vermiculatus converted to centralis; please check your records to be sure this was the intent!)
  • Vermiculated Screech-Owl (Choco) Megascops guatemalae centralis — RANGE: central Panama to northern Colombia and western Ecuador (MAP) [ Your records]

[NA] The two identifiable subspecies groups in Allen’s Hummingbird Allen’s Hummingbird (sasin) Selasphorus sasin sasin and Allen’s Hummingbird (sedentarius) Selasphorus sasin sedentarius — are no longer included in the eBird taxonomy, and instead are lumped with the species Allen’s Hummingbird Selasphorus sasin. The reason for this merger is that we do not believe the subspecies are field-identifiable under normal field conditions.

[Europe/Asia] Another subspecies group (Identifiable Subspecific Form) split has occurred, with the recognition of Green Woodpecker (Mesopotamian), which formerly had been included as one of the subspecies within Green Woodpecker (Eurasian). It occurs in a part of the world (Iran) where we have little eBird data, so if you have observed this form, please enter the first eBird record! Green Woodpecker now has the following three groups in eBird.
  • Green Woodpecker (Eurasian) Picus viridis viridis/karelini — RANGE: Europe and western Asia (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Green Woodpecker (Mesopotamian) Picus viridis innominatus — RANGE: Zagros Mountains (sw Iran) (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Green Woodpecker (Iberian) Picus viridis sharpei — RANGE:
    Iberian Peninsula and the Pyrénées (MAP) [ Your records] [No eBird records as of 19 August 2012]
[Africa] Although Clements had it correct in last year’s update (Clements 6.6; August 2011), the eBird name was incorrect, suggesting that subspecies suahelicus was part of the “Cape” group. This is now fixed. (Records updated to match the revised range of these subspecies.)
  • Brown-necked Parrot (Brown-necked) Poicephalus robustus fuscicollis/suahelicus — RANGE: Senegambia to Nigeria and n Angola south to C Tanzania to ne Transvaal, se Zaire, Angola and Namibia (MAP) [Your records]
  • Brown-necked Parrot (Cape) Poicephalus robustus robustus — RANGE: Extreme se Africa (MAP) [Your records]
[SA] American Kestrel (Colombian) is expanded to include all subspecies in South America and is now listed as American Kestrel (South American) Falco sparverius [cinnamonimus Group].
[Africa] Within Green-backed Camaroptera Camaroptera brachyura, our August 2012 update (Clements 6.6) erred in its delineation of the Gray-backed and Green-backed groups and neglected the existence of the Green-tailed group, which is recognized by some authors. Instead of being monotypic, the Gray-backed group actually contains 11 subspecies and ranges through much of interior Africa, the Green-backed group (with 5 subspecies) occurs coastally from southern Kenya to South Africa, and the Green-tailed group has a limited range in Gabon and Angola. Apologies for this rather significant error! (Records updated to conform to the correct of each subspecies group. Please double-check them!)
  • Green-backed Camaroptera (Green-tailed) Camaroptera brachyura harterti — RANGE: Escarpment of se Gabon and nw Angola (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Green-backed Camaroptera (Gray-backed) Camaroptera brachyura [brevicaudata Group] — RANGE: Widespread in Africa, from Senegal and Sierra Leone to c Sudan and lowlands of Ethiopia and south to Mozambique (n of Save River), e Zimbabwe, ne Zululand, and
    SE Botswana to Zimbabwe (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Green-backed Camaroptera (Green-backed) Camaroptera brachyura [brachyura Group] — RANGE: Coastally from S Kenya to South Africa (MAP) [ Your records]
[Africa] A new group is recognized from the Broad-ringed White-eye (Montane) group, but is highly restricted in range, occurring only in northwest Kenya. The new groups are shown below. (Records updated to conform to the correct of each subspecies group.)
  • Broad-ringed White-eye (Montane) Zosterops poliogastrus [poliogastrus Group] — RANGE: Ethiopia and Eritrea to Tanzania (MAP) [Your records]
  • Broad-ringed White-eye (Kulal) Zosterops poliogastrus kulalensis — RANGE: N Kenya (Mt. Kulal) (MAP) [Your records]
[NA/SA] Two subspecies in Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus groups were placed in the wrong group, so occultus andausterus are moved from the Golden-crowned Warbler (Golden-crowned) Basileuterus culicivorus [auricapillus Group] group to the Cabanis’s group. The range of the subspecies thus changes as a result of this move. Below are the current groups for Golden-crowned Warbler (see also the “Lumps” section.)
  • Golden-crowned Warbler (Stripe-crowned) Basileuterus culicivorus [culicivorus Group] RANGE: Mexico to w Panama. (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Golden-crowned Warbler (Cabanis’s) Basileuterus culicivorus [cabanisi Group] — RANGE: North Colombia mountains and ne Venezuela. (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Golden-crowned Warbler (Golden-crowned) Basileuterus culicivorus [auricapillus Group] — RANGE: E slope of E Andes of Colombia, n Venezuela and Trinidad south to s Brazil, Paraguay, ne Argentina and e Bolivia. (MAP) [ Your records]
  • Golden-crowned Warbler (White-bellied) — Basileuterus culicivorus hypoleucus– RANGE: Lowlands of e Bolivia to ne Paraguay and s-central Brazil. (Former species, now lumped with Golden-crowned Warbler; see “Lumps” below.). (MAP) [ Your records]


A number of other new additions now are available as well, and many of these were specifically requested by our users. If you have seen any of the below, please go ahead and enter them! Note also that many of our ISSF options are considered species by certain authorities: entering them in eBird using the below name will ensure that your lists are correctly updated if they are split in the future (e.g., Common Ostrich and Somali Ostrich are split by some African authors, but we show them as identifiable subspecies groups).

Many of these taxa are not yet appearing on checklists, so you may have to seek them out if you want to report them. To do so when entering or editing a checklist, just open the “Add a species” box and start typing the species name. For example, typing “Ostrich” will bring up the species as well as its two groups.

If you notice a form, ISSF, hybrid, or spuh that should be on a checklist, please let us know (mji 26 AT and we can add it in our next update.

The additions are listed below by eBird category as follows: forms (including yet-to-be-described species), identifiable subspecific forms (ISSFs), hybrids, intergrades, slashes, and spuhs.


These forms do not fit formally within our parent taxonomy (Clements Checklist 6.6) but are options that we believe will become available in the future or ones that we need to provide for some other reason. Several of these are recently-discovered species that have yet to be formally described.

  • Black-capped Petrel (White-faced) Pterodroma hasitata (White-faced)
  • Black-capped Petrel (Dark-faced) Pterodroma hasitata (Dark-faced)
  • Band-rumped Storm-Petrel (Darwin’s) Oceanodroma castro bangsi
  • Mountain Buzzard (Elgin) Buteo oreophilus (Elgin Buzzard)
  • Great Nicobar Crake (undescribed form) Rallina [undescribed form]
  • Slate-colored Coot (White-billed) Fulica ardesiaca (White-billed)
  • Slate-colored Coot (Yellow-billed) Fulica ardesiaca (Yellow-billed)
  • Brown-hooded Gull (White-winged) Chroicocephalus maculipennis (White-winged)
  • Brown-hooded Gull (Dark-winged) Chroicocephalus maculipennis (Dark-winged)
  • Lesser Black-backed Gull (Taimyr) Larus fuscus taimyrensis
  • San Isidro Owl (undescribed form) Ciccaca [undescribed form]
  • Aripuana-Ji-Parana Antwren (undescribed form) Herpsilochmus [undescribed Aripuana-Ji-Parana form]
  • Madeira-Purus Antwren (undescribed form) Herpsilochmus [undescribed Madeira-Purus form]
  • Inambari-Tambopata Antwren (undescribed form) Herpsilochmus [undescribed Inambari-Tambopata Antwren]
  • Loreto Antwren (undescribed form) Herpsilochmus [undescribed Loreto form]
  • Aripuana Antbird (undescribed form) Myrmeciza [undescribed form]
  • Junin Tapaculo (undescribed form) Scytalopus [undescribed Juinin form]
  • Alto Pisones Tapaculo (undescribed form) Scytalopus [undescribed Choco form]
  • Perija Tapaculo (undescribed form) Scytalopus [undescribed Perija form]
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Taliabu) Phylloscopus poliocephalus [undescribed form 1]
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Banggai) Phylloscopus poliocephalus [undescribed form 2]
  • Sulawesi Brown Flycatcher (undescribed form) Muscicapa [undescribed form]
  • Three-striped Warbler (San Lucas) Basileuterus tristriatus [undescribed form]


A few feral, domestic forms are useful to report in eBird, mostly to distinguish them from the wild forms. In general, these domestic birds are not wild and self-sustaining and rely on man to be fed. Use of “Rock Pigeon (Domestic type)” and “Muscovy (Domestic type)”, which has been available for some time, is a bit confusing, since there are self-sustaining wild populations of both. Try to use these to distinguish non-wild birds from the wild populations. Note that “domestics” do not count on your life lists.

  • African Collared-Dove (Domestic type or Ringed Turtle-Dove) Streptopelia roseogrisea (Domestic type)


For hybrids and distinctive intergrades (hybrids between two subspecies) we make sure these options can be reported in eBird as well. The below options have been requested by eBirders or are frequent enough that we expect them to be reported. We don’t yet endeavor to provide every conceivable hybrid, since that could be a ridiculously long list, but we do want to make sure we have options to cover the birds you are seeing in the field. Let us know (mji26 AT if we forgot one!

