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Taxonomy Update for 2015

Among the changes in the 2015 update is the somewhat counter-intuitive finding that American Tree Sparrow is more closely related to Fox Sparrow than to the superficially similar Chipping Sparrow. American Tree Sparrow is now moved to the monotypic Genus Spizelloides.

The eBird taxonomy update is now complete. These updates happen once a year to take into account splits, lumps, name changes, and changes in the sequence of the species lists. As of this point, all eBird data–including your My eBird lists, range maps, bar charts, region and hotspot lists, and data entry will be reflecting the new taxonomy. eBird Mobile and BirdLog should also be updated to the new taxonomy. If you see unfamiliar bird names in the list, please refer to the story below to understand the change and why it happened. In addition, we list a number of new options for data entry (hybrids, spuhs, slashes, etc.) below. eBirders who do not speak English as their first language have five new translations for bird names to choose from: Croatian, Danish, Norwegian, Spanish (Venezuela), and Ukrainian. Remember that the language you choose for bird names needs to be selected separately from the language of the website.

Important note for eBird Mobile and BirdLog users: If you use eBird Mobile or BirdLog please make sure all your lists have been submitted. If you have problems submitting a list (such as blank lines in the list) this may be a result of the taxonomic update. Please get in touch with us at ebird@cornell.edu and we’ll help you work through the issues. eBird Mobile is the *free* global data entry app for eBird that allows you to track your records and lists worldwide (get it here). BirdLog provides similar regional apps for Android users until the release of eBird Mobile in the fall; get those at the Google Play store.

2015 eBird Taxonomic Update

This year’s update is v2015 of the eBird/Clements Checklist. The eBird/Clements Checklist is an integrated global taxonomy for the birds of the world, including all species and subspecies, as well as additional taxa useful to field birders to report in eBird. The list of species available in eBird is the eBird Taxonomy (v2015) and includes all species, subspecies groups (which we call identifiable sub-specific forms or ISSF), hybrids, intergrades, spuhs (e.g., scoter sp.), slashes (e.g., Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher), domestics, and forms. The Clements Checklist includes only the species and subspecies, along with subspecies groups which are further identified as monotypic (consisting of one subspecies) or polytypic (consisting of more than one subspecies). In this way, the eBird/Clements Checklist is completely integrated, but can also be divided into these two groups. Read more about the eBird Taxonomy.

The Clements Checklist provides two update pages (overview and 2015 updates & corrections) and also provides all three files (eBird/Clements, Clements, and eBird) for download.

The Clements Checklist 2015 updates & corrections provides details (including references) for all species splits and lumps, new species descriptions, revisions to subspecies groups (ISSFs) or subspecies, and other changes relevant to the Clements Checklist. We refer anyone wishing to learn more about these splits to that page. One name change of interest concerns Omani Owl (formerly Strix omanensis, now Strix butleri) and Hume’s Owl, now known as Desert Owl, which was formerly Strix butleri but is now Strix hadorami; see the Clements updates for more on this.

A list of all the taxonomic changes is below. This is largely in sync with the Clements update; references are not listed in full, but are included in the Clements update. Since this is a long article, here is a short index:

  • Introduction
  • Languages
  • Species splits
  • Subspecies group changes
  • Species lumps
  • New species
  • New subspecies groups
  • New hybrids and intergrades
  • New forms
  • New domestics
  • New slashes and spuhs
  • Common name “ambiguation” and subspecies group lumps
  • Common Name changes
  • Scientific Name changes

INTRODUCTION

When the taxonomy is updated in eBird, many of the changes are fairly simple to implement. When a common name changes, a scientific name changes, or when the taxonomic sequence is revised, those changes roll through and start appearing in eBird output fairly quickly. Keeping track of name changes is a challenge, and consulting Avibase is one of the best ways to do so. Just type any bird name in Avibase and Avibase will show you the history of that name, and–if it differs from eBird–it will show what the eBird equivalent is for that name. Try it for “Louisiana Heron”, for example.

When species are lumped, eBird usually retains the former species as an identifiable group. In these cases, your records may shift to the lumped form and your totals may (or may not) drop by one. The actual entity that you observed and reported has not changed in any way other than being “demoted” from species to subspecies.

When splits occur, however, the process is more complicated. In many cases, we have had subspecies options available for reporting in anticipation of the split. All these records update automatically to the new species. But when a bird is reported at the species level, and then that species is split, we update the records in eBird to one of the “child” species whenever possible. We try to be very conservative with this. When two species do not overlap in range (i.e., they are allopatric) we go ahead and make the change. When the species do overlap (i.e., are sympatric), and do not have clear seasonal or habitat differences, we usually do not make the change. This results in your records being left as the more conservative “slash” option.

As an example, this year Subalpine Warbler (Sylvia cantillans) was split into two species, Subalpine Warbler (Sylvia cantillans) and Moltoni’s Warbler (Sylvia subalpina). The breeding ranges are largely allopatric, and Subalpine Warbler is much more widespread overall, but they overlap extensively in migration. So for eBird we changed all the records from the summer and from areas where only Subalpine Warbler is known or expected to be common (e.g., eastern Europe, Africa). Sightings that specified the subspecies were updated automatically (we recommend being specific when possible, but only when you understand the subspecies options you select for data entry!). Before this update, if you observed a “Subalpine Warbler” from within the range of Moltoni’s Warbler (Balearic Islands, Sardinia, coastal western Italy, and portions of the southern Mediterranean coast of France and Spain) but did not note the subspecies, it would be considered in eBird as Subalpine/Moltoni’s Warbler–the only difference now is that the taxa involved are now considered species instead of subspecies. If you know which one you saw, we encourage you to update your records. If you are not sure (and this is one of the tougher identification issues in the world, so don’t feel bad!), then your observation is best listed as the slash option.

One issue with eBird is that reviewing your records of “Subalpine/Moltoni’sWarbler” or of “Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher” currently is not easy using the My eBird tools. If you know the checklist it is on, you can find the list in “Manage My Observations” and edit it as needed. If you can find your checklist on the range map of “Subalpine/Moltoni’s Warbler” then you can just click on the stickpin for your list and open it from there. But the best option to review your records is to go to My eBird and then click “Download My Data” from the right side. This downloads your entire eBird database as a CSV file that can be opened in Excel or a similar spreadsheet program. From there, you should easily be able to sort by name or search for “Subalpine/Moltoni’s Warbler” to find your records. Then you can scroll to the correct date or just replace the Submission ID in the URL for a checklist view.

For those who regularly use subspecies groups to report in eBird (this is encouraged, with caution!), please be sure to read the section on Common name “ambiguation” and subspecies group lumps near the bottom of this story.

LANGUAGES

eBirders that do not speak English as their first language have five new translations to choose from: Croatian, Danish, Norwegian, Spanish (Venezuela), and Ukrainian. You can access these under “Preferences” from most eBird pages, which is also where you can set the names to shows as common names or scientific names. English speakers have a range of regional options as well, including United Kingdom, Australia, Philippines, Malaysia, and New Zealand names. One additional option is English (IOC), which gives a full translation of species names into the IOC World Bird List (v5.3) nomenclature. Note that these names are exact taxonomic matches, so they reflect as slashes when a species is split by IOC and not by eBird; similarly, species split by eBird will appear as subspecies groups for IOC. Our eBird Help Center story explains more about regional common name preferences.

SPECIES SPLITS

The species below were split in eBird. To see a map of the new species, click “map”. To see your personal lists in My eBird, just make sure you are logged in and click “my records”. If you have seen the species but don’t have any records shown, then please enter your sightings! Full details for can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page. Below are the splits for this update:

Common Ostrich Struthio camelus: Somali Ostrich, restricted to the Horn of Africa, is split.

Gray Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron bicalcaratum: The island-endemic form Hainan Peacock-Pheasant is split as a separate species.

  • Hainan Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron katsumatae [map] [my records]
  • Gray Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron bicalcaratum [map] [my records]

Chinese Bamboo-Partridge Bambusicola thoracicus: The island-endemic form Taiwan Bamboo-Partridge is split as a separate species.

  • Chinese Bamboo-Partridge Bambusicola thoracicus [map] [my records]
  • Taiwan Bamboo-Partidge Bambusicola sonorivox [map] [my records]

Townsend’s Shearwater Puffinus auricularis: Townsend’s Shearwater is split into three species. Townsend’s is critically endangered species breeding on islands off west Mexico; Newell’s Shearwater is also endangered and breeds on Hawaii; and Rapa Shearwater breeds on Rapa Island in the central Pacific. The at-sea ranges for all three species needs to be better elucidated.

Olive Ibis Bostrychia olivacea: The island endemic species Sao Tome Ibis is split as a separate species.

Common Buzzard Buteo buteo: Himalayan Buzzard, which occurs in the Himalayan region, and Eastern Buzzard, which occurs in east Asia, are split from Common Buzzard which is now the species of Europe, and western Asia, wintering in India, the Middle East, and Africa. See the Clements updates for details on the revised scientific name Buteo refectus.

Mountain Buzzard Buteo oreophilus: The southern African species Forest Buzzard is split from Mountain Buzzard of East Africa.

Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio: Purple Swamphen is split into six species with these ranges: Western Swamphen (western Europe and northwestern Africa); Black-backed Swamphen (Southeast Asia); African Swamphen (Africa, mostly south of the Sahara, north to Egypt and Israel); Australasian Swamphen (Australia, New Zealand, and South Pacific islands); Philippine Swamphen (Philippines); Gray-headed Swamphen (central Asia, from eastern Turkey through India to Myanmar and northern Thailand; introduced to Florida).

Takahe Porphyrio mantelli: The New Zealand endemic Takahe is further split into North Island and South Island species. The North Island Takahe has been extinct since 1894; note that South Island Takahe has since been introduced into some North Island locations to better preserve the species, which is critically endangered:

Dusky Woodcock Scolopax saturata: Dusky Woodcock is split into Javan Woodcock and New Guinea Woodcock.

Dark-eared Dove Phapitreron cinereiceps: The island endemic Tawitawi Brown-Dove is split from Dark-eared Dove, and the name of the Philippine endemic Dark-eared Dove is changed to Mindanao Brown-Dove.

Asian Koel Eudynamys scolopaceus: Some complicated changes occur here. Both of the polytypic groups of Asian Koel, Asian Koel (Asian) Eudynamys scolopaceus [scolopaceus Group] and Asian Koel (Pacific) Eudynamys scolopaceus [orientalis Group] are recognized as species: Asian Koel Eudynamys scolopaceus and Pacific Koel Eudynamys orientalis. As part of the same revision, however, Australian Koel Eudynamys cyanocephalus is lumped with Pacific Koel; this taxon retains recognition, however, as a polytypic group, Pacific Koel (Australian) Eudynamys orientalis cyanocephalus/subcyanocephalus.

