Rare and localized highland finch, restricted to upper montane forest and open scrubby and grassy habitats above the treeline. Generally not very obvious, often foraging quietly in dense growth, but flocks will sometimes betray their presence by flying overhead and giving a chorus of chittering twitter calls. Found only on high peaks in Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and Mindanao. Combination of thick conical bill, bright yellow wing-bars, and well-streaked underparts are unique within this species’ range and habitat. Extent of yellow on males’ faces varies, with the Mindanao population having the most extensive yellow. A currently undescribed population in north-central Sulawesi has reddish-orange in place of other populations’ yellow patches. Song is a dry, whirring buzz following a few husky notes.
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