  • Brant x Snow Goose (hybrid) Branta bernicla x Chen caerulescens
  • Snow x Cackling Goose (hybrid) Chen caerulescens x Branta hutchinsii
  • Ross’s x Cackling Goose (hybrid) Chen rossii x Branta hutchinsii
  • Ross’s x Canada Goose (hybrid) Chen rossii x Branta canadensis
  • Tundra Swan (Whistling x Bewick’s) Cygnus columbianus columbianus x bewickii
  • American Black Duck x Northern Pintail (hybrid) Anas rubripes x acuta
  • Blue-winged x Green-winged Teal (hybrid) Anas discors x crecca
  • Canvasback x Redhead (hybrid) Aythya valisineria x americana
  • Redhead x Ring-necked Duck (hybrid) Aythya americana x collaris
  • Common Pochard x Tufted Duck (hybrid) Aythya ferina x fuligula
  • Redhead x Greater Scaup (hybrid) Aythya americana x marila
  • Redhead x Lesser Scaup (hybrid) Aythya americana x affinis
  • Redhead x scaup sp. (hybrid) Aythya americana x marila/affinis
  • Ring-necked Duck x scaup sp. (hybrid) Aythya collaris x marila/affinis
  • Ruddy x White-headed Duck (hybrid) Oxyura jamaicensis x leucocephala
  • Scaled x California Quail (hybrid) Callipepla squamata x californica
  • Scaled x Gambel’s Quail (hybrid) Callipepla squamata x gambelii
  • Scaled Quail x Northern Bobwhite (hybrid) Callipepla squamata x Colinus virginianus
  • Great Blue Heron x Great Egret (hybrid) Ardea herodias x alba
  • Little Egret x Snowy Egret (hybrid) Egretta garzetta x thula
  • Little Blue x Tricolored Heron (hybrid) Egretta caerulea x tricolor
  • Black-crowned x Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (hybrid) Nycticorax nycticorax x Nyctanassa violacea
  • Red-shouldered x Red-tailed Hawk (hybrid) Buteo lineatus x jamaicensis
  • Surfbird x Red Knot (hybrid) Aphriza virgata x Calidris canuta
  • Black-headed x Mediterranean Gull (hybrid) Chroicocephalus ridibundus x Ichthyaetus melanocephalus
  • Shining x White-tufted Sunbeam (hybrid) Aglaeactis cupripennis x castelnaudii
  • Lucifer x Anna’s Hummingbird (hybrid) Calothorax lucifer x Calypte anna
  • Anna’s x Allen’s Hummingbird (hybrid) Calypte anna x Selasphorus sasin
  • Black-chinned x Broad-billed Hummingbird (hybrid) Archilochus alexandri x Cynanthus latirostris
  • Channel-billed Toucan (Citron-throated x Yellow-ridged) Ramphastos vitellinus citreolaemus x culminatus
  • Channel-billed Toucan (Yellow-ridged x Channel-billed) Ramphastos vitellinus culminatus x vitellinus
  • Channel-billed Toucan (Yellow-ridged x Ariel) Ramphastos vitellinus culminatus x ariel
  • Yellow-bellied x Red-breasted Sapsucker (hybrid) Sphyrapicus varius x ruber
  • Peregrine x Prairie Falcon (hybrid) Falco peregrinus x mexicanus
  • Eastern x Pale-headed Rosella (hybrid) Platycercus eximius x adscitus
  • Fischer’s x Yellow-collared Lovebird (hybrid) Agapornis fischeri x personatus
  • Western x Eastern Kingbird (hybrid) Tyrannus verticalis x tyrannus
  • Northern Rough-winged x Violet-green Swallow (hybrid) Stelgidopteryx serripennis x Tachycineta thalassina
  • Tree x Violet-green Swallow (hybrid) Tachycineta bicolor x thalassina
  • Bank x Barn Swallow (hybrid) Riparia riparia x Hirundo rustica
  • Violet-green x Cliff Swallow (hybrid) Tachycineta thalassina x Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
  • Black-capped x Boreal Chickadee (hybrid) Poecile atricapillus x hudsonicus
  • Carolina Chickadee x Tufted Titmouse (hybrid) Poecile carolinensis x Baeolophus bicolor
  • Northern x Tropical Mockingbird (hybrid) Mimus polyglottos x gilvus
  • MacGillivray’s x Mourning Warbler (hybrid) Geothlypis tolmiei x philadelphia
  • MacGillivray’s Warbler x Common Yellowthroat (hybrid) Geothlypis tolmiei x trichas
  • Cerulean Warbler x Northern Parula (hybrid) Setophaga cerulea x americana
  • Common Yellowthroat x Yellow Warbler (hybrid) Geothlypis trichas x Setophaga petechia
  • Blue-winged x Prairie Warbler (hybrid) Vermivora pinus x Setophaga discolor
  • Green-tailed x Spotted Towhee (hybrid) Pipilo chloropus x maculatus
  • Song x Swamp Sparrow (hybrid) Melospiza melodia x georgiana
  • White-throated x Golden-crowned Sparrow (hybrid) Zonotrichia albicollis x atricapilla
  • Dark-eyed Junco (Pink-sided x White-winged) Junco hyemalis mearnsi x aikeni
  • Dark-eyed Junco (Gray-headed x Red-backed) Junco hyemalis caniceps x dorsalis
  • Lesser x American Goldfinch (hybrid) Spinus psaltria x tristis
  • Hooded x Yellow-rumped Siskin (hybrid) Spinus magellanicus x uropygialis


Decisions about which population of a given bird is a species and which one is not is a contentious topic and not all authorities agree. Our eBird taxonomy attempts to define all the possible forms that can be either identified in the field or recognized as a species (sometimes based mostly on vocalizations or even genetics). We provide these for eBirders to report and we encourage you to use these options when possible. If and when future splits occur, we will more easily be able to convert records that are correctly reported to the subspecies group level. This year’s update has a very large number of additions. Let us know (mji26 AT if we forgot one!