Cave Swiftlet Collocalia linchi: The Borneo endemic Bornean Swiftlet is split from Cave Swiftlet.

Long-billed Hermit Phaethornis longirostris: The west Mexico endemic (Nayarit to s. Oaxaca) Mexican Hermit is split from Long-billed Hermit.

Blossomcrown Anthocephala floriceps: Blossomcrown is split into a Santa Marta endemic form in northernmost Colombia and another from the central Andes of Colombia.

  • Santa Marta Blossomcrown Anthocephala floriceps [map] [my records]
  • Tolima Blossomcrown Anthocephala berlepschi [map] [my records]

Bahama Woodstar Calliphlox evelynae: The island endemic Inagua Woodstar is split from the more widespread Bahama Woodstar.

Plovercrest Stephanoxis lalandi: Plovercrest is split into the Brazilian endemic Green-crowned Plovercrest Stephanoxis lalandi and the more widespread and more southerly Violet-crowned Plovercrest Stephanoxis loddigesii.

  • Green-crowned Plovercrest Stephanoxis lalandi [map] [my records]
  • Violet-crowned Plovercrest Stephanoxis loddigesii [map] [my records]
Plovercrest is a spectacular Brazilian hummingbird that is split into two species with this update: Green-crowned Plovercrest (shown here) and Violet-crowned Plovercrest.

Plovercrest is a spectacular Brazilian hummingbird that is split into two species with this update: Green-crowned Plovercrest (shown here) and Violet-crowned Plovercrest.

Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx lepidus: Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher is split into 15 monotypic species; click on the “map” link for each species or see the downloadable Clements Checklist for the ranges of each species:

Tuamotu Kingfisher Todiramphus gambieri: Tuamotu Kingfisher is split into Niau Kingfisher (Todiramphus gertrudae) and the extinct Mangareva Kingfisher (Todiramphus gambieri).

Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris: Collared Kingfisher is split into six species; click on the “map” link for each species or see the downloadable Clements Checklist for the ranges of each species. Pacific Kingfisher also includes three subspecies (vitiensis, eximius, and regina) that we previously classified as subspecies of Sacred Kingfisher (Todiramphus sanctus):

Micronesian Kingfisher Todiramphus cinnamominus: Micronesian Kingfisher is split into three species each endemic to their own island group:

Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculus: The southern African species Rock Kestrel is split from the widespread Old World Eurasian Kestrel.

Bluebonnet Northiella haematogaster: The western Australia species Naretha Bluebonnet is split, and the eastern species takes the name Greater Bluebonnet.

Blackish Antbird Cercomacra nigrescens: Riparian Antbird, a western Amazonian lowland species with unique vocalizations, is split from the widespread species Blackish Antbird. Note that Blackish Antbird may have additional taxa that could also involve additional cryptic species, although the vocalizations are fairly similar across its range:

Lineated Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes albolineatus: Lineated Woodcreeper is split into four species, and the newly described Inambari Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes fatimalimae which we recognized in eBird in 2013 is now ratified by the SACC. Click on the “map” link for each species or see the downloadable Clements Checklist for the ranges of each of the four species split from Lineated Woodcreeper:

  • Duida Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes duidae [map] [my records]
  • Guianan Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes albolineatus [map] [my records]
  • Rondonia Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus [map] [my records]
  • Layard’s Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes layardi [map] [my records]

Rusty-backed Spinetail Cranioleuca vulpina: The island endemic Coiba Spinetail (Coiba Island is off central Panama in the state of Veraguas) is split from Rusty-backed Spinetail, which is now restricted to South America.

White-naped Honeyeater Melithreptus lunatus: Gilbert’s Honeyeater, endemic to extreme sw Western Australia, is split from the eastern species White-naped Honeyeater.

  • Gilbert’s Honeyeater Melithreptus chloropsis [map] [my records]
  • White-naped Honeyeater Melithreptus lunatus [map] [my records]

Kokako Callaeas cinereus: The New Zealand endemic Kokako is further split into North Island and South Island species:

Saddleback Philesturnus carunculatus: The New Zealand endemic Saddleback is further split into North Island and South Island species:

  • North Island Saddleback Philesturnus rufusater [map] [my records]
  • South Island Saddleback Philesturnus carunculatus [map] [my records]

Chestnut Quail-thrush Cinclosoma castanotum: Chestnut Quail-thrush is split into two species, with Copperback Quail-thrush roughly in western Australia and Chestnut Quail-thrush primarily in the east.

Asian Paradise-Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi: Asian Paradise-Flycatcher is split into three species, with Amur Paradise-Flycatcher breeding in eastern China, Kamchatka, and Japan, Blyth’s Paradise-Flycatcher widely in southeast Asia from s China, Myanmar, and Indochina to Indonesia, and Indian Paradise-Flycatcher in Afghanistan and Pakistan to Bangladesh, including Sri Lanka and India south of the Himalayas. All three taxa migrate through Thailand and winter in Malaysia. This species will be particularly complicated to assign in eBird. We also have the option Japanese/Amur Paradise-Flycatcher, which should be used in eBird to apply to all four species including Indian Paradise-Flycatcher and Blyth’s Paradise-Flycatcher (essentially, a “paradise-flycatcher sp.” for Asia). We will update this species name in 2016. Until then we encourage careful documentation of paradise-flycatchers on migration and wintering grounds in Asia.

  • Amur Paradise-Flycatcher Terpsiphone incei [map] [my records]
  • Blyth’s Paradise-Flycatcher Terpsiphone affinis [map] [my records]
  • Indian Paradise-Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi [map] [my records]

Northern Scrub-Robin Drymodes superciliaris: The New Guinea endemic Papuan Scrub-Robin is split from its Australia counterpart, Northern Scrub-Robin.

Subalpine Warbler Sylvia cantillans: Moltoni’s Warbler, which is resident on the Balearic islands of Spain, Sardinia, coastal western Italy, and parts of southern France and Spain along the Mediterranean coast, is split from the widespread Subalpine Warbler. Records during migration are difficult to assign to species (the wren-like call note of Moltoni’s is the best field characteristic) so we encourage liberal use of Subalpine/Moltoni’s Warbler in such cases. See the Clements update for the change in scientific name from moltonii to subalpina.

Snowy-browed Flycatcher Ficedula hyperythra: The Philippine subspecies of Snowy-browed Flycatcher are split as a new species, Bundok Flycatcher Fidecula luzoniensis.

Scaly Thrush Zoothera dauma: Scaly Thrush is split into four species: the migratory northern White’s Thrush of eastern Russia and northeastern China, wintering in southeast Asia; the largely resident Scaly Thrush that occurs from northeastern India (wintering to central-northern India) through Malaysia and with an island endemic outlier population on Amami Island of southern Japan; the island endemic Sri Lanka Thrush; and the southern India endemic Nilgiri Thrush which occurs mostly in the western Ghats.

Eurasian Blackbird Turdus merula: Chinese Blackbird, which occurs in eastern China and winters south to northern Thailand and northern Indochina, is split from Eurasian Blackbird of western Asia and Europe. Eurasian Blackbird is also introduced to Australia and New Zealand and several other places.

Bay-winged Cowbird Agelaioides badius: Bay-winged Cowbird is divided into two species, now known as Baywings. Pale Baywing, endemic to eastern Brazil (south to the state of Minas Gerais) is split from the more widespread and more southerly Grayish Baywing.

Apapane Himatione sanguinea: The extinct Laysan Honeycreeper is recognized as a species distinct from the still common and widespread Apapane.

Nukupuu Hemignathus lucidus: Nukupuu is split into three island endemic species, all believed extinct; the Maui Nukupuu is the one most recently reported in the wild.

Greater Akialoa Hemignathus ellisianus: Greater Akialoa has long been extinct, but is now recognized as three island endemic species, further increasing the vast number of extinct species for the Hawaiian archipelago.

Akepa Loxops coccineus: Akepa is split into three island endemic species, with only the Hawaii Akepa still surviving (the other two extinct).

SUBSPECIES GROUP CHANGES and RESHUFFLES

Several subspecies groups were split or lumped as well and these are summarized below. Other subspecies are moved between species (see especially Caspian Gull). To review your records of any of these, simply open your Life List on eBird and use a browser search to search for the species name in question. Click the species to open all reports for that species; your subspecies reports will appear in this list and you can review those for accuracy. Selected revisions are listed below; for a complete listing of these changes see the Clements updates.

  • Helmeted Guineafowl: The polytypic group Helmeted Guineafowl (Helmeted) is restricted to the subspecies meleagris and somaliensis. Change the scientific name of this group from Numida meleagris [meleagris Group] to Numida meleagris meleagris/somaliensis.
  • Crested Guineafowl: The polytypic group Crested Guineafowl (Crested) Guttera pucherani [edouardi Group] is divided into two groups: Crested Guineafowl (Western) Guttera pucherani verreauxi/sclateri, and Crested Guineafowl (Southern) Guttera pucherani edouardi/barbata.
  • Pale-winged Trumpeter: Within trumpeters, the subspecies ochroptera was previously available in eBird as Pale-winged Trumpeter (Ochre-winged) Psophia leucoptera ochroptera but is now moved to Gray-winged Trumpeter as Gray-winged Trumpeter (Ochre-winged) Psophia crepitans ochroptera. As a result, Pale-winged Trumpeter now becomes monotypic within eBird and thus has no subspecies groups.
  • Sharp-shinned Hawk: Subspecies madrensis, previously placed in a group with subspecies chionogaster, properly belongs in the group Sharp-shinned Hawk (Northern) Accipiter striatus [velox Group]. Consequently, the group Sharp-shinned Hawk (White-breasted) becomes monotypic, and the scientific name for this group changes from Accipiter striatus chionogaster/madrensis to Accipiter striatus chionogaster.
  • Caspian Gull: Transfer the monotypic group Caspian Gull (Mongolian) Larus cachinnans mongolicus to Herring Gull Larus argentatus, as Herring Gull (Mongolian) Larus argentatus mongolicus. In addition the monotypic group Caspian Gull (Steppe) Larus cachinnans barabensis is moved to Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus and thus becomes Lesser Black-backed Gull (Steppe) Larus fuscus barabensis. Caspian Gull thus becomes monotypic.
  • Barn Owl: Subspecies sumbaensis, previously included in the polytypic group Barn Owl (Eurasian) Tyto alba [alba Group], is moved to the polytypic group Barn Owl (Australian) Tyto alba [delicatula Group].
  • Barred Owlet-nightjar: Subspecies terborghi, previously considered to be a subspecies of Vogelkop Owlet-Nightjar Aegotheles affinis, is transferred to Barred Owlet-Nightjar Aegotheles bennettii, and recognized as a new monotypic group, Barred Owlet-Nightjar (Diamond’s) Aegotheles bennettii terborghi.
  • Nutting’s Flycatcher: Nominate nuttingi properly belongs in a group with subspecies inquietus, not with subspecies flavidior. The names of the group Nutting’s Flycatcher (West Mexican) Myiarchus nuttingi inquietus change to Nutting’s Flycatcher (Nutting’s) Myiarchus nuttingi nuttingi/inquietus; and the names of the group Nutting’s Flycatcher (Southern) Myiarchus nutting nuttingi/flavidior change to Nutting’s Flycatcher (flavidior) Myiarchus nuttingi flavidior.
  • Bismarck Black Myzomela: Subspecies ernstmayri, hades, ramsayi, and nigerrima, which were formerly classified as subspecies of Papuan Black Myzomela Myzomela nigrita, properly belong as subspecies of Bismarck Black Myzomela Myzomela pammelaena.

LUMPS and INVALID SPECIES

In eBird taxonomic revision, lumps are very easy to deal with. Usually the taxa become subspecies groups, so there is no changing of records necessary, just a recalculation of lists as the species drop to identifiable subspecies. Whenever possible, we encourage birders to continue reporting at the subspecies level, but whenever you select these options, be sure you understand the taxa that you are using; do not try to guess at the subspecies based on the name! This section also includes invalid species descriptions: these are rare but occur when an original description of a species or subspecies is proven to be a hybrid, rare variant, or other form of natural variation that does not represent a species. Full details for can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page.

  • Kangaroo Island Emu Dromaius baudinianus and King Island Emu Dromaius ater are both lumped with Emu Dromaius novaehollandiae. Both Kangaroo Island and King Island Emu are extinct and have no records in eBird, so this has no bearing n the lists of eBirders.
  • Australian Koel Eudynamys cyanocephalus: See the above section on Asian Koel splits for information on the lump of Australasian Koel that was part of this same taxonomic revision for Eudynamus koels.
  • Kai Coucal Centropus spilopterus: The poorly known Kai Coucal is lumped with Pheasant Coucal Centropus phasianinus, but monotypic groups are maintained as Pheasant Coucal (Kai) Centropus phasianinus spilopterus and Pheasant Coucal (Pheasant) Centropus phasianinus phasianinus
  • Sucunduri Flycatcher Tolmomyias sucunduri: Sucunduri Flycatcher is a recently described species that was added, provisionally, to eBird/Clements Checklist 6.8, pending review by SACC of the proposed new species. SACC has voted to not recognize sucunduri as a species opting instead to consider it a subspecies of Yellow-margined Flycatcher Tolmomyias assimilis. We retain it as a monotypic group Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Sucunduri) Tolmomyias assimilis sucunduri.
  • Campina Jay Cyanocorax hafferi: Campina Jay is a recently described species that was added, provisionally, to eBird/Clements Checklist 6.8, but SACC has voted to not recognize hafferias a species. Consequently we now classify hafferi as a monotypic group Azure-naped Jay (Campina) Cyanocorax heilprini hafferi along with the group Azure-naped Jay (Azure-naped)
  • Inambari Gnatcatcher Polioptila attenboroughi: Inambari Gnatcatcher is a recently described species that was added, provisionally, to eBird/Clements Checklist 6.8, pending review by SACC of the proposed new species. Based on current information, SACC has voted to not recognize attenboroughi as a species. Consequently we now recognize it as one of several subspecies groups within Guianan Gnatcatcher: Guianan Gnatcatcher (Inambari) Polioptila guianensis attenboroughi.

NEW SPECIES

Each year, a few newly described species or populations newly recognized for their distinctiveness are named and added to the eBird/Clements taxonomy. This just goes to show how much remains to be learned about the birds of the World! Full details for can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page.

  • Boa Nova Tapaculo Scytalopus gonzagai: The eBird “form” Serra Tapaculo (undescribed form) Scytalopus [undescribed Bahia form] has now been formally described and ratified by SACC as a species Boa Nova Tapaculo Scytalopus gonzagai
  • Sichuan Bush-Warbler Locustella chengi is described as a new species, closely related to Russet Bush-Warbler Locustella mandelli. This taxon has not previously been available in eBird, and we encourage those lucky enough to have seen this species (which is apparently fairly common at higher elevations in Sichuan and nearby Chinese states).
  • Sulawesi Streaked Flycatcher Muscicapa sodhi: The taxon formerly available in eBird as Sulawesi Brown Flycatcher (undescribed form) Muscicapa [undescribed form] is now formally described and recognized as a species. Its range is the foothill forests of Sulawesi.

NEW SUBSPECIES GROUPS

The following new subspecies groups are now available for data entry. When you are certain you have seen representatives of these groups, and ideally have identified them critically based on their field marks, please report them to eBird. Please do not guess based on the name, such as “Northern” and “Southern” or “African” and “Asian”; make sure you understand the differences being represented before reporting at so specific a level.