  • Southern Brown Kiwi (South Island) Apteryx australis australis
  • Southern Brown Kiwi (Stewart Island) Apteryx australis lawryi
  • Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Northern) Dendrocygna autumnalis autumnalis
  • Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Southern) Dendrocygna autumnalis discolor
  • Andean Teal (Merida) Anas andium altipetens
  • Andean Teal (Andean) Anas andium andium
  • Spix’s Guan (Grant’s) Penelope jacquacu granti
  • Spix’s Guan (Spix’s) Penelope jacquacu [jacquacu Group]
  • Blue-throated Piping-Guan (Blue-throated) Pipile cumanensis cumanensis
  • Blue-throated Piping-Guan (White-throated) Pipile cumanensis grayi
  • Red-throated Piping-Guan (White-crested) Pipile cujubi cujubi
  • Red-throated Piping-Guan (Gray-crested) Pipile cujubi nattereri
  • Crested Guineafowl (Kenya) Guttera pucherani pucherani
  • Crested Guineafowl (Crested) Guttera pucherani [edouardi Group]
  • Wilson’s Storm-Petrel (Wilson’s) Oceanites oceanicus oceanicus/exasperatus
  • Wilson’s Storm-Petrel (Fuegian) Oceanites oceanicus chilensis
  • Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (Yellow-crowned) Nyctanassa violacea [violacea Group]
  • Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (Galapagos) Nyctanassa violacea pauper
  • Lammergeier (Lammergeier) Gypaetus barbatus barbatus
  • Lammergeier (Baardaasvoel) Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis
  • White-bellied Bustard (White-bellied) Eupodotis senegalensis [senegalensis group]
  • White-bellied Bustard (Barrow’s) Eupodotis senegalensis barrowii
  • Clapper Rail (Caribbean) Rallus longirostris [caribaeus Group]
  • Clapper Rail (Cyperet’s) Rallus longirostris cypereti
  • Clapper Rail (Central American) Rallus longirostris [pallidus Group]
  • Clapper Rail (South American) Rallus longirostris [longirostris Group]
  • Pale-winged Trumpeter (Ochre-winged) Psophia leucoptera ochroptera
  • Pale-winged Trumpeter (White-winged) Psophia leucoptera leucoptera
  • Dark-winged Trumpeter (Green-backed) Psophia viridis viridis
  • Dark-winged Trumpeter (Dusky-backed) Psophia viridis dextralis
  • Dark-winged Trumpeter (Black-backed) Psophia viridis obscura
  • Wattled Jacana (Black-backed) Jacana jacana hypomelaena
  • Wattled Jacana (Chestnut-backed) Jacana jacana [jacana Group]
  • Rock Pratincole (Rufous-naped) Glareola nuchalis liberiae
  • Rock Pratincole (White-naped) Glareola nuchalis nuchalis
  • Spot-winged Pigeon (albipennis) Patagioenas maculosa albipennis
  • Spot-winged Pigeon (maculosa) Patagioenas maculosa maculosa
  • Brown Fish-Owl (Western) Ketupa zeylonensis semenowi
  • Brown Fish-Owl (Eastern) Ketupa zeylonensis [zeylonensis Group]
  • Mottled Owl (Mottled) Ciccaba virgata [virgata Group]
  • Mottled Owl (Atlantic Forest) Ciccaba virgata borelliana
  • Purple-throated Sunangel (Purple-throated) Heliangelus viola viola
  • Purple-throated Sunangel (Brilliant) Heliangelus viola splendidus/pyropus
  • Plovercrest (Emerald-crested) Stephanoxis lalandi lalandi
  • Plovercrest (Violet-crested) Stephanoxis lalandi loddigesii
  • Surucua Trogon (Orange-bellied) Trogon surrucura aurantius
  • Surucua Trogon (Red-bellied) Trogon surrucura surrucura
  • Common Kingfisher (Common) Alcedo atthis [atthis Group]
  • Common Kingfisher (Cobalt-eared) Alcedo atthis hispidoides/solomonensis
  • Sulawesi Hornbill (Dwarf) Penelopides exarhatus exarhatus
  • Sulawesi Hornbill (Sanford’s) Penelopides exarhatus sanfordi
  • Green Barbet (Green) Stactolaema olivacea olivacea
  • Green Barbet (Howell’s) Stactolaema olivacea howelli
  • Green Barbet (Woodward’s) Stactolaema olivacea woodwardi
  • Green Barbet (Malawi) Stactolaema olivacea rungweensis/belcheri
  • Chestnut-tipped Toucanet (Chestnut-tipped) Aulacorhynchus derbianus derbianus
  • Chestnut-tipped Toucanet (Whitely’s) Aulacorhynchus derbianus [whitelianus Group]
  • Channel-billed Toucan (Citron-throated) Ramphastos vitellinus citreolaemus
  • Channel-billed Toucan (Yellow-ridged) Ramphastos vitellinus culminatus/pintoi
  • Channel-billed Toucan (Channel-billed) Ramphastos vitellinus vitellinus
  • Channel-billed Toucan (Ariel) Ramphastos vitellinus ariel
  • Great Spotted Woodpecker (Great Spotted) Dendrocopus major [major group]
  • Great Spotted Woodpecker (Canarian) Dendrocopus major canariensis/thanneri
  • Great Spotted Woodpecker (Atlas) Dendrocopus major numidus/mauritanus
  • Campo Flicker (Campo) Colaptes campestris campestris
  • Campo Flicker (Field) Colaptes campestris campestroides
  • Green Woodpecker (Mesopotamian) Picus viridis innominatus
  • American Kestrel (Juan Fernandez) Falco sparverius fernandensis
  • Peregrine Falcon (African) Falco peregrinus minor
  • Peregrine Falcon (Malagasian) Falco peregrinus radama
  • Port Lincoln Parrot (Twenty-eight) Barnardius zonarius semitorquatus
  • Port Lincoln Parrot (Port Lincoln) Barnardius zonarius occidentalis/zonarius
  • Burrowing Parakeet (Olive) Cyanoliseus patagonus andinus
  • Burrowing Parakeet (Burrowing) Cyanoliseus patagonus patagonus/conlara
  • Burrowing Parakeet (Chilean) Cyanoliseus patagonus bloxami
  • Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Maroon-tailed) Pyrrhura frontalis frontalis
  • Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Green-tailed) Pyrrhura frontalis chiripepe
  • Maroon-tailed Parakeet (Choco) Pyrrhura melanura pacifica
  • Maroon-tailed Parakeet (Maroon-tailed) Pyrrhura melanura [melanura Group]
  • Blue-crowned Parakeet (Blue-crowned) Aratinga acuticaudata [acuticaudata Group]
  • Blue-crowned Parakeet (Highland) Aratinga acuticaudata neumanni
  • Chestnut-tailed Antbird (hemimelaena) Myrmeciza hemimelaena hemimelaena
  • Chestnut-tailed Antbird (pallens) Myrmeciza hemimelaena pallens
  • Immaculate Antbird (Central American) Myrmeciza immaculata zeledoni
  • Immaculate Antbird (Choco) Myrmeciza immaculata macrorhyncha
  • Immaculate Antbird (Andean) Myrmeciza immaculata immaculata/brunnea
  • Immaculate Antbird (Concepcion) Myrmeciza immaculata concepcion
  • Spotted Antpitta (Spotted) Hylopezus macularius macularius
  • Spotted Antpitta (Zimmer’s) Hylopezus macularius dilutus
  • Spotted Antpitta (Snethlage’s) Hylopezus macularius paraensis
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Mexican) Sclerurus mexicanus mexicanus
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Costa Rican) Sclerurus mexicanus pullus
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Andean) Sclerurus mexicanus andinus
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Dusky) Sclerurus mexicanus obscurior
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Amazonian) Sclerurus mexicanus peruvianus
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Guianan) Sclerurus mexicanus macconnelli
  • Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Atlantic) Sclerurus mexicanus bahiae
  • Fuscous Flycatcher (Campina) Cnemotriccus fuscatus duidae
  • Fuscous Flycatcher (Fuscous) Cnemotriccus fuscatus [fuscatus Group]
  • Nutting’s Flycatcher (West Mexican) Myiarchus nuttingi inquietus
  • Nutting’s Flycatcher (Southern) Myiarchus nuttingi nuttingi/flavidior
  • Northern Schiffornis (Northern) Schiffornis veraepacis [veraepacis Group]
  • Brown-winged Schiffornis (Brown-winged) Schiffornis turdina [turdina Group]
  • Scarlet Minivet (Philippine Red) Pericrocotus flammeus leytensis/novus
  • Scarlet Minivet (Philippine Yellow) Pericrocotus flammeus [marchesae Group]
  • Scarlet Minivet (Javan) Pericrocotus flammeus exul/siebersi
  • New Caledonian Whistler (New Caledonian) Pachycephala caledonica caledonica/littayei
  • New Caledonian Whistler (Vanuatu) Pachycephala caledonica [chlorura Group]
  • Golden Whistler (Balim Valley) Pachycephala melanura balim
  • Golden Whistler (Eastern) Pachycephala pectoralis [pectoralis Group]
  • Golden Whistler (Western) Pachycephala pectoralis fuliginosa
  • Ashy Drongo (Blackish) Dicrurus leucophaeus longicaudatus/nigrescens
  • Ashy Drongo (Sooty) Dicrurus leucophaeus [leucophaeus Group]
  • Ashy Drongo (Chinese White-faced) Dicrurus leucophaeus leucogenis/salangensis
  • Ashy Drongo (Island White-faced) Dicrurus leucophaeus periophthalmicus/siberu
  • Ashy Drongo (Bornean) Dicrurus leucophaeus stigmatops
  • White-bellied Drongo (White-bellied) Dicrurus caerulescens caerulescens
  • White-bellied Drongo (White-vented) Dicrurus caerulescens leucopygialis/insularis
  • Balicassiao (Balicassiao) Dicrurus balicassius abraensis
  • Balicassiao (Visayan) Dicrurus balicassius mirabilis
  • Spectacled Monarch (Obi) Symposiachrus trivirgatus diadematus
  • Spectacled Monarch (Seram) Symposiachrus trivirgatus nigrimentum
  • Spectacled Monarch (Australian) Symposiachrus trivirgatus gouldii/melanorrhous
  • Cape Clapper Lark (Cape) Mirafra apiata apiata
  • Cape Clapper Lark (Agulhas) Mirafra apiata marjoriae
  • Barlow’s Lark (Barlow’s) Calendulauda barlowi barlowi
  • Barlow’s Lark (Coastal) Calendulauda barlowi patae
  • Barlow’s Lark (Cave’s) Calendulauda barlowi cavei
  • African Penduline-Tit (Buff-bellied) Anthoscopus caroli sylviella
  • Firecrest (Madeira) Regulus ignicapilla madeirensis
  • Firecrest (European) Regulus ignicapilla ignicapilla/balearica
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Halmahera) Phylloscopus poliocephalus henrietta
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Bacan) Phylloscopus poliocephalus waterstradti
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Buru) Phylloscopus poliocephalus everetti
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Seram) Phylloscopus poliocephalus ceramensis
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Kai) Phylloscopus poliocephalus avicola
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Numfor) Phylloscopus poliocephalus maforensis
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Biak) Phylloscopus poliocephalus misoriensis
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (New Guinea) Phylloscopus poliocephalus [poliocephalus Group]
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (South Pacific) Phylloscopus poliocephalus [matthiae Group]
  • Yellow-breasted Apalis (Brown-tailed) Apalis flavida flavocincta
  • Green-backed Camaroptera (Green-tailed) Camaroptera brachyura harterti
  • Broad-ringed White-eye (Kulal) Zosterops poliogastrus kulalensis
  • Black-lored Babbler (Sharpe’s) Turdoides sharpei sharpei
  • Black-lored Babbler (Nanyuki) Turdoides sharpei vepres
  • Pale Flycatcher (Wajir) Bradornis pallidus bafirawari
  • Pale Flycatcher (East Coast) Bradornis pallidus subalaris
  • Red-backed Scrub-Robin (White-winged) Cercotrichas leucophrys leucoptera
  • Common Redstart (Common) Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus
  • Common Redstart (Ehrenberg’s) Phoenicurus phoenicurus samamisicus
  • Island Thrush (Christmas) Turdus poliocephalus erythropleurus
  • Island Thrush (Loeser’s) Turdus poliocephalus loeseri
  • Island Thrush (Sumatran) Turdus poliocephalus indrapurae
  • Island Thrush (Javan) Turdus poliocephalus javanicus/biesenbachi
  • Island Thrush (Sooty) Turdus poliocephalus fumidus
  • Island Thrush (Stresemann’s) Turdus poliocephalus stresemanni/whiteheadi
  • Island Thrush (Bornean) Turdus poliocephalus seebohmi
  • Island Thrush (Taiwan) Turdus poliocephalus niveiceps
  • Island Thrush (Luzon) Turdus poliocephalus thomassoni/mayonensis
  • Island Thrush (Mindoro) Turdus poliocephalus mindorensis
  • Island Thrush (Negros) Turdus poliocephalus nigrorum
  • Island Thrush (Malindang) Turdus poliocephalus malindangensis
  • Island Thrush (Katanglad) Turdus poliocephalus katanglad
  • Island Thrush (Keller’s) Turdus poliocephalus kelleri
  • Island Thrush (Latimojong) Turdus poliocephalus hygroscopus
  • Island Thrush (Celeb) Turdus poliocephalus celebensis
  • Island Thrush (Schlegel’s) Turdus poliocephalus schlegelii
  • Island Thrush (Sterling’s) Turdus poliocephalus sterlingi
  • Island Thrush (Seram) Turdus poliocephalus deningeri
  • Island Thrush (Jayawijaya) Turdus poliocephalus versteegi
  • Island Thrush (Ashy) Turdus poliocephalus carbonarius
  • Island Thrush (Papuan) Turdus poliocephalus papuensis
  • Island Thrush (Goodenough) Turdus poliocephalus canescens
  • Island Thrush (Australasian) Turdus poliocephalus [heinrothi Group]
  • Island Thrush (Kulambangra) Turdus poliocephalus kulambangrae
  • Island Thrush (Vanuatu) Turdus poliocephalus [vanikorensis Group]
  • Island Thrush (Ureparapara) Turdus poliocephalus placens
  • Island Thrush (Efate) Turdus poliocephalus efatensis
  • Island Thrush (White-headed) Turdus poliocephalus pritzbueri/albifrons
  • Island Thrush (New Caledonia) Turdus poliocephalus xanthopus
  • Island Thrush (Mare) Turdus poliocephalus mareensis
  • Island Thrush (Norfolk Island) Turdus poliocephalus poliocephalus
  • Island Thrush (Lord Howe Island) Turdus poliocephalus vinitinctus
  • Island Thrush (Layard’s) Turdus poliocephalus layardi
  • Island Thrush (Rufous-fronted) Turdus poliocephalus ruficeps
  • Island Thrush (Viti) Turdus poliocephalus vitiensis
  • Island Thrush (Satanic) Turdus poliocephalus hades
  • Island Thrush (Tempest) Turdus poliocephalus tempesti
  • Island Thrush (Samoan) Turdus poliocephalus samoensis
  • Chiguanco Thrush (chiguanco) Turdus chiguanco chiguanco/conradi
  • Chiguanco Thrush (anthracinus) Turdus chiguanco anthracinus
  • Long-billed Pipit (Nairobi) Anthus similis chyuluensis
  • Yellowish Pipit (Yellowish) Anthus lutescens lutescens/parvus
  • Yellowish Pipit (Peruvian) Anthus lutescens peruvianus
  • Common Yellowthroat (Pacific) Geothlypis trichas [arizela Group]
  • Common Yellowthroat (Western) Geothlypis trichas [occidentalis Group]
  • Common Yellowthroat (Eastern) Geothlypis trichas [trichas Group]
  • Common Yellowthroat (Brownsville) Geothlypis trichas insperata
  • Common Yellowthroat (Chapala) Geothlypis trichas chapalensis
  • Yellow Warbler (Galapagos) Setophaga petechia aureola
  • Three-striped Warbler (Costa Rican) Basileuterus tristriatus chitrensis
  • Three-striped Warbler (Tacarcuna) Basileuterus tristriatus tacarcunae
  • Three-striped Warbler (daedalus) Basileuterus tristriatus daedalus
  • Three-striped Warbler (auricularis) Basileuterus tristriatus auricularis
  • Three-striped Warbler (Venezuelan) Basileuterus tristriatus meridanus/bessereri
  • Three-striped Warbler (Paria) Basileuterus tristriatus pariae
  • Three-striped Warbler (Three-striped) Basileuterus tristriatus tristriatus/baezae
  • Three-striped Warbler (Bolivian) Basileuterus tristriatus [inconspicuus Group]
  • Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager (Buff-breasted) Dubusia taeniata/carrikeri
  • Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager (Cerulean-streaked) Dubusia taeniata stictocephala
  • Burnished-buff Tanager (Rufous-crowned) Tangara cayana/fulvescens
  • Burnished-buff Tanager (Stripe-bellied) Tangara cayana [flava Group]
  • Golden Tanager (Golden) Tangara arthus aurulenta
  • Golden Tanager (Venezuelan) Tangara arthus arthus
  • Great Pampa-Finch (Western) Embernagra platensis olivascens
  • Great Pampa-Finch (Eastern) Embernagra platensis platensis
  • Spotted Towhee (Great Plains) Pipilo maculatus arcticus
  • Song Sparrow (Pacific Northwest) Melospiza melodia [rufina Group]
  • Song Sparrow (California) Melospiza melodia [samuelis Group]
  • Song Sparrow (Southwest) Melospiza melodia [fallax Group]
  • Song Sparrow (Mexican) Melospiza melodia [mexicana Group]
  • Song Sparrow (Eastern) Melospiza melodia [melodia Group]
  • Variable Oriole (Yellow-shouldered) Icterus pyrrhopterus tibialis
  • Variable Oriole (Chestnut-shouldered) Icterus pyrrhopterus [pyrrhopterus Group]


We try to maintain a variety of spuhs (e.g., scoter sp.) and slashes (e.g., Greater/Lesser Yellowlegs) to allow birders to report species most accurately. With eBird’s recent global expansion, we are still adding new options for other portions of the world. Please let Marshall Iliff know <mji26 AT cornell DOT edu> if there are additional options we should add.

  • Eurasian/American Wigeon Anas penelope/americana
  • Penelope sp. Penelope sp.
  • Ruffed/Spruce Grouse Bonasa umbellus/Falcipennis canadensis
  • Cookilaria petrel sp. Pterodroma sp. (Cookilaria sp.)
  • Cory’s/Cape Verde Shearwater Calonectris diomedea/edwardsii
  • Double-crested/Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus/carbo
  • old world vulture sp. Accipitridae sp. (old world vulture sp.)
  • Nisaetus sp. Nisaetus sp.
  • Cooper’s Hawk/Northern Goshawk Accipiter cooperii/gentilis
  • Geranoaetus sp. Geranoaetus sp.
  • Geranoaetus/Buteo sp. Geranoaetus/Buteo sp.
  • Red-knobbed/Eurasian Coot Fulica cristata/atra
  • trumpeter sp. Psophia sp.
  • Common/Spotted Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos/macularius
  • Pectoral/Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Calidris melanotos/acuminata
  • Calidris sp. Calidris sp.
  • Black-legged/Red-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla/brevirostris
  • Laughing/Franklin’s Gull Leucophaeus atricilla/pipixcan
  • Western/Yellow-footed Gull Larus occidentalis/livens
  • Herring/Thayer’s Gull Larus argentatus/thayeri
  • white-winged gull sp. Larus sp. (white-winged gull sp.)
  • Ciccaba sp. Ciccaba sp.
  • Long-eared/Short-eared Owl Asio otus/flammeus
  • Asio sp. Asio sp.
  • Antrostomus sp. Antrostomus sp.
  • Red-necked/Eurasian Nightjar Caprimulgus ruficollis/europaeus
  • Hydropsalis sp. Hydropsalis sp.
  • fork-tailed swift sp. Apus pacificus/salimalii/leuconyx/cooki
  • White-tipped/Andean Swift Aeronautes montivagus/andecolus
  • Reddish/White-browed Hermit Phaethornis ruber/stuarti
  • Black-tailed/Green-tailed Trainbearer Lesbia victoriae/nuna
  • Chaetocercus sp. Chaetocercus sp.
  • asian trogon sp. Harpactes sp.
  • aracari sp. Pteroglossus sp.
  • small toucan sp. Ramphastidae (small toucan sp.)
  • large toucan sp. Ramphastos sp.
  • new world piculet sp. Picumnus sp.
  • Lineated Woodpecker/Campephilus sp. Dryocopus lineatus/Campephilus sp.
  • Picus sp. Picus sp.
  • Barred/Lined Forest-Falcon Micrastur ruficollis/gilvicollis
  • Crested/Southern Caracara Caracara cheriway/plancus
  • Psittacula sp. Psittacula sp.
  • large macaw sp. Ara sp.
  • small macaw sp. Orthopsittaca/Primolius/Diopsittaca sp.
  • antshrike sp. Thamnophilidae sp. (antshrike sp.)
  • Cinereous/Bluish-slate Antshrike Thamnomanes caesius/schistogynus
  • antwren sp. Thamnophilidae (antwren sp.)
  • Chestnut-tailed/Zimmer’s Antbird Myrmeciza hemimelaena/castanea
  • antbird sp. Thamnophilidae (antbird sp.)
  • Formicarius sp. Formicarius sp.
  • Chamaeza sp. Chamaeza sp.
  • antthrush sp. Formicarius/Chamaeza sp.
  • Straight-billed/Zimmer’s Woodcreeper Dendroplex picus/kienerii
  • scythebill sp. Campylorhamphus sp.
  • hornero sp. Furnarius sp.
  • Curve-billed/Straight-billed Reedhaunter Limnornis curvirostris/Limnoctites rectirostris
  • Azara’s/Apurimac Spinetail Synallaxis azarae/courseni
  • Furnariid sp. Furnariidae sp.
  • Myiopagis sp. Myiopagis sp.
  • Myiobius sp. Myiobius sp.
  • Myiotheretes sp. Myiotheretes sp.
  • blue cotinga sp. Cotinga sp.
  • manakin sp. Pipridae sp.
  • Tityra sp. Tityra sp.
  • Schiffornis sp. Schiffornis sp.
  • african cuckooshrike sp. Campephaga sp.
  • Edolisoma sp. Edolisoma sp.
  • Northern/Southern Fiscal (Common Fiscal) Lanius humeralis/collaris
  • Warbling/Philadelphia Vireo Vireo gilvus/philadelphicus
  • Eurasian/Indian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus/kundoo
  • Calandra/Bimaculated Lark Melanocorypha calandra/bimaculata
  • Greater/Lesser Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla/rufescens
  • White-rumped/Chilean Swallow Tachycineta leucorrhoa/meyeni
  • Tree/Violet-green Swallow Tachycineta bicolor/thalassina
  • Marsh/Willow Tit Poecile palustris/montanus
  • Eurasian/Great Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus/arundinaceus
  • European/Siberian Stonechat Saxicola rubicola/maurus
  • Meadow/Tree Pipit Anthus pratensis/trivialis
  • Meadow/Water Pipit Anthus pratensis/spinoletta
  • Snow/McKay’s Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis/hyperboreus
  • conebill sp. Conirostrum sp.
  • Lesson’s/Lined Seedeater Sporophila bouvronides/lineola
  • Geospiza sp. Geospiza sp.
  • galapagos finch sp. Geospiza/Camarhynchus/Platyspiza/Certhidea sp.
  • Lincoln’s/Swamp Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii/georgiana
  • cacique sp. Cacicus sp.
  • Hooded/Olivaceous Siskin Spinus magellanicus/olivaceus
  • House/Italian Sparrow Passer domesticus/italiae


Name changes are fairly simple, but they can sometimes be confusing, especially when your hand-written notes from a trip may indicate one name, but that name does not appear in eBird. For this reason, we try to document every name change we make. Avibase is an incredibly useful resource for working through changes in taxonomy as well as changes in names. Just type the bird name from your notes in their search field and Avibase will return all the other names in use for it–including the one used by eBird!


A number of common names have changed, either in attempt to clarify the taxon intended, to correct a mistake, to better reflect family relationships or to conform with more widespread usage. Most of these are documented more completely on the Clements updates pages. The common name changes that are the direct result of a split, lump, or other action (discussed in detail above) are marked with an asterisk (*) after the new name; note that all splits and lumps result in changes in common name. The common name changes in this update are as follows:

  • Brant (intergrade) –> Brant (Atlantic x Black)
  • Swan Goose (Domestic type) x Canada Goose –> Swan Goose (Domestic type) x Canada Goose (hybrid)
  • Graylag Goose (Domestic type) x Canada Goose –> Graylag Goose (Domestic type) x Canada Goose (hybrid)
  • Tufted Duck x scaup sp. –> Tufted Duck x scaup sp. (hybrid)
  • Gray-breasted Partridge (Malaysian) –> Gray-breasted Partridge (Malayan)
  • Willow Ptarmiugan (Willow) –> Willow Ptarmigan (Willow)
  • Rockhopper Penguin (Moseley’s) –> Tristan Penguin*
  • Great-winged Petrel (macroptera) –> Great-winged Petrel (Great-winged)
  • Great-winged Petrel (gouldi) –> Great-winged Petrel (Gray-faced)
  • Gould’s Petrel (Collared) –> Collared Petrel (Collared)*
  • Gould’s Petrel (Magnificent) (undescribed form) –> Collared Petrel* (Magnificent)
  • Townsend’s Shearwater (myrtae) –> Townsend’s Shearwater (Rapa Island)
  • Little Shearwater (assimilis) –> Little Shearwater (Tasman)
  • Little Shearwater (kermadacensis) –> Little Shearwater (Kermadec)
  • Little Shearwater (haurakiensis) –> Little Shearwater (Hauraki)
  • Little Shearwater (tunneyi) –> Little Shearwater (West Australian)
  • Tropical Shearwater (bailloni) –> Tropical Shearwater (Mascarene)
  • Tropical Shearwater (dichrous Group) –> Tropical Shearwater (Indopacific)
  • Crested Serpent-Eagle (Simeuleu) –> Crested Serpent-Eagle (Simeulue)
  • Little Eagle (Pygmy) –> Pygmy Eagle*
  • Chinese Goshawk –> Chinese Sparrowhawk
  • Solomon Sea-Eagle –> Sanford’s Sea-Eagle
  • Gray Hawk (Gray-backed) –> Gray Hawk*
  • Gray Hawk (Gray-lined) –> Gray-lined Hawk*
  • Gray Hawk –> Gray/Gray-lined Hawk*
  • Platen’s Rail –> Snoring Rail
  • Bare-faced Rail –> Blue-faced Rail
  • White-faced Plover (undescribed form) –> Kentish Plover (White-faced)*
  • Snowy Plover (Peruvian) –> Snowy Plover (Humboldt)
  • Rock Sandpiper (Bering Sea Is.) –> Rock Sandpiper (Bering Strait)
  • Rock Sandpiper (Pacific Coast) –> Rock Sandpiper (Aleutian)
  • Mew Gull (heinei) –> Mew Gull (Russian)
  • Black Tern (North American) –> Black Tern (American)
  • Pigeon Guillemot (Kuril Is.) –> Pigeon Guillemot (Snow’s)
  • Pigeon Guillemot (North Pacific) –> Pigeon Guillemot (American)
  • Xantus’s Murrelet (scrippsi) –> Scripps’s Murrelet*
  • Xantus’s Murrelet (hypoleucus) –> Guadalupe Murrelet*
  • Xantus’s Murrelet –> Scripps’s/Guadalupe Murrelet (Xantus’s Murrelet)*
  • Xantus’s/Craveri’s Murrelet –> Scripps’s/Guadalupe/Craveri’s Murrelet*
  • Ceylon Wood-Pigeon –> Sri Lanka Wood-Pigeon*
  • Pompadour Green-Pigeon –> Sri Lanka Green-Pigeon*
  • Pompadour Green-Pigeon (Gray-fronted) –> Gray-fronted Green-Pigeon*
  • Pompadour Green-Pigeon (Andaman) –> Andaman Green-Pigeon*
  • Pompadour Green-Pigeon (Ashy-headed) –> Ashy-headed Green-Pigeon*
  • Pompadour Green-Pigeon (Philippine) –> Philippine Green-Pigeon*
  • Pompadour Green-Pigeon (Buru) –> Buru Green-Pigeon*
  • Maroon-chinned Fruit-Dove (Oberholser’s) –> Maroon-chinned Fruit-Dove*
  • Maroon-chinned Fruit-Dove (Banggai) –> Banggai Fruit-Dove*
  • Maroon-chinned Fruit-Dove (Sula) –> Sula Fruit-Dove*
  • White-eyed Imperial-Pigeon (Spectacled) –> Spectacled Imperial-Pigeon*
  • White-eyed Imperial-Pigeon (Seram) –> Seram Imperial-Pigeon*
  • White Imperial-Pigeon –> Silver-tipped Imperial-Pigeon*
  • Long-tailed Mountain-Pigeon (Buru) –> Buru Mountain-Pigeon*
  • Long-tailed Mountain-Pigeon (Seram) –> Seram Mountain-Pigeon*
  • Manus Owl –> Manus Masked-Owl
  • Taliabu Owl –> Taliabu Masked-Owl
  • Minahassa Owl –> Minahassa Masked-Owl
  • Sulawesi Owl –> Sulawesi Masked-Owl
  • Mindanao Eagle-Owl –> Giant Scops-Owl
  • Vermiculated Screech-Owl (Vermiculated) –> Vermiculated Screech-Owl (Choco)*
  • Moluccan Hawk-Owl (Halmahera) –> Halmahera Hawk-Owl*
  • Moluccan Hawk-Owl (Tanimbar) –> Tanimbar Hawk-Owl*
  • Moluccan Hawk-Owl (Hantu) –> Hantu Hawk-Owl*
  • Solomon Hawk-Owl –> Solomons Hawk-Owl
  • Solomon Islands Frogmouth –> Solomons Frogmouth
  • Moluccan Swiftlet (Sulawesi) –> Sulawesi Swiftlet*
  • Moluccan Swiftlet (Halmahera) –> Halmahera Swiftlet*
  • Moluccan Swiftlet (Seram) –> Seram Swiftlet*
  • Silvery Kingfisher –> Southern Silvery-Kingfisher*
  • Black-backed Kingfisher –> Black-backed Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Rufous-backed Kingfisher –> Rufous-backed Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Philippine Kingfisher –> Philippine Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Sulawesi Kingfisher –> Sulawesi Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Kingfisher –> Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Lilac Kingfisher –> Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher
  • Black-billed Kingfisher –> Great-billed Kingfisher
  • Scaly Kingfisher –> Scaly-breasted Kingfisher
  • Purple Roller –> Azure Roller
  • Eurasian Hoopoe (Central Africanl) –> Eurasian Hoopoe (Central African)
  • Tarictic Hornbill –> Visayan Hornbill*
  • Willcock’s Honeyguide –> Willcocks’s Honeyguide
  • Sooty Woodpecker –> Northern Sooty-Woodpecker*
  • American Kestrel (Colombian) –> American Kestrel (South American)*
  • Yellowish-breasted Racquet-tail –> Yellow-breasted Racquet-tail
  • Seychelles Parrot –> Seychelles Parakeet [note that the split of Lesser Vasa-Parrot resulted in a different species acquiring the name Seychelles Parrot!]
  • Vasa Parrot –> Greater Vasa-Parrot
  • Black Parrot –> Lesser Vasa-Parrot
  • Blue-throated Parakeet –> Ochre-marked Parakeet
  • Blue-fronted Parrot –> Turquoise-fronted Parrot
  • Vinaceous Parrot –> Vinaceous-breasted Parrot
  • Banded Pitta (Malayan) –> Malayan Banded-Pitta*
  • Banded Pitta (Bornean) –> Bornean Banded-Pitta*
  • Banded Pitta (Javan) –> Javan Banded-Pitta*
  • Dull-mantled Antbird (Magdalena) –> Magdalena Antbird*
  • Scale-backed Antbird –> Common Scale-backed Antbird*
  • Scale-backed Antbird (Scale-backed) –> Common Scale-backed Antbird (Common Scale-backed)*
  • Scale-backed Antbird (Buff-breasted) –> Common Scale-backed Antbird (Buff-breasted)*
  • Scale-backed Antbird (Black-bibbed) –> Common Scale-backed Antbird (Black-bibbed)*
  • Scale-backed Antbird (Gray-breasted) –> Common Scale-backed Antbird (Gray-breasted)*
  • Scale-backed Antbird (Tapajos) –> Common Scale-backed Antbird (Tapajos)*
  • Scale-backed Antbird (Xingu) –> Xingu Scale-backed Antbird*
  • Antioquia Antpitta (undescribed form) –> Urrao Antpitta*
  • Pale-throated Tapaculo –> Tacarcuna Tapaculo
  • Alder/Willow Flycatcher (Traill’s) –> Alder/Willow Flycatcher (Traill’s Flycatcher)
  • Pacific-slope/Cordilleran Flycatcher (Western) –> Pacific-slope/Cordilleran Flycatcher (Western Flycatcher)
  • Thrush-like Schiffornis (Guyanan) –> Olivaceous Schiffornis*
  • Thrush-like Schiffornis (Northern) –> Northern Schiffornis*
  • Thrush-like Schiffornis (Ecuadorian) –> Northern Schiffornis (Ecuadorian)*
  • Thrush-like Schiffornis (East Andean) –> Foothill Schiffornis*
  • Thrush-like Schiffornis (Panamanian) –> Rufous-winged Schiffornis*
  • Thrush-like Schiffornis (Southern) –> Brown-winged Schiffornis*
  • Thrush-like Schiffornis (Amazonian) –> Brown-winged Schiffornis (Amazonian)*
  • Broad-billed Fairywren (Campbell’s) –> Campbell’s Fairywren*
  • Dark-eared Honeyeater –> Dark-eared Myza
  • Greater Streaked Honeyeater –> White-eared Myza
  • Dwarf Whistler –> Goldenface
  • Chestnut-breasted Quail-thrush (Western) –> Western Quail-thrush*
  • White-backed Woodswallow –> Ivory-backed Woodswallow
  • Ashy Cuckoo-shrike –> Ashy Cuckooshrike
  • Ashy Cuckoo-shrike (Comoros) –> Ashy Cuckooshrike (Comoros)
  • Ashy Cuckoo-shrike (Madagascar) –> Ashy Cuckooshrike (Madagascar)