  • Thicket Tinamou (occidentalis) Crypturellus cinnamomeus occidentalis
  • Thicket Tinamou (cinnamomeus Group) Crypturellus cinnamomeus [cinnamomeus Group]
  • Helmeted Guineafowl (West African) Numida meleagris galeatus
  • Helmeted Guineafowl (Reichenow’s) Numida meleagris reichenowi
  • Helmeted Guineafowl (Tufted) Numida meleagris [mitratus Group]
  • Crested Guineafowl (Southern) Guttera pucherani edouardi/barbata
  • Crested Fireback (Malay) Lophura ignita rufa
  • Crested Fireback (Bornean) Lophura ignita ignita/nobilis
  • Salvin’s Prion (Salvin’s) Pachyptila salvini salvini
  • Salvin’s Prion (MacGillivray’s) Pachyptila salvini macgillivrayi
  • Purple Heron (Bourne’s) Ardea purpurea bournei
  • Purple Heron (Purple) Ardea purpurea [purpurea Group]
  • Intermediate Egret (Intermediate) Mesophoyx intermedia intermedia
  • Intermediate Egret (Plumed) Mesophoyx intermedia plumifera
  • Intermediate Egret (Yellow-billed) Mesophoyx intermedia brachyrhyncha
  • Red-shouldered Hawk (lineatus Group) Buteo lineatus [lineatus Group]
  • Limpkin (Speckled) Aramus guarauna [pictus Group]
  • Limpkin (Brown-backed) Aramus guarauna guarauna
  • Gray-winged Trumpeter (Napo) Psophia crepitans napensis
  • Gray-winged Trumpeter (Gray-winged) Psophia crepitans crepitans
  • Dark-winged Trumpeter (Xingu) Psophia viridis interjecta
  • Masked Lapwing (Masked) Vanellus miles miles
  • Masked Lapwing (Black-shouldered) Vanellus miles novaehollandiae
  • Gull-billed Tern (Gull-billed) Gelochelidon nilotica [nilotica Group]
  • Gull-billed Tern (Australian) Gelochelidon nilotica macrotarsa
  • Spotted Dove (Western) Streptopelia chinensis suratensis
  • Spotted Dove (Eastern) Streptopelia chinensis chinensis/tigrina
  • White-eared Brown-Dove (White-eared) Phapitreron leucotis leucotis
  • White-eared Brown-Dove (Buff-eared) Phapitreron leucotis nigrorum
  • White-eared Brown-Dove (Short-billed) Phapitreron leucotis brevirostris/occipitalis
  • Amethyst Brown-Dove (Amethyst) Phapitreron amethystinus amethystinus/imeldae
  • Amethyst Brown-Dove (Gray-breasted) Phapitreron amethystinus maculipectus
  • Amethyst Brown-Dove (Cebu) Phapitreron amethystinus frontalis
  • Whistling Green-Pigeon (Ryukyu) Treron formosae permagnus/medioximus
  • Whistling Green-Pigeon (Taiwan) Treron formosae formosae/filipinus
  • Superb Fruit-Dove (Western) Ptilinopus superbus temminckii
  • Superb Fruit-Dove (Eastern) Ptilinopus superbus superbus
  • Mountain Imperial-Pigeon (cuprea) Ducula badia cuprea
  • Mountain Imperial-Pigeon (badia Group) Ducula badia [badia Group]
  • Little Bronze-Cuckoo (Little) Chrysococcyx minutillus [minutillus Group]
  • Little Bronze-Cuckoo (Gould’s) Chrysococcyx minutillus [poecilurus Group]
  • Little Bronze-Cuckoo (Dark-backed) Chrysococcyx minutillus rufomerus
  • Little Bronze-Cuckoo (Pied) Chrysococcyx minutillus crassirostris/salvadorii
  • Pacific Koel (Oriental) Eudynamys orientalis [orientalis Group]
  • Pacific Koel (Australian) Eudynamys orientalis cyanocephalus/subcyanocephalus
  • Peruvian Screech-Owl (pacificus) Megascops roboratus pacificus
  • Peruvian Screech-Owl (roboratus) Megascops roboratus roboratus
  • Vermiculated Screech-Owl (Vermiculated) Megascops guatemalae vermiculatus
  • Northern Hawk Owl (American) Surnia ulula caparoch
  • Northern Hawk Owl (Eurasian) Surnia ulula ulula/tianschanica
  • Barred Owlet-nightjar (Diamond’s) Aegotheles bennettii terborghi
  • Band-tailed Nighthawk (Band-tailed) Nyctiprogne leucopyga [leucopyga Group]
  • Band-tailed Nighthawk (latifascia) Nyctiprogne leucopyga latifascia
  • Tyrian Metaltail (Santa Marta) Metallura tyrianthina districta
  • Tyrian Metaltail (Costa) Metallura tyrianthina chloropogon
  • Tyrian Metaltail (Merida) Metallura tyrianthina oreopola
  • Tyrian Metaltail (Tyrian) Metallura tyrianthina tyrianthina/quitensis
  • Tyrian Metaltail (septentrionalis) Metallura tyrianthina septentrionalis
  • Tyrian Metaltail (smaragdinicollis) Metallura tyrianthina smaragdinicollis
  • Viridian Metaltail (recisa) Metallura williami recisa
  • Viridian Metaltail (Viridian) Metallura williami williami
  • Viridian Metaltail (Ecuadorian) Metallura williami primolina
  • Viridian Metaltail (Black-throated) Metallura williami atrigularis
  • Golden-bellied Starfrontlet (Perija) Coeligena bonapartei consita
  • Golden-bellied Starfrontlet (Golden-bellied) Coeligena bonapartei bonapartei
  • African Pied Hornbill (Western) Lophoceros fasciatus semifasciatus
  • African Pied Hornbill (Congo) Lophoceros fasciatus fasciatus
  • White-crested Hornbill (White-cheeked) Horizocerus albocristatus albocristatus/macrourus
  • White-crested Hornbill (Dark-cheeked) Horizocerus albocristatus cassini
  • Piping Hornbill (Western) Bycanistes fistulator fistulator
  • Piping Hornbill (Eastern) Bycanistes fistulator sharpii/duboisi
  • Rufous Hornbill (Northern) Buceros hydrocorax hydrocorax
  • Rufous Hornbill (Southern) Buceros hydrocorax mindanensis/semigaleatus
  • Indigo-banded Kingfisher (Northern) Ceyx cyanopectus cyanopectus
  • Indigo-banded Kingfisher (Southern) Ceyx cyanopectus nigrirostris
  • Society Kingfisher (Moorea) Todiramphus veneratus youngi
  • Society Kingfisher (Tahiti) Todiramphus veneratus veneratus
  • Pacific Kingfisher (Lau) Todiramphus sacer marinus
  • Green Bee-eater (Yellow-throated) Merops orientalis [viridissimus Group]
  • Green Bee-eater (Arabian) Merops orientalis cyanophrys/najdanus
  • Green Bee-eater (Russet-crowned) Merops orientalis [orientalis Group]
  • Yellow-billed Barbet (Western) Trachyphonus purpuratus goffinii
  • Yellow-billed Barbet (Togo) Trachyphonus purpuratus togoensis
  • Yellow-billed Barbet (Eastern) Trachyphonus purpuratus purpuratus/elgonensis
  • White-headed Barbet (White-headed) Lybius leucocephalus [leucocephalus Group]
  • White-headed Barbet (Brown-and-white) Lybius leucocephalus senex
  • White-headed Barbet (White-bellied) Lybius leucocephalus leucogaster
  • Blue-throated Barbet (Red-crowned) Psilopogon asiaticus asiaticus
  • Blue-throated Barbet (Blue-crowned) Psilopogon asiaticus davisoni
  • Ivory-billed Aracari (Yellow-billed) Pteroglossus azara flavirostris
  • Ivory-billed Aracari (Ivory-billed) Pteroglossus azara azara
  • White-bellied Piculet (White-bellied) Picumnus spilogaster spilogaster/orinocensis
  • White-bellied Piculet (Mangrove) Picumnus spilogaster pallidus
  • Gray-headed Woodpecker (Gray-headed) Picus canus canus/jessoensis
  • Gray-headed Woodpecker (Black-naped) Picus canus [guerini Group]
  • Gray-headed Woodpecker (Sumatran) Picus canus dedemi
  • Eurasian Kestrel (Canary Islands) Falco tinnunculus canariensis/dacotiae
  • Eurasian Kestrel (Cape Verde) Falco tinnunculus neglectus/alexandri
  • Eurasian Kestrel (Rufescent) Falco tinnunculus rufescens
  • Blue-winged Parrotlet (Turquoise-winged) Forpus xanthopterygius spengeli
  • Blue-winged Parrotlet (crassirostris) Forpus xanthopterygius crassirostris
  • Blue-winged Parrotlet (Blue-winged) Forpus xanthopterygius xanthopterygius
  • Dusky-billed Parrotlet (Schomburgk’s) Forpus modestus modestus
  • Dusky-billed Parrotlet (Dusky-billed) Forpus modestus sclateri
  • Pearly Parakeet (lepida) Pyrrhura lepida lepida
  • Pearly Parakeet (anerythra) Pyrrhura lepida anerythra
  • Pearly Parakeet (coerulescens) Pyrrhura lepida coerulescens
  • White-backed Fire-eye (Pacific) Pyriglena leuconota pacifica
  • White-backed Fire-eye (Black-bellied) Pyriglena leuconota castanoptera
  • White-backed Fire-eye (Black-headed) Pyriglena leuconota picea
  • White-backed Fire-eye (White-backed) Pyriglena leuconota [leuconota Group]
  • White-backed Fire-eye (Pernambuco) Pyriglena leuconota pernambucensis
  • Rufous Antpitta (Sierra Nevada) Grallaria rufula spatiator
  • Rufous Antpitta (Perija) Grallaria rufula saltuensis
  • Rufous Antpitta (Rufous) Grallaria rufula rufula
  • Rufous Antpitta (Cajamarca) Grallaria rufula cajamarcae
  • Rufous Antpitta (North Peruvian) Grallaria rufula obscura
  • Rufous Antpitta (South Peruvian) Grallaria rufula occabambae
  • Rufous Antpitta (Bolivian) Grallaria rufula cochabambae
  • Black-faced Antthrush (Black-faced) Formicarius analis [analis Group]
  • Rufous-breasted Leaftosser (Ceara) Sclerurus scansor cearensis
  • Rufous-breasted Leaftosser (Rufous-breasted) Sclerurus scansor scansor
  • White-browed Spinetail (gularis) Hellmayrea gularis gularis
  • White-browed Spinetail (brunneidorsalis) Hellmayrea gularis brunneidorsalis
  • White-browed Spinetail (cinereiventris) Hellmayrea gularis cinereiventris
  • White-browed Spinetail (rufiventris) Hellmayrea gularis rufiventris
  • Vilcabamba Thistletail (Vilcabamba) Asthenes vilcabambae vilcabambae
  • Vilcabamba Thistletail (Ayacucho) Asthenes vilcabambae ayacuchensis
  • Rufous Spinetail (unirufa) Synallaxis unirufa unirufa
  • Rufous Spinetail (munoztebari) Synallaxis unirufa munoztebari
  • Rufous Spinetail (meridana) Synallaxis unirufa meridana
  • Rufous Spinetail (ochrogaster) Synallaxis unirufa ochrogaster
  • Gray Elaenia (Choco) Myiopagis caniceps parambae/absita
  • Gray Elaenia (Gray) Myiopagis caniceps cinerea
  • Gray Elaenia (Gray-headed) Myiopagis caniceps caniceps
  • Foothill Elaenia (Perija) Myiopagis olallai incognita
  • Foothill Elaenia (Antioquia) Myiopagis olallai coopmansi
  • Foothill Elaenia (Foothill) Myiopagis olallai olallai
  • Brown-crested Flycatcher (Cooper’s) Myiarchus tyrannulus [cooperi Group]
  • Spotted Pardalote (Wet Tropics) Pardalotus punctatus millitaris
  • Spotted Pardalote (Spotted) Pardalotus punctatus punctatus
  • Spotted Pardalote (Yellow-rumped) Pardalotus punctatus xanthopyge
  • Black-browed Triller (Black-browed) Lalage atrovirens atrovirens
  • Black-browed Triller (Biak) Lalage atrovirens leucoptera
  • Long-tailed Shrike (erythronotus/caniceps) Lanius schach erythronotus/caniceps
  • Long-tailed Shrike (schach) Lanius schach schach
  • Long-tailed Shrike (tricolor/longicaudatus) Lanius schach tricolor/longicaudatus
  • Long-tailed Shrike (bentet) Lanius schach bentet
  • Long-tailed Shrike (nasutus Group) Lanius schach [nasutus Group]
  • Woodchat Shrike (Western) Lanius senator senator
  • Woodchat Shrike (Balearic) Lanius senator badius
  • Woodchat Shrike (Caucasian) Lanius senator niloticus
  • Black-naped Oriole (East Asian) Oriolus chinensis diffusus
  • Black-naped Oriole (Sunda) Oriolus chinensis [maculatus Group]
  • Black-naped Oriole (Black-naped) Oriolus chinensis [chinensis Group]
  • Gray Fantail (keasti) Rhipidura albiscapa keasti
  • Gray Fantail (alisteri) Rhipidura albiscapa alisteri
  • Gray Fantail (albiscapa) Rhipidura albiscapa albiscapa
  • Gray Fantail (preissi) Rhipidura albiscapa preissi
  • Gray Fantail (albicauda) Rhipidura albiscapa albicauda
  • Madagascar Paradise-Flycatcher (Madagascar) Terpsiphone mutata [mutata Group]
  • Madagascar Paradise-Flycatcher (Comoro) Terpsiphone mutata vulpina/voeltzkowiana
  • Madagascar Paradise-Flycatcher (Grand Comoro) Terpsiphone mutata comoroensis
  • Azure-naped Jay (Azure-naped) Cyanocorax heilprini heilprini
  • Scarlet Robin (Campbell’s) Petroica boodang campbelli
  • Scarlet Robin (Scarlet) Petroica boodang boodang/leggii
  • Ashy Robin (Ashy) Heteromyias albispecularis albispecularis
  • Ashy Robin (Black-capped) Heteromyias albispecularis [armiti Group]
  • Varied Tit (Varied) Sittiparus varius [varius Group]
  • Varied Tit (Iriomote) Sittiparus varius olivaceus
  • Varied Tit (Chestnut-bellied) Sittiparus varius castaneoventris
  • Varied Tit (Owston’s) Sittiparus varius owstoni
  • Sedge Wren (Venezuelan) Cistothorus platensis alticola
  • Sedge Wren (Paramo) Cistothorus platensis aequatorialis
  • Sedge Wren (Junin) Cistothorus platensis graminicola
  • Sedge Wren (Puna) Cistothorus platensis minimus
  • Sedge Wren (Tucuman) Cistothorus platensis tucumanus
  • Sedge Wren (Pampas) Cistothorus platensis platensis/polyglottus
  • Sedge Wren (Austral) Cistothorus platensis hornensis/falklandicus
  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Central American) Henicorhina leucophrys [mexicana Group]
  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Choco) Henicorhina leucophrys brunneiceps
  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (anachoreta) Henicorhina leucophrys anachoreta
  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (bangsi) Henicorhina leucophrys bangsi
  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Perija) Henicorhina leucophrys manastarae
  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (meridana) Henicorhina leucophrys meridana
  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (venezuelensis) Henicorhina leucophrys venezuelensis
  • Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Andean) Henicorhina leucophrys [leucophrys Group]
  • Lesser Bristlebill (Brown-eyed) Bleda notatus notatus
  • Lesser Bristlebill (Yellow-eyed) Bleda notatus ugandae
  • Yellow-throated Greenbul (flavicollis) Atimastillas flavicollis flavicollis
  • Yellow-throated Greenbul (soror) Atimastillas flavicollis soror
  • Yellow-throated Greenbul (flavigula) Atimastillas flavicollis flavigula
  • Plain Greenbul (leoninus) Eurillas curvirostris leoninus
  • Plain Greenbul (curvirostris) Eurillas curvirostris curvirostris
  • Orange-spotted Bulbul (Aceh) Pycnonotus bimaculatus snouckaerti
  • Orange-spotted Bulbul (Orange-spotted) Pycnonotus bimaculatus bimaculatus/barat
  • Streak-breasted Bulbul (Tablas) Hypsipetes siquijorensis cinereiceps
  • Streak-breasted Bulbul (Cebu) Hypsipetes siquijorensis monticola
  • Streak-breasted Bulbul (Siquijor) Hypsipetes siquijorensis siquijorensis
  • Mountain Chiffchaff (Caucasian) Phylloscopus sindianus lorenzii
  • Mountain Chiffchaff (Kashmir) Phylloscopus sindianus sindianus
  • Capped White-eye (Capped) Zosterops fuscicapilla fuscicapilla
  • Capped White-eye (Oya Tabu) Zosterops fuscicapilla crookshanki
  • Dark-fronted Babbler (atriceps) Rhopocichla atriceps atriceps
  • Dark-fronted Babbler (bourdilloni) Rhopocichla atriceps bourdilloni
  • Dark-fronted Babbler (siccata) Rhopocichla atriceps siccata
  • Dark-fronted Babbler (nigrifrons) Rhopocichla atriceps nigrifrons
  • Brown Illadopsis (Moloney’s) Illadopsis fulvescens moloneyana/iboensis
  • Brown Illadopsis (Brown) Illadopsis fulvescens [fulvescens Group]
  • Black-headed Sibia (Black-headed) Heterophasia desgodinsi desgodinsi/tonkinensis
  • Black-headed Sibia (engelbachi/kingi) Heterophasia desgodinsi engelbachi/kingi
  • Black-headed Sibia (Lang Bian) Heterophasia desgodinsi robinsoni
  • Common Nightingale (megarhynchos/africana) Luscinia megarhynchos megarhynchos/africana
  • Common Nightingale (golzii) Luscinia megarhynchos golzii
  • Blue Whistling-Thrush (Black-billed) Myophonus caeruleus caeruleus
  • Blue Whistling-Thrush (Yellow-billed) Myophonus caeruleus [flavirostris Group]
  • Blue Rock-Thrush (solitarius Group) Monticola solitarius [solitarius Group]
  • Blue Rock-Thrush (philippensis) Monticola solitarius philippensis
  • Blue Rock-Thrush (madoci) Monticola solitarius madoci
  • Siberian Stonechat (Caspian) Saxicola maurus hemprichii
  • Siberian Stonechat (Przewalksi’s) Saxicola maurus przewalskii
  • Russet-tailed Thrush (Russet-tailed) Zoothera heinei [heinei Group]
  • Russet-tailed Thrush (Mussau) Zoothera heinei eichhorni
  • Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush (Orange-billed) Catharus aurantiirostris [aurantiirostris Group]
  • Indian Blackbird (Indian) Turdus simillimus simillimus/bourdilloni
  • Indian Blackbird (Black-capped) Turdus simillimus nigropileus/spencei
  • Indian Blackbird (Sri Lanka) Turdus simillimus kinnisii
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (flavissima/lutea) Motacilla flava flavissima/lutea
  • Two-banded Warbler (Roraiman) Myiothlypis bivittata roraimae
  • Two-banded Warbler (Two-banded) Myiothlypis bivittata bivittata/argentinae
  • Red-capped Cardinal (Red-capped) Paroaria gularis gularis
  • Red-capped Cardinal (Bolivian) Paroaria gularis cervicalis
  • Crimson-fronted Cardinal (Araguaia) Paroaria baeri baeri
  • Crimson-fronted Cardinal (Xingu) Paroaria baeri xinguensis
  • Flame-crested Tanager (Flame-crested) Tachyphonus cristatus [cristatus Group]
  • Flame-crested Tanager (Natterer’s) Tachyphonus cristatus nattereri
  • Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (Perija) Anisognathus lacrymosus pallididorsalis
  • Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (melanops) Anisognathus lacrymosus melanops
  • Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (yariguierum) Anisognathus lacrymosus yariguierum
  • Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (intensus) Anisognathus lacrymosus intensus
  • Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (palpebrosus Group) Anisognathus lacrymosus [palpebrosus Group]
  • Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (lacrymosus) Anisognathus lacrymosus lacrymosus
  • Blue-gray Tanager (Blue-gray) Thraupis episcopus [cana Group]
  • Blue-gray Tanager (White-edged) Thraupis episcopus [episcopus Group]
  • Savannah Sparrow (Savannah) Passerculus sandwichensis [sandwichensis Group]
  • Moustached Brushfinch (Moustached) Atlapetes albofrenatus albofrenatus
  • Moustached Brushfinch (Merida) Atlapetes albofrenatus meridae
  • Slaty Brushfinch (Slaty) Atlapetes schistaceus [schistaceus Group]
  • Slaty Brushfinch (Taczanowki’s) Atlapetes schistaceus taczanowskii
  • Yellow-breasted Brushfinch (nigrifrons) Atlapetes latinuchus nigrifrons
  • Yellow-breasted Brushfinch (Yellow-breasted) Atlapetes latinuchus [latinuchus Group]
  • Red-crowned Ant-Tanager (Northern) Habia rubica [rubicoides Group]
  • Red-crowned Ant-Tanager (Scarlet-throated) Habia rubica [rubra Group]
  • Red-crowned Ant-Tanager (Red) Habia rubica rubica/bahiae
  • Blue Seedeater (Equatorial) Amaurospiza concolor aequatorialis
  • Blue-black Grosbeak (Blue-black) Cyanocompsa cyanoides [cyanoides Group]
  • Blue-black Grosbeak (Amazonian) Cyanocompsa cyanoides rothschildii
  • Baglafecht Weaver (Baglafecht) Ploceus baglafecht [baglafecht Group]
  • Baglafecht Weaver (Emin’s) Ploceus baglafecht emini
  • Baglafecht Weaver (Reichenow’s) Ploceus baglafecht reichenowi
  • Baglafecht Weaver (Stuhlmann’s) Ploceus baglafecht [stuhlmanni Group]
  • Vieillot’s Weaver (Chestnut-and-black) Ploceus nigerrimus castaneofuscus
  • Vieillot’s Weaver (Black) Ploceus nigerrimus nigerrimus