  • Grauer’s Cuckoo-shrike –> Grauer’s Cuckooshrike
  • Gray Cuckoo-shrike –> Gray Cuckooshrike
  • White-breasted Cuckoo-shrike –> White-breasted Cuckooshrike
  • Stout-billed Cuckoo-shrike –> Stout-billed Cuckooshrike
  • Hooded Cuckoo-shrike –> Hooded Cuckooshrike
  • Pied Cuckoo-shrike –> Pied Cuckooshrike
  • Cerulean Cuckoo-shrike –> Cerulean Cuckooshrike
  • Ground Cuckoo-shrike –> Ground Cuckooshrike
  • Barred Cuckoo-shrike –> Barred Cuckooshrike
  • Boyer’s Cuckoo-shrike –> Boyer’s Cuckooshrike
  • Black-faced Cuckoo-shrike –> Black-faced Cuckooshrike
  • Melanesian Cuckoo-shrike (North) –> North Melanesian Cuckooshrike*
  • White-bellied Cuckoo-shrike –> White-bellied Cuckooshrike*
  • Moluccan Cuckoo-shrike –> Moluccan Cuckooshrike*
  • White-bellied Cuckoo-shrike (Manus) –> Manus Cuckooshrike*
  • Melanesian Cuckoo-shrike –> South Melanesian Cuckooshrike*
  • Large Cuckoo-shrike –> Large Cuckooshrike
  • Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike –> Bar-bellied Cuckooshrike
  • Andaman Cuckoo-shrike –> Andaman Cuckooshrike
  • Sunda Cuckoo-shrike –> Sunda Cuckooshrike
  • Javan Cuckoo-shrike –> Javan Cuckooshrike
  • Wallacean Cuckoo-shrike –> Wallacean Cuckooshrike
  • Buru Cuckoo-shrike –> Buru Cuckooshrike
  • White-rumped Cuckoo-shrike –> White-rumped Cuckooshrike
  • Slaty Cuckoo-shrike –> Slaty Cuckooshrike
  • cuckoo-shrike sp. –> Coracina sp.
  • Ghana Cuckoo-shrike –> Ghana Cuckooshrike
  • Oriole Cuckoo-shrike –> Oriole Cuckooshrike
  • Black Cuckoo-shrike –> Black Cuckooshrike
  • Petit’s Cuckoo-shrike –> Petit’s Cuckooshrike
  • Red-shouldered Cuckoo-shrike –> Red-shouldered Cuckooshrike
  • Purple-throated Cuckoo-shrike –> Purple-throated Cuckooshrike
  • Golden Cuckoo-shrike –> Golden Cuckooshrike
  • McGregor’s Cuckoo-shrike –> McGregor’s Cuckooshrike
  • White-winged Triller –> White-shouldered Triller*
  • White-winged Triller (White-winged) –> White-winged Triller*
  • Varied Triller (Mussau) –> Mussau Triller*
  • Reunion Cuckoo-shrike –> Reunion Cuckooshrike
  • Mauritius Cuckoo-shrike –> Mauritius Cuckooshrike
  • Black-winged Cuckoo-shrike –> Black-winged Cuckooshrike
  • Black-headed Cuckoo-shrike –> Black-headed Cuckooshrike
  • Lesser Cuckoo-shrike –> Lesser Cuckooshrike
  • Indochinese Cuckoo-shrike –> Indochinese Cuckooshrike
  • triller sp. –> Lalage sp.
  • Pygmy Cuckoo-shrike –> Pygmy Cuckooshrike
  • Halmahera Cuckoo-shrike –> Halmahera Cuckooshrike
  • Blue Cuckoo-shrike –> Blue Cuckooshrike
  • New Caledonian Cuckoo-shrike –> New Caledonian Cuckooshrike
  • Blackish Cuckoo-shrike –> Blackish Cuckooshrike
  • White-winged Cuckoo-shrike –> White-winged Cuckooshrike
  • Black-bellied Cuckoo-shrike –> Black-bellied Cicadabird
  • Pale-gray Cuckoo-shrike –> Pale Cicadabird
  • Kai Cuckoo-shrike –> Kai Cicadabird
  • Sumba Cuckoo-shrike –> Pale-shouldered Cicadabird
  • Black-bibbed Cuckoo-shrike –> Black-bibbed Cuckooshrike
  • Cicadabird (Makira) –> Makira Cicadabird
  • Solomon Islands Cuckoo-shrike –> Solomons Cuckooshrike
  • Papuan Cuckoo-shrike –> Papuan Cicadabird
  • Sulawesi Cuckoo-shrike –> Sulawesi Cicadabird
  • Sula Cuckoo-shrike –> Sula Cicadabird
  • Cicadabird –> Common Cicadabird*
  • Cicadabird (Common) –> Common Cicadabird (Common)*
  • Cicadabird (Gray-capped) –> Common Cicadabird (Gray-capped)*
  • Cicadabird (Palau) –> Common Cicadabird (Palau)*
  • Cicadabird (Yap) –> Common Cicadabird (Yap)*
  • Cicadabird (Pohnpei) –> Common Cicadabird (Pohnpei)*
  • Gray-headed Cuckoo-shrike –> Gray-headed Cicadabird
  • New Guinea Cuckoo-shrike –> Black Cicadabird
  • Sangihe Shrike-Thrush –> Sangihe Whistler
  • Gray Whistler –> Gray Whistler (Gray)*
  • Gray-headed Whistler –> Gray Whistler (Gray-headed)*
  • Common Fiscal –> Northern/Southern Fiscal (Common Fiscal)*
  • Buru Oriole (Black-eared) –> Buru Oriole*
  • Buru Oriole (Tanimbar) –> Tanimbar Oriole*
  • Papuan Drongo –> Pygmy Drongo-Fantail
  • Blue Fantail –> Mindanao Blue-Fantail*
  • Spectacled Monarch (Moluccan) –> Spectacled Monarch (Halmahera)
  • Spotted Nutcracker –> Kashmir Nutcracker
  • Carola’s Parotia (Bronze) –> Bronze Parotia*
  • Wallace’s Standardwing –> Standardwing Bird-of-paradise
  • Princess Stephanie’s Astrapia –> Stephanie’s Astrapia
  • Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch (Indian) –> Indian Nuthatch*
  • Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch (Chestnut-bellied) –> Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch*
  • Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch (Burmese) –> Burmese Nuthatch*
  • Pacific Wren (Western) –> Pacific Wren (Southern)
  • Shelley’s Bulbul (Kakamega) –> Shelley’s Greenbul (Kakamega)
  • Usambara Bulbul –> Usambara Greenbul
  • Golden Bulbul (Northern) –> Northern Golden-Bulbul*
  • Golden Bulbul (Buru) –> Buru Golden-Bulbul*
  • Golden Bulbul (Seram) –> Seram Golden-Bulbul*
  • Papyrus Yellow Warbler –> Papyrus Yellow-Warbler
  • African Yellow Warbler –> African Yellow-Warbler
  • Mountain Yellow Warbler –> Mountain Yellow-Warbler
  • Pleske’s Warbler –> Pleske’s Grasshopper-Warbler
  • Gray’s Warbler –> Gray’s Grasshopper-Warbler
  • Sakhalin Warbler –> Sakhalin Grasshopper-Warbler
  • Yellow-bellied White-eye –> Lemon-bellied White-eye
  • Solomon Islands White-eye –> Solomons White-eye
  • Solomon Islands White-eye (Solomon Islands) –> Solomons White-eye (Solomons)
  • Solomon Islands White-eye (Rendova) –> Solomons White-eye (Rendova)
  • Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler –> Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler (Short-tailed)*
  • Naung Mung Scimitar-babbler –> Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler (Naung Mung)*
  • Chestnut-capped Laughingthrush (Chestnut-capped) –> Chestnut-capped Laughingthrush*
  • Red-faced Liocichla (Red-faced) –> Red-faced Liocichla*
  • Red-faced Liocichla (Scarlet-faced) –> Scarlet-faced Liocichla*
  • Rufous-chested Flycatcher (Tanimbar) –> Tanimbar Flycatcher*
  • Amber Mountain Rock-Thrush –> Forest Rock-Thrush (Amber Mountain)*
  • Forest Rock-Thrush –> Forest Rock-Thrush (Forest)*
  • Benson’s Rock-Thrush –> Forest Rock-Thrush (Benson’s)*
  • Stonechat (European) –> European Stonechat*
  • Stonechat (Siberian) –> Siberian Stonechat (Siberian)*
  • Stonechat (Stejneger’s) –> Siberian Stonechat (Stejneger’s)*
  • Stonechat (African) –> African Stonechat (African)*
  • Stonechat (Ethiopian) –> African Stonechat (Ethiopian)*
  • Stonechat (Madagascar) –> African Stonechat (Madagascar)*
  • Hauxwell’s Thrush (Gray-tailed) –> Varzea Thrush*
  • Flame-breasted Flowerpecker (Halmahera) –> Halmahera Flowerpecker*
  • Flame-breasted Flowerpecker (Flame-breasted) –> Buru Flowerpecker*
  • Purple-naped Sunbird –> Purple-naped Spiderhunter
  • Pechora Pipit (Manzbier’s) –> Pechora Pipit (Menzbier’s)
  • Yellow-rumped Warbler (intergrade) –> Yellow-rumped Warbler (Myrtle x Audubon’s)
  • White-bellied Warbler –> Golden-crowned Warbler (White-bellied)*
  • Capped Seedeater –> Copper Seedeater*
  • Phelps’s Brush-Finch –> Perija Brush-Finch
  • Rufous-naped Brush-Finch –> Bolivian Brush-Finch
  • House Bunting (House) –> House Bunting*
  • House Bunting (Striolated) –> Striolated Bunting*
  • meadowlark sp. –> Eastern/Western Meadowlark
  • Eurasian Bullfinch (Azores) –> Azores Bullfinch*
  • Red Crossbill (South Hills or Type 9) –> Red Crossbill (South Hills)
  • Pale-fronted Negrofinch –> Pale-fronted Nigrita
  • Gray-headed Negrofinch –> Gray-headed Nigrita
  • Chestnut-breasted Negrofinch –> Chestnut-breasted Nigrita
  • White-breasted Negrofinch –> White-breasted Nigrita


An goodly number of scientific names have changed, as well, and these often reflect a better understanding of relationships within a given family or genus. The scientific name changes are listed below, along with the current common name.

  • Siberian Grouse: Dendragapus falcipennis –> Falcipennis falcipennis
  • Tristan Penguin: Eudyptes chrysocome moseleyi –> Eudyptes moseleyi*
  • Collared Petrel (Collared): Pterodroma leucoptera brevipes –> Pterodroma brevipes brevipes*
  • Collared Petrel (Magnificent): Pterodroma leucoptera (undescribed form) –> Pterodroma brevipes magnificens*
  • Fiji Petrel: Pterodroma macgillivrayi –> Pseudobulweria macgillivrayi
  • Mascarene Petrel: Pterodroma aterrima –> Pseudobulweria aterrima
  • Tahiti Petrel: Pterodroma rostrata –> Pseudobulweria rostrata
  • Beck’s Petrel: Pterodroma becki –> Pseudobulweria becki
  • New Zealand Storm-Petrel: Oceanites maorianus –> Fregetta maoriana
  • Band-rumped Storm-Petrel (Grant’s): Oceanodroma castro (undescribed form) –> Oceanodroma castro [undescribed form]
  • Marabou Stork: Leptoptilos crumeniferus –> Leptoptilos crumenifer
  • Australian Ibis: Threskiornis molucca –> Threskiornis moluccus
  • Lesser Spotted Eagle: Aquila pomarina –> Clanga pomarina
  • Indian Spotted Eagle: Aquila hastata –> Clanga hastata
  • Greater Spotted Eagle: Aquila clanga –> Clanga clanga
  • Pygmy Eagle: Hieraaetus morphnoides weiskei –> Hieraaetus weiskei*
  • Black Kite (Black): Milvus migrans migrans/govinda –> Milvus migrans [migrans Group]
  • Black Kite (Black-eared): Milvus migrans [lineatus Group] –> Milvus migrans lineatus/formosanus
  • Plumbeous Hawk: Leucopternis plumbeus –> Cryptoleucopteryx plumbea
  • Slate-colored Hawk: Leucopternis schistaceus –> Buteogallus schistaceus
  • White-necked Hawk: Leucopternis lacernulatus –> Buteogallus lacernulatus
  • Solitary Eagle: Harpyhaliaetus solitarius –> Buteogallus solitarius
  • Crowned Eagle: Harpyhaliaetus coronatus –> Buteogallus coronatus
  • Barred Hawk: Leucopternis princeps –> Morphnarchus princeps
  • Roadside Hawk: Buteo magnirostris –> Rupornis magnirostris
  • Roadside Hawk (Cozumel I.): Buteo magnirostris gracilis –> Rupornis magnirostris gracilis
  • Roadside Hawk (Mainland): Buteo magnirostris [magnirostris Group] –> Rupornis magnirostris [magnirostris Group]
  • White-rumped Hawk: Buteo leucorrhous –> Parabuteo leucorrhous
  • White-tailed Hawk: Buteo albicaudatus –> Geranoaetus albicaudatus
  • Variable Hawk: Buteo polyosoma –> Geranoaetus polyosoma
  • Variable Hawk (Puna): Buteo polyosoma (Puna) –> Geranoaetus polyosoma (Puna)
  • Variable Hawk (Red-backed): Buteo polyosoma (Red-backed) –> Geranoaetus polyosoma (Red-backed)
  • Variable Hawk (Variable): Buteo polyosoma polyosoma –> Geranoaetus polyosoma polyosoma
  • Variable Hawk (Juan Fernandez): Buteo polyosoma exsul –> Geranoaetus polyosoma exsul
  • Mantled Hawk: Leucopternis polionotus –> Pseudastur polionotus
  • White Hawk: Leucopternis albicollis –> Pseudastur albicollis
  • White Hawk (Snowy): Leucopternis albicollis ghiesbreghti –> Pseudastur albicollis ghiesbreghti
  • White Hawk (White-shouldered): Leucopternis albicollis costaricensis –> Pseudastur albicollis costaricensis
  • White Hawk (Black-winged): Leucopternis albicollis williaminae –> Pseudastur albicollis williaminae
  • White Hawk (Black-tailed): Leucopternis albicollis albicollis –> Pseudastur albicollis albicollis
  • Gray-backed Hawk: Leucopternis occidentalis –> Pseudastur occidentalis
  • Gray Hawk: Buteo nitidus plagiatus –> Buteo plagiatus*
  • Gray-lined Hawk: Buteo nitidus [nitidus Group] –> Buteo nitidus*
  • Gray/Gray-lined Hawk: Buteo nitidus –> Buteo plagiatus/nitidus*
  • Gray-necked Wood-Rail: Aramides cajanea –> Aramides cajaneus
  • Purple Gallinule: Porphyrio martinica –> Porphyrio martinicus
  • Sandhill Crane (Greater): Grus canadensis tabida –> Grus canadensis tabida/rowani*
  • Kentish Plover (Kentish): Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus/dealbatus –> Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus
  • Kentish Plover (White-faced): Charadrius [undescribed form] –> Charadrius alexandrinus dealbatus*
  • peep sp.: Calidris sp. –> Calidris sp. (peep sp.)
  • Scripps’s Murrelet: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus scrippsi –> Synthliboramphus scrippsi*
  • Guadalupe Murrelet: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus hypoleucus –> Synthliboramphus hypoleucus*
  • Scripps’s/Guadalupe Murrelet (Xantus’s Murrelet): Synthliboramphus hypoleucus –> Synthliboramphus scrippsi/hypoleucus*
  • Scripps’s/Guadalupe/Craveri’s Murrelet: Synthliboramphus hypoleucus/craveri –> Synthliboramphus scrippsi/hypoleucus/craveri*
  • Sri Lanka Wood-Pigeon: Columba torringtoni –> Columba torringtoniae
  • Emerald Dove (Pacific): Chalcophaps indica [longirostris Group] –> Chalcophaps indica [chrysochlora Group]
  • Purple-winged Ground-Dove: Claravis godefrida –> Claravis geoffroyi
  • Gray-fronted Green-Pigeon: Treron pompadora affinis –> Treron affinis*
  • Andaman Green-Pigeon: Treron pompadora chloropterus –> Treron chloropterus*
  • Ashy-headed Green-Pigeon: Treron pompadora phayrei –> Treron phayrei*
  • Philippine Green-Pigeon: Treron pompadora [axillaris Group] –> Treron axillaris*
  • Buru Green-Pigeon: Treron pompadora aromaticus –> Treron aromaticus*
  • Maroon-chinned Fruit-Dove: Ptilinopus subgularis epia –> Ptilinopus epia*
  • Banggai Fruit-Dove: Ptilinopus subgularis subgularis –> Ptilinopus subgularis*
  • Sula Fruit-Dove: Ptilinopus subgularis mangoliensis –> Ptilinopus mangoliensis*
  • Spectacled Imperial-Pigeon: Ducula perspicillata perspicillata –> Ducula perspicillata*
  • Seram Imperial-Pigeon: Ducula perspicillata neglecta –> Ducula neglecta*
  • Buru Mountain-Pigeon: Gymnophaps mada mada –> Gymnophaps mada*
  • Seram Mountain-Pigeon: Gymnophaps mada stalkeri –> Gymnophaps stalkeri*
  • Giant Scops-Owl: Mimizuku gurneyi –> Otus gurneyi
  • Vermiculated Screech-Owl (Choco): Megascops guatemalae vermiculatus –> Megascops guatemalae centralis*
  • Halmahera Hawk-Owl: Ninox squamipila hypogramma –> Ninox hypogramma*
  • Tanimbar Hawk-Owl: Ninox squamipila forbesi –> Ninox forbesi*
  • Hantu Hawk-Owl: Ninox squamipila squamipila/hantu –> Ninox squamipila*
  • Malaysian Nightjar: Eurostopodus temminckii –> Lyncornis temminckii
  • Great Eared-Nightjar: Eurostopodus macrotis –> Lyncornis macrotis
  • Collared Nightjar: Caprimulgus enarratus –> Gactornis enarratus
  • Chuck-will’s-widow: Caprimulgus carolinensis –> Antrostomus carolinensis
  • Rufous Nightjar: Caprimulgus rufus –> Antrostomus rufus
  • Rufous Nightjar (South American): Caprimulgus rufus [rufus Group] –> Antrostomus rufus [rufus Group]
  • Rufous Nightjar (St. Lucia): Caprimulgus rufus otiosus –> Antrostomus rufus otiosus
  • Rufous Nightjar (Northern): Caprimulgus rufus minimus –> Antrostomus rufus minimus
  • Greater Antillean Nightjar: Caprimulgus cubanensis –> Antrostomus cubanensis
  • Greater Antillean Nightjar (Cuban): Caprimulgus cubanensis cubanensis/insulaepinorum –> Antrostomus cubanensis cubanensis/insulaepinorum
  • Greater Antillean Nightjar (Hispaniolan): Caprimulgus cubanensis ekmani –> Antrostomus cubanensis ekmani
  • Tawny-collared Nightjar: Caprimulgus salvini –> Antrostomus salvini
  • Yucatan Nightjar: Caprimulgus badius –> Antrostomus badius
  • Silky-tailed Nightjar: Caprimulgus sericocaudatus –> Antrostomus sericocaudatus
  • Buff-collared Nightjar: Caprimulgus ridgwayi –> Antrostomus ridgwayi
  • Eastern Whip-poor-will: Caprimulgus vociferus –> Antrostomus vociferus
  • Dusky Nightjar: Caprimulgus saturatus –> Antrostomus saturatus
  • Mexican Whip-poor-will: Caprimulgus arizonae –> Antrostomus arizonae
  • Eastern/Mexican Whip-poor-will: Caprimulgus vociferus/arizonae –> Antrostomus vociferus/arizonae
  • Puerto Rican Nightjar: Caprimulgus noctitherus –> Antrostomus noctitherus
  • Sulawesi Swiftlet: Aerodramus infuscatus sororum –> Aerodramus sororum*
  • Halmahera Swiftlet: Aerodramus infuscatus infuscatus –> Aerodramus infuscatus*
  • Seram Swiftlet: Aerodramus infuscatus ceramensis –> Aerodramus ceramensis*
  • Salim Ali’s Swift: Apus salimali –> Apus salimalii
  • Emerald-bellied Puffleg: Eriocnemis alinae –> Eriocnemis aline
  • Calliope Hummingbird: Stellula calliope –> Selasphorus calliope
  • Anna’s x Calliope Hummingbird (hybrid): Calypte anna x Stellula calliope –> Calypte anna x Selasphorus calliope
  • Glittering-bellied Emerald: Chlorostilbon aureoventris –> Chlorostilbon lucidus
  • Eurasian Hoopoe (Central African): Upupa epops senegalensis –> Upupa epops senegalensis/waibeli
  • Western Tinkerbird: Pogoniulus coryphaeus –> Pogoniulus coryphaea
  • Green Woodpecker (Eurasian): Picus viridis [viridis Group] –> Picus viridis viridis/karelini*
  • Greater Flameback: Chrysocolaptes lucidus –> Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus*
  • American Kestrel (South American): Falco sparverius ochraceus/caucae –> Falco sparverius [cinnamonimus Group]*
  • Greater Vasa-Parrot: Coracopsis vasa –> Mascarinus vasa
  • Lesser Vasa-Parrot: Coracopsis nigra –> Mascarinus niger
  • Brown-necked Parrot (Brown-necked): Poicephalus robustus fuscicollis –> Poicephalus robustus fuscicollis/suahelicus*
  • Brown-necked Parrot (Cape): Poicephalus robustus robustus/suahelicus –> Poicephalus robustus robustus*
  • Scaly-naped Parrot: Amazona mercenaria –> Amazona mercenarius
  • Malayan Banded-Pitta: Pitta guajana irena/ripleyi –> Pitta irena*
  • Bornean Banded-Pitta: Pitta guajana schwaneri –> Pitta schwaneri*
  • Javan Banded-Pitta: Pitta guajana guajana –> Pitta guajana*
  • Undulated Antshrike: Frederickena unduligera –> Frederickena unduliger
  • Plain-throated Antwren: Myrmotherula hauxwelli –> Isleria hauxwelli
  • Rufous-bellied Antwren: Myrmotherula guttata –> Isleria guttata
  • Magdalena Antbird: Myrmeciza laemosticta palliata –> Myrmeciza palliata*
  • Xingu Scale-backed Antbird: Willisornis poecilinotus vidua –> Willisornis vidua*
  • Urrao Antpitta: Grallaria (undescribed form) –> Grallaria urraoensis*
  • Black-faced Antthrush (Mexican): Formicarius analis [monileger Group] –> Formicarius analis [moniliger Group]
  • Rufous-tailed Xenops: Xenops milleri –> Microxenops milleri
  • Rusty-winged Barbtail: Premnornis guttuligera –> Premnornis guttuliger
  • Rough-legged Tyrannulet (White-fronted): Phyllomyias burmeisteri [leucogenys Group] –> Phyllomyias burmeisteri [leucogonys Group]
  • Golden-faced Tyrannulet (Amazonas): Zimmerius chrysops (undescribed form) –> Zimmerius chrysops [undescribed form]
  • Olivaceous Schiffornis: Schiffornis turdina wallacii/olivacea –> Schiffornis olivacea*
  • Northern Schiffornis: Schiffornis turdina veraepacis/dumicola –> Schiffornis veraepacis*
  • Northern Schiffornis (Ecuadorian): Schiffornis turdina rosenbergi –> Schiffornis veraepacis rosenbergi*
  • Foothill Schiffornis: Schiffornis turdina aenea –> Schiffornis aenea*
  • Rufous-winged Schiffornis: Schiffornis turdina [stenorhyncha Group] –> Schiffornis stenorhyncha*
  • Brown-winged Schiffornis: Schiffornis turdina [turdina Group] –> Schiffornis turdina*
  • Brown-winged Schiffornis (Amazonian): Schiffornis turdina amazona –> Schiffornis turdina amazonum*
  • Broad-billed Fairywren: Malurus grayi –> Chenorhamphus grayi*
  • Campbell’s Fairywren: Malurus grayi campbelli –> Chenorhamphus campbelli*
  • Western Quail-thrush: Cinclosoma castaneothorax marginatum –> Cinclosoma marginatum*
  • North Melanesian Cuckooshrike: Coracina caledonica [welchmani Group] –> Coracina welchmani*
  • Manus Cuckooshrike: Coracina papuensis ingens –> Coracina ingens*
  • Ghana Cuckooshrike: Campephaga lobata –> Lobotos lobatus
  • Oriole Cuckooshrike: Campephaga oriolina –> Lobotos oriolinus
  • McGregor’s Cuckooshrike: Coracina mcgregori –> Malindangia mcgregori