NEW HYBRIDS and INTERGRADES

eBird has a long list of field identifiable hybrids. These are always listed in taxonomic order (the species that comes first sequentially is listed first) and are always followed by “hybrid”. If you identified a hybrid, especially any of the below, please do report it to eBird (hopefully with photos)! eBird also maintains a much shorter lists of intergrades (hybrids between subspecies groups); these are followed by the phrase “intergrade” and can be identified from the scientific name by the structure of the names which indicates that it is a subspecies. Hybrids and intergrades are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Black-bellied x West Indian Whistling-Duck (hybrid) Dendrocygna autumnalis x arborea
  • Swan x Graylag Goose (Domestic type) (hybrid) Anser cygnoides x anser (Domestic type) (hybrid)
  • American Wigeon x Northern Shoveler (hybrid) Anas americana x clypeata
  • Mallard x White-cheeked Pintail (hybrid) Anas platyrhynchos x bahamensis
  • Ring-necked Duck x Greater Scaup (hybrid) Aythya collaris x marila
  • Common x Red-breasted Merganser (hybrid) Mergus merganser x serrator
  • Dusky x Sharp-tailed Grouse (hybrid) Dendragapus obscurus x Tympanuchus phasianellus
  • Masked x Brown Booby (hybrid) Sula dactylatra x leucogaster
  • Neotropic x Double-crested Cormorant (hybrid) Phalacrocorax brasilianus x auritus
  • Great Blue x Cocoi Heron (hybrid) Ardea herodias x cocoi
  • Tricolored Heron x Reddish Egret (hybrid) Egretta tricolor x rufescens
  • European x Oriental Honey-buzzard (hybrid) Pernis apivorus x ptilorhynchus
  • Common Black x Red-shouldered Hawk (hybrid) Buteogallus anthracinus x Buteo lineatus
  • Swainson’s x Rough-legged Hawk (hybrid) Buteo swainsoni x lagopus
  • Long-legged x Upland Buzzard (hybrid) Buteo rufinus x hemilasius
  • Sandhill x Whooping Crane (hybrid) Grus canadensis x americana
  • Northern x Wattled Jacana (hybrid) Jacana spinosa x jacana
  • Great x Common Snipe (hybrid) Gallinago media x gallinago
  • Common x Thick-billed Murre (hybrid) Uria aalge x lomvia
  • Bonaparte’s x Franklin’s Gull (hybrid) Chroicocephalus philadelphia x Leucophaeus pipixcan
  • Franklin’s x Ring-billed Gull (hybrid) Leucophaeus pipixcan x Larus delawarensis
  • Ring-billed x Herring Gull (hybrid) Larus delawarensis x argentatus
  • California x Herring Gull (hybrid) Larus californicus x argentatus
  • Little x Fairy Tern (hybrid) Sternula albifrons x nereis
  • Sandwich Tern (Cabot’s x Cayenne) Thalasseus sandvicensis acuflavidus x eurygnathus
  • Eurasian x African Collared-Dove (hybrid) Streptopelia decaocto x roseogrisea
  • White-cheeked x Prince Ruspoli’s Turaco (hybrid) Tauraco leucotis x ruspolii
  • Streamertail (Red-billed x Black-billed) Trochilus polytmus polytmus x scitulus
  • Ladder-backed x Downy Woodpecker (hybrid) Picoides scalaris x pubescens
  • Ladder-backed x Hairy Woodpecker (hybrid) Picoides scalaris x villosus
  • Downy x Hairy Woodpecker (hybrid) Picoides pubescens x villosus
  • Campo Flicker (Campo x Field) Colaptes campestris campestris x campestroides
  • Lineated x Black-bodied Woodpecker (hybrid) Dryocopus lineatus x schulzi
  • Pale-headed x Bamboo Woodpecker (hybrid) Gecinulus grantia x viridis
  • Long-billed x Little Corella (hybrid) Cacatua tenuirostris x sanguinea
  • Green x Eastern Rosella (hybrid) Platycercus caledonicus x eximius
  • Crimson x Eastern Rosella (hybrid) Platycercus elegans x eximius
  • Musk x Rainbow Lorikeet (hybrid) Glossopsitta concinna x Trichoglossus haematodus
  • Rainbow x Scaly-breasted Lorikeet (hybrid) Trichoglossus haematodus x chlorolepidotus
  • White-collared x Golden-collared Manakin (hybrid) Manacus candei x vitellinus
  • White-throated x Spot-breasted Fantail (hybrid) Rhipidura albicollis x albogularis
  • Frill-necked x Ochre-collared Monarch (hybrid) Arses telescopthalmus x insularis
  • Lesser x Raggiana Bird-of-Paradise (hybrid) Paradisaea minor x raggiana
  • Gray-headed x Black-headed Parrotbill (hybrid) Psittiparus gularis x margaritae
  • Chinese x Taiwan Hwamei (hybrid) Garrulax canorus x taewanus
  • European Pied x Collared Flycatcher (hybrid) Ficedula hypoleuca x albicollis
  • Blue Rock-Thrush (pandoo x philippensis) Monticola solitarius pandoo x philippensis
  • Common Redstart x Whinchat (hybrid) Phoenicurus phoenicurus x Saxicola rubetra
  • Orange-crowned x Nashville Warbler (hybrid) Oreothlypis celata x ruficapilla
  • Nashville x Magnolia Warbler (hybrid) Oreothlypis ruficapilla x Setophaga magnolia
  • Bay-breasted x Blackburnian Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga castanea x fusca
  • Yellow Warbler (Mangrove x Golden) Setophaga petechia (Mangrove x Golden intergrade)
  • Hooded x Yellow Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga citrina x petechia
  • Yellowhammer x Pine Bunting (hybrid) Emberiza citrinella x leucocephalos
  • Summer x Western Tanager (hybrid) Piranga rubra x ludoviciana
  • Scarlet x Western Tanager (hybrid) Piranga olivacea x ludoviciana
  • Hepatic x Flame-colored Tanager (hybrid) Piranga flava x bidentata
  • Western x Eastern Meadowlark (hybrid) Sturnella neglecta x magna
  • Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Hepburn’s x Gray-crowned) Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis x tephrocotis Group
  • Apapane x Iiwi (hybrid) Himatione sanguinea x Drepanis coccinea
  • Pine x Black-capped Siskin (hybrid) Spinus pinus x atriceps
  • Black-necked Weaver (Olive-backed x Black-backed) Ploceus nigricollis brachypterus x nigricollis