  • White-winged Triller: Lalage sueurii tricolor –> Lalage tricolor*
  • Mussau Triller: Lalage leucomela conjuncta –> Lalage conjuncta*
  • Reunion Cuckooshrike: Coracina newtoni –> Lalage newtoni
  • Mauritius Cuckooshrike: Coracina typica –> Lalage typica
  • Black-winged Cuckooshrike: Coracina melaschistos –> Lalage melaschistos
  • Black-headed Cuckooshrike: Coracina melanoptera –> Lalage melanoptera
  • Lesser Cuckooshrike: Coracina fimbriata –> Lalage fimbriata
  • Indochinese Cuckooshrike: Coracina polioptera –> Lalage polioptera
  • Pygmy Cuckooshrike: Coracina abbotti –> Celebesia abbotti
  • Halmahera Cuckooshrike: Coracina parvula –> Celebesia parvula
  • Blue Cuckooshrike: Coracina azurea –> Cyanograucalus azureus
  • New Caledonian Cuckooshrike: Coracina analis –> Analisoma analis
  • Blackish Cuckooshrike: Coracina coerulescens –> Analisoma coerulescens
  • White-winged Cuckooshrike: Coracina ostenta –> Analisoma ostenta
  • Black-bellied Cicadabird: Coracina montana –> Edolisoma montanum
  • Pale Cicadabird: Coracina ceramensis –> Edolisoma ceramense
  • Kai Cicadabird: Coracina dispar –> Edolisoma dispar
  • Pale-shouldered Cicadabird: Coracina dohertyi –> Edolisoma dohertyi
  • Black-bibbed Cuckooshrike: Coracina mindanensis –> Edolisoma mindanense
  • Makira Cicadabird: Coracina tenuirostris salomonis –> Edolisoma salomonis
  • Solomons Cuckooshrike: Coracina holopolia –> Edolisoma holopolium
  • Papuan Cicadabird: Coracina incerta –> Edolisoma incertum
  • Sulawesi Cicadabird: Coracina morio –> Edolisoma morio
  • Sula Cicadabird: Coracina sula –> Edolisoma sula
  • Common Cicadabird: Coracina tenuirostris –> Edolisoma tenuirostre
  • Common Cicadabird (Common): Coracina tenuirostris [tenuirostris Group] –> Edolisoma tenuirostre [tenuirostre Group]
  • Common Cicadabird (Gray-capped): Coracina tenuirostris remota –> Edolisoma tenuirostre remotus
  • Common Cicadabird (Palau): Coracina tenuirostris monacha –> Edolisoma tenuirostre monacha
  • Common Cicadabird (Yap): Coracina tenuirostris nesiotis –> Edolisoma tenuirostre nesiotis
  • Common Cicadabird (Pohnpei): Coracina tenuirostris insperata –> Edolisoma tenuirostre insperatum
  • Gray-headed Cicadabird: Coracina schisticeps –> Edolisoma schisticeps
  • Black Cicadabird: Coracina melas –> Edolisoma melan
  • Rusty Pitohui: Pitohui ferrugineus –> Colluricincla ferruginea
  • White-bellied Pitohui: Pitohui incertus –> Colluricincla incerta
  • Black Pitohui: Pitohui nigrescens –> Melanorectes nigrescens
  • Sangihe Whistler: Colluricincla sanghirensis –> Coracornis sanghirensis
  • Morningbird: Colluricincla tenebrosa –> Pachycephala tenebrosa
  • Gray Whistler (Gray): Pachycephala simplex –> Pachycephala simplex/dubia*
  • Gray Whistler (Gray-headed): Pachycephala griseiceps –> Pachycephala simplex [griseiceps Group]*
  • Crested Pitohui: Pitohui cristatus –> Ornorectes cristatus
  • Buru Oriole: Oriolus bouroensis bouroensis –> Oriolus bouroensis*
  • Tanimbar Oriole: Oriolus bouroensis decipiens –> Oriolus decipiens*
  • Loetoe Monarch: Monarcha castus –> Carterornis castus
  • Rufous Monarch: Monarcha rubiensis –> Symposiachrus rubiensis
  • Flores Monarch: Monarcha sacerdotum –> Symposiachrus sacerdotum
  • Black-chinned Monarch: Monarcha boanensis –> Symposiachrus boanensis
  • White-tailed Monarch: Monarcha leucurus –> Symposiachrus leucurus
  • White-tipped Monarch: Monarcha everetti –> Symposiachrus everetti
  • Black-tipped Monarch: Monarcha loricatus –> Symposiachrus loricatus
  • Black-backed Monarch: Monarcha julianae –> Symposiachrus julianae
  • Biak Monarch: Monarcha brehmii –> Symposiachrus brehmii
  • White-breasted Monarch: Monarcha menckei –> Symposiachrus menckei
  • Black-bibbed Monarch: Monarcha mundus –> Symposiachrus mundus
  • White-collared Monarch: Monarcha viduus –> Symposiachrus vidua
  • Bronze Parotia: Parotia carolae berlepschi –> Parotia berlepschi*
  • Black-billed Sicklebill: Epimachus albertisi –> Drepanornis albertisi
  • Pale-billed Sicklebill: Epimachus bruijnii –> Drepanornis bruijnii
  • Indian Nuthatch: Sitta castanea [castanea Group] –> Sitta castanea*
  • Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch: Sitta castanea cinnamoventris –> Sitta cinnamoventris*
  • Burmese Nuthatch: Sitta castanea neglecta –> Sitta neglecta*
  • Golden Greenbul: Calyptocichla serina –> Calyptocichla serinus
  • Northern Golden-Bulbul: Alophoixus affinis [longirostris Group] –> Alophoixus longirostris*
  • Buru Golden-Bulbul: Alophoixus affinis mystacalis –> Alophoixus mystacalis*
  • Seram Golden-Bulbul: Alophoixus affinis affinis/flavicaudus –> Alophoixus affinis*
  • Papyrus Yellow-Warbler: Chloropeta gracilirostris –> Calamonastides gracilirostris
  • Thick-billed Warbler: Acrocephalus aedon –> Iduna aedon
  • Booted Warbler: Hippolais caligata –> Iduna caligata
  • Sykes’s Warbler: Hippolais rama –> Iduna rama
  • Booted/Sykes’s Warbler: Hippolais caligata/rama –> Iduna caligata/rama
  • Eastern Olivaceous Warbler: Hippolais pallida –> Iduna pallida
  • Western Olivaceous Warbler: Hippolais opaca –> Iduna opaca
  • Eastern/Western Olivaceous Warbler: Hippolais pallida/opaca –> Iduna pallida/opaca
  • African Yellow-Warbler: Chloropeta natalensis –> Iduna natalensis
  • Mountain Yellow-Warbler: Chloropeta similis –> Iduna similis
  • Green-backed Camaroptera (Gray-backed): Camaroptera brachyura brevicaudata –> Camaroptera brachyura [brevicaudata Group]*
  • Visayan Pygmy-Babbler: Sterrhoptilus pygmaeus –> Dasycrotapha pygmaea
  • Solomons White-eye: Zosterops rendovae –> Zosterops kulambangrae
  • Solomons White-eye (Solomons): Zosterops rendovae kulambangrae –> Zosterops kulambangrae kulambangrae
  • Solomons White-eye (Rendova): Zosterops rendovae rendovae/tetiparius –> Zosterops kulambangrae tetiparius/paradoxus
  • Marbled Wren-Babbler: Turdinus marmorata –> Turdinus marmoratus
  • Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler (Short-tailed): Jabouilleia danjoui –> Jabouilleia danjoui danjoui/parvirostris*
  • Short-tailed Scimitar-Babbler (Naung Mung): Jabouilleia naungmungensis –> Jabouilleia danjoui naungmungensis*
  • Chestnut-capped Laughingthrush: Garrulax mitratus [mitratus Group] –> Garrulax mitratus*
  • Red-faced Liocichla: Liocichla phoenicea [phoenicea Group] –> Liocichla phoenicea*
  • Scarlet-faced Liocichla: Liocichla phoenicea ripponi –> Liocichla ripponi*
  • Asian Brown Flycatcher: Muscicapa dauurica –> Muscicapa latirostris
  • Brown-streaked Flycatcher: Muscicapa siamensis –> Muscicapa williamsoni
  • Tanimbar Flycatcher: Ficedula dumetoria riedeli –> Ficedula riedeli*
  • Forest Rock-Thrush (Amber Mountain): Monticola erythronota –> Monticola sharpei erythronotus*
  • Forest Rock-Thrush (Forest): Monticola sharpei –> Monticola sharpei sharpei*
  • Forest Rock-Thrush (Benson’s): Monticola bensoni –> Monticola sharpei bensoni*
  • European Stonechat: Saxicola torquatus rubicola/hibernans –> Saxicola rubicola*
  • Siberian Stonechat (Siberian): Saxicola torquatus [maurus Group] –> Saxicola maurus [maurus Group]*
  • Siberian Stonechat (Stejneger’s): Saxicola torquatus stejnegeri –> Saxicola maurus stejnegeri*
  • European/Siberian Stonechat: Saxicola torquatus –> Saxicola rubicola/maurus*
  • Siberian Thrush: Zoothera sibirica –> Geokichla sibirica
  • Pied Thrush: Zoothera wardii –> Geokichla wardii
  • Spotted Ground-Thrush: Zoothera guttata –> Geokichla guttata
  • Black-eared Ground-Thrush: Zoothera camaronensis –> Geokichla camaronensis
  • Gray Ground-Thrush: Zoothera princei –> Geokichla princei
  • Crossley’s Ground-Thrush: Zoothera crossleyi –> Geokichla crossleyi
  • Oberlaender’s Ground-Thrush: Zoothera oberlaenderi –> Geokichla oberlaenderi
  • Abyssinian Ground-Thrush: Zoothera piaggiae –> Geokichla piaggiae
  • Kivu Ground-Thrush: Zoothera tanganjicae –> Geokichla tanganjicae
  • Orange Ground-Thrush: Zoothera gurneyi –> Geokichla gurneyi
  • Spot-winged Thrush: Zoothera spiloptera –> Geokichla spiloptera
  • Ashy Thrush: Zoothera cinerea –> Geokichla cinerea
  • Buru Thrush: Zoothera dumasi –> Geokichla dumasi
  • Seram Thrush: Zoothera joiceyi –> Geokichla joiceyi
  • Chestnut-capped Thrush: Zoothera interpres –> Geokichla interpres
  • Enggano Thrush: Zoothera leucolaema –> Geokichla leucolaema
  • Chestnut-backed Thrush: Zoothera dohertyi –> Geokichla dohertyi
  • Orange-banded Thrush: Zoothera peronii –> Geokichla peronii
  • Slaty-backed Thrush: Zoothera schistacea –> Geokichla schistacea
  • Rusty-backed Thrush: Zoothera erythronota –> Geokichla erythronota
  • Red-and-black Thrush: Zoothera mendeni –> Geokichla mendeni
  • Orange-headed Thrush: Zoothera citrina –> Geokichla citrina
  • Hermit Thrush (Northern/Eastern): Catharus guttatus [faxoni Group] –> Catharus guttatus faxoni/crymophilus
  • Groundscraper Thrush: Psophocichla litsipsirupa –> Psophocichla litsitsirupa
  • Kurrichane Thrush: Turdus libonyanus –> Turdus libonyana
  • Varzea Thrush: Turdus hauxwelli (Gray-tailed) –> Turdus sanchezorum*
  • Plain Flowerpecker: Diceaum minullum –> Dicaeum minullum
  • Halmahera Flowerpecker: Dicaeum erythrothorax schistaceiceps –> Dicaeum schistaceiceps*
  • Buru Flowerpecker: Dicaeum erythrothorax erythrothorax –> Dicaeum erythrothorax*
  • Purple-naped Spiderhunter: Hypogramma hypogrammicum –> Arachnothera hypogrammicum
  • Connecticut/MacGillivray’s/Mourning Warbler: Geothlypis/Oporornis sp. (Mourning-type) –> Oporornis/Geothlypis sp. (Mourning-type)
  • Golden-crowned Warbler (Cabanis’s): Basileuterus culicivorus cabanisi/indignus –> Basileuterus culicivorus [cabanisi Group]*
  • Golden-crowned Warbler (White-bellied): Basileuterus hypoleucus –> Basileuterus culicivorus hypoleucus*
  • Flavescent Warbler: Myiothlypis flaveolus –> Myiothlypis flaveola
  • Pale-legged Warbler: Myiothlypis signatus –> Myiothlypis signata
  • Black-crested Warbler: Myiothlypis nigrocristatus –> Myiothlypis nigrocristata
  • Two-banded Warbler: Myiothlypis bivittatus –> Myiothlypis bivittata
  • White-lored Warbler: Myiothlypis conspicillatus –> Myiothlypis conspicillata
  • Russet-crowned Warbler: Myiothlypis coronatus –> Myiothlypis coronata
  • Black-eared Hemispingus (Piura): Hemispingus melanotis piurae –> Hemispingus melanotis piurae/macrophrys
  • tanager sp.: Thraupinae sp. –> Thraupidae sp. (tanager sp.)
  • Sage Sparrow: Amphispiza belli –> Artemisiospiza belli
  • Sage Sparrow (Bell’s): Amphispiza belli belli –> Artemisiospiza belli belli
  • Sage Sparrow (Gray): Amphispiza belli cinerea –> Artemisiospiza belli cinerea
  • Sage Sparrow (San Clemente): Amphispiza belli clementeae –> Artemisiospiza belli clementeae
  • Sage Sparrow (Interior): Amphispiza belli nevadensis/canescens –> Artemisiospiza belli nevadensis/canescens
  • House Bunting: Emberiza striolata sahari/sanghae –> Emberiza sahari*
  • Striolated Bunting: Emberiza striolata [striolata Group] –> Emberiza striolata*
  • Eastern/Western Meadowlark: Sturnella sp. –> Sturnella megna/neglecta
  • Azores Bullfinch: Pyrrhula pyrrhula murina –> Pyrrhula murina*
  • Purple Finch: Carpodacus purpureus –> Haemorhous purpureus
  • Purple Finch (Eastern): Carpodacus purpureus purpureus –> Haemorhous purpureus purpureus
  • Purple Finch (Western): Carpodacus purpureus californicus –> Haemorhous purpureus californicus
  • Cassin’s Finch: Carpodacus cassinii –> Haemorhous cassinii
  • House Finch: Carpodacus mexicanus –> Haemorhous mexicanus
  • House Finch (Common): Carpodacus mexicanus [mexicanus Group] –> Haemorhous mexicanus [mexicanus Group]
  • House Finch (McGregor’s): Carpodacus mexicanus mcgregori –> Haemorhous mexicanus mcgregori
  • Purple/House Finch: Carpodacus purpureus/mexicanus –> Haemorhous purpureus/mexicanus
  • Spotted Rosefinch: Carpodacus severtzowi –> Carpodacus severtzovi
  • Apapane (Laysan Island): Himatione sanguinea freethii –> Himatione sanguinea fraithii