NEW FORMS

Within eBird, we also have forms for taxa that are field identifiable (or likely potential species) and worth tracking, but are not formally described. These include undescribed species (noted with “undescribed form”), undescribed subspecies groups, and miscellaneous other options. This year’s update includes one “undescribed form” that has been described and accepted by the CBRO (Brasilian Records Committee); we include it without the “undescribed” note but it is not considered a valid species for eBird/Clements…yet. Forms are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • New Caledonian Storm-Petrel (undescribed form) Fregetta [undescribed form]
  • Maranhao Hermit Phaethornis maranhaoensis
  • Pine Siskin (green morph) Spinus pinus (green morph)
Pine Siskin (greenish) is a distinctive but poorly known form of Pine Siskin. It appears similar to female Eurasian Siskin, but with less defined streaking on the flanks, broader and brighter yellow at the base of the primaries and a finer bill.

Pine Siskin (green morph) is a distinctive but poorly known form of Pine Siskin. It appears similar to female Eurasian Siskin, but with less defined streaking on the flanks, broader and brighter yellow at the base of the primaries and a finer bill.

Pine Siskin (Greenish) are most obvious when with flocks of normal Pine Siskins.

Pine Siskin (Green morph) are most obvious when with flocks of normal Pine Siskins when their paler overall coloration and bright wings and tail stand out.

NEW DOMESTICS

eBird has certain domesticated species that are regularly seen in a feral or wild state. The two parrots added here have multiple plumage variations that indicate domestic provenance; individuals that match the wild type should not be reported using this option. Domestics are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Cockatiel (Domestic type) Nymphicus hollandicus (Domestic type)
  • Budgerigar (Domestic type) Melopsittacus undulatus (Domestic type)

NEW SLASHES AND SPUHS

As with hybrids, eBird has a long list of “slashes” and “spuhs”. These are useful in the field if you get a good enough look at a bird to know it, for example, a scoter, but not to tell if it was a Common Scoter, Black Scoter, Surf Scoter, or White-winged Scoter. You can use “scoter sp.”, in such instances. If you are able to narrow it down to two (or in rare cases, three or four) species options, we have “slashes”, which mention the full common name (and scientific name) for the species that are potential species for your observation (e.g., Surf/Black Scoter). This list is being regularly updated as observers let us know what field identification problems they encounter. Slashes and spuhs are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Anser sp. Anser sp.
  • Indian/Eastern Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhyncha/zonorhyncha
  • Talegalla sp. Talegalla sp.
  • Blue-throated/Red-throated Piping-Guan Pipile cumanensis/cujubi
  • Cracidae sp. Cracidae sp.
  • Arborophila sp. Arborophila sp.
  • pheasant sp. Phasianinae sp.
  • Hutton’s/Fluttering Shearwater Puffinus huttoni/gavia
  • Neotropic/Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus/auritus
  • Great Blue/Cocoi Heron Ardea herodias/cocoi
  • Little Egret/Western Reef-Heron Egretta garzetta/gularis
  • White-faced/Puna Ibis Plegadis chihi/ridgwayi
  • Rueppell’s/Eurasian Griffon Gyps rueppelli/fulvus
  • Himalayan/Eurasian Griffon Gyps himalayensis/fulvus
  • Changeable/Crested Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus limnaeetus/cirrhatus
  • Spizaetus sp. Spizaetus sp.
  • Northern/Montagu’s Harrier Circus cyaneus/pygargus
  • Brown Goshawk/Collared Sparrowhawk Accipiter fasciatus/cirrocephalus
  • Levant/Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter brevipes/nisus
  • Long-legged/Upland Buzzard Buteo rufinus/hemilasius
  • Rallina sp. Rallina sp.
  • Ruddy/White-throated Crake Laterallus ruber/albigularis
  • wood-rail sp. Aramides sp.
  • crane sp. Gruidae sp.
  • Common Ringed/Semipalmated Plover Charadrius hiaticula/semipalmatus
  • Northern/Wattled Jacana Jacana spinosa/jacana
  • Common/Pin-tailed Snipe Gallinago gallinago/stenura
  • Herring/Yellow-legged Gull Larus argentatus/michahellis
  • Yellow-legged/Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus michahellis/fuscus
  • Little/Fairy Tern Sternula albifrons/nereis
  • Eurasian/African Collared-Dove Streptopelia decaocto/roseogrisea
  • Macropygia sp. Macropygia sp.
  • Common/Ruddy Ground-Dove Columbina passerina/talpacoti
  • brown-dove sp. Phapitreron sp.
  • Common/African Cuckoo Cuculus canorus/gularis
  • Shining/Little Bronze-Cuckoo Chrysococcyx lucidus/minutillus
  • bronze-cuckoo sp. Chrysococcyx sp. (bronze-cuckoo sp.)
  • Asian Emerald/Violet Cuckoo Chrysococcyx maculatus/xanthorhynchus
  • Klaas’s/Dideric Cuckoo Chrysococcyx klaas/caprius
  • Chrysococcyx sp. Chrysococcyx sp.
  • Squirrel/Black-bellied Cuckoo Piaya cayana/melanogaster
  • cuckoo sp. (Cuculidae sp.) Cuculidae sp.
  • European/Pallid Scops-Owl Otus scops/brucei
  • Bubo sp. Bubo sp.
  • Asian Barred/Jungle Owlet Glaucidium cuculoides/radiatum
  • owlet-nightjar sp. Aegotheles sp.
  • Batrachostomus sp. Batrachostomus sp.
  • frogmouth sp. Podargidae sp.
  • potoo sp. Nyctibius sp.
  • Plain/Pallid Swift Apus unicolor/pallidus
  • treeswift sp. Hemiprocne sp.
  • Crimson/Fiery Topaz Topaza pella/pyra
  • Green/Sparkling Violetear Colibri thalassinus/coruscans
  • violetear sp. Colibri sp.
  • metaltail sp. Metallura sp.
  • Long-billed/Plain-capped Starthroat Heliomaster longirostris/constantii
  • Purple-throated/White-throated Mountain-gem Lampornis calolaemus/castaneoventris
  • Chlorostilbon sp. Chlorostilbon sp.
  • Lophoceros sp. Lophoceros sp.
  • Black-casqued/Yellow-casqued Hornbill Ceratogymna atrata/elata
  • hornbill sp. Bucerotidae sp.
  • Broad-billed/Narrow-billed Tody Todus subulatus/angustirostris
  • Black-backed/Rufous-backed Dwarf-Kingfisher Ceyx erithaca/rufidorsa
  • Todiramphus sp. Todiramphus sp.
  • Yellow-billed/Mountain Kingfisher Syma torotoro/megarhyncha
  • Chloroceryle sp. Chloroceryle sp.
  • nunlet sp. Nonnula sp.
  • Monasa sp. Monasa sp.
  • Bucconidae sp. Bucconidae sp.
  • Galbula sp. Galbula sp.
  • jacamar sp. Galbulidae sp.
  • Malabar/Coppersmith Barbet Psilopogon malabaricus/haemacephalus
  • Brown-headed/White-cheeked Barbet Psilopogon zeylanicus/viridis
  • Capito sp. Capito sp.
  • Aulacorhynchus sp. Aulacorhynchus sp.
  • Little/Red-stained Woodpecker Veniliornis passerinus/affinis
  • Veniliornis sp. Veniliornis sp.
  • Piculus sp. Piculus sp.
  • Dryocopus sp. Dryocopus sp.
  • Barred/Plumbeous Forest-Falcon Micrastur ruficollis/plumbeus
  • cacatua sp. Cacatua sp.
  • Greater/Lesser Vasa-Parrot Mascarinus vasa/niger
  • pygmy-parrot sp. Micropsitta sp.
  • tiger-parrot sp. Psittacella sp.
  • Yellow-billed/Orange-billed Lorikeet Neopsittacus musschenbroekii/pullicauda
  • Charmosyna sp. Charmosyna sp.
  • Barred/Andean Parakeet Bolborhynchus lineola/orbygnesius
  • Black-billed/Yellow-billed Parrot Amazona agilis/collaria
  • Austral/Slender-billed Parakeet Enicognathus ferrugineus/leptorhynchus
  • Green/Pacific Parakeet Psittacara holochlorus/strenuus
  • Smithornis sp. Smithornis sp.
  • Banded/Black-and-yellow Broadbill Eurylaimus javanicus/ochromalus
  • asian broadbill sp. Eurylaimidae sp.
  • Sunbird/Yellow-bellied Asity Neodrepanis coruscans/hypoxantha
  • antvireo sp. Dysithamnus sp.
  • Dusky-throated/Saturnine Antshrike Thamnomanes ardesiacus/saturninus
  • Cercomacroides sp. Cercomacroides sp.
  • Thrush-like/Tepui Antpitta Myrmothera campanisona/simplex
  • tapaculo sp. Rhinocryptidae sp.
  • xenops sp. Xenops sp.
  • Anabacerthia sp. Anabacerthia sp.
  • Syndactyla sp. Syndactyla sp.
  • Automolus sp. Automolus sp.
  • thornbird sp. Phacellodomus sp.
  • softtail sp. Thripophaga sp.
  • Suiriri/Chapada Flycatcher Suiriri suiriri/islerorum
  • Anairetes sp. Anairetes sp.
  • doradito sp. Pseudocolopteryx sp.
  • White-crested/Straneck’s Tyrannulet Serpophaga subcristata/griseicapilla
  • Serpophaga sp. Serpophaga sp.
  • Mionectes sp. Mionectes sp.
  • scrub-flycatcher sp. Sublegatus sp.
  • Lophotriccus sp. Lophotriccus sp.
  • Hemitriccus sp. Hemitriccus sp.
  • Poecilotriccus sp. Poecilotriccus sp.
  • Todirostrum sp. Todirostrum sp.
  • spadebill sp. Platyrinchus sp.
  • Myiophobus sp. Myiophobus sp.
  • Ramphotrigon sp. Ramphotrigon sp.
  • attila sp. Attila sp.
  • Yellow-throated/Three-striped Flycatcher Conopias parvus/trivirgatus
  • Pipreola sp. Pipreola sp.
  • Orange-bellied/White-fronted Manakin Lepidothrix suavissima/serena
  • Lepidothrix sp. Lepidothrix sp.
  • Dark-eared/White-eared Myza Myza celebensis/sarasinorum
  • Gavicalis sp. Gavicalis sp.
  • Melipotes sp. Melipotes sp.
  • friarbird sp. Philemon sp.
  • Meliphagidae sp. Meliphagidae sp.
  • mouse-warbler sp. Crateroscelis sp.
  • Melanocharis berrypecker sp. Melanocharis sp.
  • Yellow-bellied/Slaty-chinned Longbill Toxorhamphus novaeguineae/poliopterus
  • jewel-babbler sp. Ptilorrhoa sp.
  • wattle-eye sp. Platysteira sp.
  • Rufous-winged/Maroon-breasted Philentoma Philentoma pyrhoptera/velata
  • Vangidae sp. Vangidae sp.
  • currawong sp. Strepera sp.
  • Common/White-tailed Iora Aegithina tiphia/nigrolutea
  • cuckooshrike sp. Campephagidae sp.
  • Colluricincla sp. Colluricincla sp.
  • shrike-babbler sp. Pteruthius sp.
  • Rufous-browed/Black-billed Peppershrike Cyclarhis gujanensis/nigrirostris
  • White-throated/Spot-breasted Fantail Rhipidura albicollis/albogularis
  • White-throated/White-browed Fantail Rhipidura albicollis/aureola
  • Monarcha sp. Monarcha sp.
  • Restless/Paperbark Flycatcher Myiagra inquieta/nana
  • Myiagra sp. Myiagra sp.
  • Cyanocorax sp. Cyanocorax sp.
  • jay sp. Corvidae sp. (jay sp.)
  • green-magpie sp. Cissa sp.
  • Red-billed/Yellow-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax/graculus
  • manucode sp. Phonygammus/Manucodia sp.
  • Microeca sp. Microeca sp.
  • Western/Yellow-throated Nicator Nicator chloris/vireo
  • Greater Short-toed/Hume’s Lark Calandrella brachydactyla/acutirostris
  • Horned/Temminck’s Lark Eremophila alpestris/bilopha
  • Northern/Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis/ruficollis
  • Tachycineta sp. Tachycineta sp.
  • Fairy/Tree Martin Petrochelidon ariel/nigricans
  • Petrochelidon sp. Petrochelidon sp.
  • Forest Swallow/Square-tailed Sawwing Petrochelidon fuliginosa/Psalidoprocne nitens
  • sawwing sp. Psalidoprocne sp.
  • Parus sp. Parus sp.
  • Indian/Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch Sitta castanea/cinnamoventris
  • Rock/Persian Nuthatch Sitta neumayer/tephronota
  • Cinnycerthia sp. Cinnycerthia sp.
  • bristlebill sp. Bleda sp.
  • Red-tailed/White-bearded Greenbul Criniger calurus/ndussumensis
  • Criniger sp. Criniger sp.
  • Icterine/Xavier’s Greenbul Phyllastrephus icterinus/xavieri
  • Pycnonotidae sp. Pycnonotidae sp.
  • cupwing sp. Pnoepyga sp.
  • longbill sp. Macrosphenus sp.
  • Gray-bellied/Slaty-bellied Tesia Tesia cyaniventer/olivea
  • tesia sp. Tesia sp.
  • Cettia sp. Cettia sp.
  • Arctic/Japanese Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus borealis/xanthodryas
  • Iduna sp. Iduna sp.
  • Iduna/Hippolais/Acrocephalus sp. Iduna/Hippolais/Acrocephalus sp.
  • Megalurus sp. Megalurus sp.
  • jery sp. Neomixis sp.
  • Camaroptera sp. Camaroptera sp.
  • Subalpine/Montoni’s Warbler Sylvia cantillans/subalpina
  • parrotbill sp. Paradoxornithidae sp.
  • white-eye sp. Zosteropidae sp.
  • Pomatorhinus sp. Pomatorhinus sp.
  • Malacopteron sp. Malacopteron sp.
  • Pellorneidae sp. Pellorneidae sp.
  • Chinese/Taiwan Hwamei Garrulax canorus/taewanus
  • Bradornis sp. Bradornis sp.
  • Blue-and-white/Zappey’s Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana/cumatilis
  • Brachypteryx sp. Brachypteryx sp.
  • whistling-thrush sp. Myophonus sp.
  • forktail sp. Enicurus sp.
  • Red-flanked/Himalayan Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus/rufilatus
  • Tarsiger sp. Tarsiger sp.
  • Korean/Green-backed/Narcissus Flycatcher Ficedula zanthopygia/elisae/narcissana
  • Siberian/White-tailed Stonechat Saxicola maurus/leucurus
  • Saxicola sp. Saxicola sp.
  • Northern/Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe/hispanica
  • Mimidae sp. Mimidae sp.
  • Aplonis sp. Aplonis sp.
  • Temminck’s/Crimson Sunbird Aethopyga temminckii/siparaja
  • White/White-browed Wagtail Motacilla alba/maderaspatensis
  • Richard’s/Oriental Pipit Anthus richardi/rufulus
  • yellowthroat sp. Geothlypis sp. (yellowthroat sp.)
  • Flame-crested/Fulvous-crested Tanager Tachyphonus cristatus/surinamus
  • Tachyphonus sp. Tachyphonus sp.
  • Ramphocelus sp. Ramphocelus sp.
  • Black-crested/Gray-crested Finch Lophospingus pusillus/griseocristatus
  • inca-finch sp. Incaspiza sp.
  • Catamenia sp. Catamenia sp.
  • Olive/Green-backed Sparrow Arremonops rufivirgatus/chloronotus
  • Spizella sp. Spizella sp.
  • Gray-hooded/Ortolan Bunting Emberiza buchanani/hortulana
  • Black-headed/Red-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala/bruniceps
  • Hepatic/Summer Tanager Piranga flava/rubra
  • Summer/Scarlet Tanager Piranga rubra/olivacea
  • Chlorothraupis sp. Chlorothraupis sp.
  • Red-shouldered/Tawny-shouldered Blackbird Agelaius assimilis/humeralis
  • White-edged/Yellow-tailed Oriole Icterus graceannae/mesomelas
  • hawaiian honeycreeper sp. Drepanidinae sp.
  • Parrot/Red Crossbill Loxia pytyopsittacus/curvirostra
  • Mycerobas sp. Mycerobas sp.
  • malimbe sp. Malimbus sp.
  • Black-necked/Spectacled Weaver Ploceus nigricollis/ocularis
  • Red/Forest Fody Foudia madagascariensis/omissa
  • pytilia sp. Pytilia sp.
  • whydah sp. Vidua sp. (whydah sp.)
  • indigobird sp. Vidua sp. (indigobird sp.)

COMMON NAME “AMBIGUATION” and SUBSPECIES GROUP LUMPS

A persistent problem in eBird is when birders assume a subspecies group without fully understanding the status, occurrence, range, or field marks of the relevant options. While we want to collect carefully identified records of subspecies, and while known status is always a factor in bird identification, making incorrect assumptions is very dangerous for eBird data quality. An example would be Willet (Eastern) Tringa semipalmata semipalmata and Willet (Western) Tringa semipalmata inornata. Incautious observers regularly report Willet (Eastern) because they are standing on the Atlantic coast without understanding the (very subtle!) field identification characteristics or true status of “Western” Willet. In fact, subspecies inornata (which as a breeding bird is the more westerly of the two, breeding in the interior of the USA and southern Canada, and is the only form on the Pacific coast) is also the common wintering Willet in the southeastern USA and Gulf coast and returning migrants may return to the winter range as early as 1 July (and some birds oversummer!). “Eastern” Willet (which breeds exclusively in Gulf coast and East coast saltmarshes) actually winters almost exclusively in South America, and is very rare in Canada, the USA, and Caribbean after 1 September. Thus, while Willets on the East Coast that are obviously breeding can be identified as “Eastern Willet”, and those carefully identified by plumage and/or structure can be identified with care, the mere presence of a Willet on the East Coast does not allow one to identify it to subspecies. For those that do not understand all these nuances, we encourage conservative reporting as simply “Willet”.

This is not a problem unique to Willets. We often see birders assume an identification of a subspecies group with an “Eastern” or “Northern” moniker in the name, or appearing on the eBird filter, can be safely reported. While this is sometimes true, it is always important to understand the status and field marks for the subspecies you report. And since subspecies groups are often subtle, we always encourage adding photos or notes to support your identification.

To help minimize some of the problems of erroneous assumptions of subspecies group in eBird, we have undertaken an “ambiguation” process this year. Several subspecies groups that were formerly described with “eastern” and “western”, or similar geographical monikers, now are named with the formal subspecific epithet. For example, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Northern) is now Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (fulgens) and Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Southern) is now Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (autumnalis). this is intended to be a cautionary flag for eBirders: if you see a subspecies group with this name (always in lowercase), it is a very tricky identification issue and one you should only report if you fully understand it. In general, these taxa will not appear on eBird filters and must be intentionally sought in eBird using “Add a species”

A second process involved the removal of subspecies groups in places where the subspecies groups were not possible to safely identify in the field and not possible to validate in our review process, even with excellent documentation. The species involved in this include:

  • Cattle Egret: The Cattle Egret (Seychelles) Bubulcus ibis seychellarum subspecies is no longer considered valid, so Cattle Egrets from the Seychelles are now considered part of the nominate subspecies, with the new common name “Cattle Egret (Western)”; this form is sometimes split as a species from Cattle Egret (Eastern) Bubulcus ibis coromandus.
  • Red-shouldered Hawk: Eastern and Gulf Coast subspecies groups merged as “Red-shouldered Hawk (lineatus Group)”.
  • Least Tern: All three subspecies groups (Eastern Interior, California) are removed; Least Tern now does not have subspecies groups in eBird.
  • American Robin: The Eastern and Western subspecies groups are merged in to a single “American Robin (migratorius Group)”.
  • Summer Tanager: Both subspecies groups (Eastern, Western) are removed; Summer Tanager now does not have subspecies groups in eBird.
  • Savannah Sparrow: Eastern and Western subspecies groups are merged as “Savannah Sparrow (Savannah)”.

COMMON NAME CHANGES

See the Clements Checklist updates (to be posted soon here) of the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia that is split into unique species on each continent; the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash). 

  • Ostrich (Common) —> Common Ostrich
  • Ostrich (Somali) —> Somali Ostrich
  • Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Northern) —> Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (fulgens)
  • Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Southern) —> Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (autumnalis)
  • Common Eider (Atlantic) —> Common Eider (Dresser’s)
  • Common Eider (Boreal) —> Common Eider (Northern)
  • Australian Brush-Turkey —> Australian Brushturkey
  • Wattled Brush-Turkey —> Wattled Brushturkey
  • Bruijn’s Brush-Turkey —> Waigeo Brushturkey
  • Red-billed Brush-Turkey —> Red-billed Brushturkey
  • Black-billed Brush-Turkey —> Yellow-legged Brushturkey
  • Brown-collared Brush-Turkey —> Red-legged Brushturkey
  • Dusky-legged Guan (Bridge’s) —> Dusky-legged Guan (Bridges’s)
  • Crested Guineafowl (Crested) —> Crested Guineafowl (Western)
  • quail sp. —> new world quail sp.
  • Gray Peacock-Pheasant (Hainan) —> Hainan Peacock-Pheasant
  • Gray Peacock-Pheasant (Gray) —> Gray Peacock-Pheasant
  • Coturnix sp. —> old world quail sp.
  • Rockhopper Penguin —> Southern Rockhopper Penguin
  • Rockhopper Penguin (Western) —> Southern Rockhopper Penguin (Western)
  • Rockhopper Penguin (Eastern) —> Southern Rockhopper Penguin (Eastern)
  • Tristan Penguin —> Moseley’s Rockhopper Penguin
  • Levantine Shearwater —> Yelkouan Shearwater
  • Townsend’s Shearwater (Townsend’s) —> Townsend’s Shearwater
  • Townsend’s Shearwater (Newell’s) —> Newell’s Shearwater
  • Townsend’s Shearwater —> Townsend’s/Newell’s Shearwater
  • Townsend’s Shearwater (Rapa Island) —> Rapa Shearwater
  • Rough-faced Shag —> New Zealand King Shag
  • Bronze Shag —> Stewart Island Shag
  • Cattle Egret (ibis) —> Cattle Egret (Western)
  • Cattle Egret (Asian) —> Cattle Egret (Eastern)
  • Green Heron (Eastern) —> Green Heron (virescens/bahamensis)
  • Green Heron (Western) —> Green Heron (anthonyi)
  • Green Heron (Frazar’s) —> Green Heron (frazari)
  • Waldrapp —> Northern Bald Ibis
  • Bald Ibis —> Southern Bald Ibis
  • Olive Ibis (Olive) —> Olive Ibis
  • Olive Ibis (Sao Tome) —> Sao Tome Ibis
  • Osprey (Eurasian) —> Osprey (haliaetus)
  • Osprey (American) —> Osprey (carolinensis)
  • Osprey (Caribbean) —> Osprey (ridgwayi)
  • White-backed/Rueppell’s Griffon Vulture —> White-backed Vulture/Rueppell’s Griffon
  • Short-toed Eagle —> Short-toed Snake-Eagle
  • Red-shouldered Hawk (South Florida) —> Red-shouldered Hawk (extimus)
  • Red-shouldered Hawk (California) —> Red-shouldered Hawk (elegans)
  • Red-tailed Hawk (Western) —> Red-tailed Hawk (calurus/alascensis)
  • Red-tailed Hawk (Eastern) —> Red-tailed Hawk (borealis)
  • Red-tailed Hawk (Northern) —> Red-tailed Hawk (abieticola)
  • Red-tailed Hawk (Fuertes’s) —> Red-tailed Hawk (fuertesi)
  • Red-tailed Hawk (Mexican) —> Red-tailed Hawk (kemsiesi/hadropus)
  • Red-tailed Hawk (Costa Rican) —> Red-tailed Hawk (costaricensis)
  • Red-tailed Hawk (Tres Marias) —> Red-tailed Hawk (fumosus)
  • Red-tailed Hawk (Socorro) —> Red-tailed Hawk (socorroensis)
  • Common Buzzard (Himalayan) —> Himalayan Buzzard
  • Common Buzzard (japonicus) —> Eastern Buzzard
  • Mountain Buzzard (Mountain) —> Mountain Buzzard
  • Mountain Buzzard (Forest) —> Forest Buzzard
  • Mountain Buzzard (Elgin) —> Elgin Buzzard (undescribed form)
  • Yellow Rail (Mexican) —> Yellow Rail (Goldman’s)
  • King/Aztec Rail —> Aztec/King Rail
  • rail sp. —> rail/crake sp.
  • Purple Swamphen (European) —> Western Swamphen
  • Purple Swamphen (Black-backed) —> Black-backed Swamphen
  • Purple Swamphen (African) —> African Swamphen
  • Takahe (South Island) —> South Island Takahe
  • Takahe (North Island) —> North Island Takahe
  • Purple Swamphen (Australasian) —> Australasian Swamphen
  • Purple Swamphen (Philippine) —> Philippine Swamphen
  • Purple Swamphen (Gray-headed) —> Gray-headed Swamphen
  • Purple Swamphen —> swamphen sp.
  • moorhen/coot sp. —> gallinule/moorhen/coot sp.
  • Pale-winged Trumpeter (Ochre-winged) —> Gray-winged Trumpeter (Ochre-winged)
  • Pale-winged Trumpeter (White-winged) —> Pale-winged Trumpeter
  • Sandhill Crane (Lesser) —> Sandhill Crane (canadensis)
  • Sandhill Crane (Greater) —> Sandhill Crane (tabida/rowani)
  • Sandhill Crane (Mississippi) —> Sandhill Crane (pulla)
  • Sandhill Crane (Florida) —> Sandhill Crane (pratensis)
  • Sandhill Crane (Cuban) —> Sandhill Crane (nesiotes)
  • Sunda Lapwing —> Javan Lapwing
  • Southern Lapwing (Northern) —> Southern Lapwing (cayennensis)
  • Southern Lapwing (Central South America) —> Southern Lapwing (lampronotus)
  • Southern Lapwing (Southern South America) —> Southern Lapwing (chilensis/fretensis)
  • Snowy Plover (Snowy) —> Snowy Plover (nivosus)
  • Snowy Plover (Humboldt) —> Snowy Plover (occidentalis)
  • Little Ringed Plover (Northern) —> Little Ringed Plover (curonicus)
  • Little Ringed Plover (Southern) —> Little Ringed Plover (dubius/jerdoni)
  • Greater Painted-snipe —> Greater Painted-Snipe
  • Australian Painted-snipe —> Australian Painted-Snipe
  • South American Painted-snipe —> South American Painted-Snipe
  • Solitary Sandpiper (Eastern) —> Solitary Sandpiper (solitaria)
  • Solitary Sandpiper (Western) —> Solitary Sandpiper (cinnamomea)
  • Black-tailed Godwit (Icelandic) —> Black-tailed Godwit (islandica)
  • Black-tailed Godwit (European) —> Black-tailed Godwit (limosa)
  • Black-tailed Godwit (Siberian) —> Black-tailed Godwit (melanuroides)
  • Dunlin (Pacific) —> Dunlin (pacifica/arcticola)
  • Dunlin (Eastern) —> Dunlin (hudsonia)
  • Dunlin (Greenland) —> Dunlin (arctica)
  • Dunlin (Icelandic) —> Dunlin (schinzii)
  • Dunlin (European) —> Dunlin (alpina)
  • Dunlin (Northeast Asian) —> Dunlin (sakhalina Group)
  • Rock Sandpiper (Pribilof Is.) —> Rock Sandpiper (ptilocnemis)
  • Rock Sandpiper (Kuril Is.) —> Rock Sandpiper (quarta)
  • Rock Sandpiper (Bering Strait) —> Rock Sandpiper (tschuktschorum)
  • Rock Sandpiper (Aleutian) —> Rock Sandpiper (couesi)
  • Short-billed Dowitcher (Atlantic) —> Short-billed Dowitcher (griseus)
  • Short-billed Dowitcher (Prairie) —> Short-billed Dowitcher (hendersoni)
  • Short-billed Dowitcher (Pacific) —> Short-billed Dowitcher (caurinus)
  • Dusky Woodcock (Javan) —> Javan Woodcock
  • Dusky Woodcock (New Guinea) —> New Guinea Woodcock
  • Black Guillemot (Arctic) —> Black Guillemot (mandtii)
  • Black Guillemot (Subarctic) —> Black Guillemot (grylle Group)
  • Pigeon Guillemot (Snow’s) —> Pigeon Guillemot (snowi)
  • Pigeon Guillemot (American) —> Pigeon Guillemot (columba Group)
  • Black-legged Kittiwake (Atlantic) —> Black-legged Kittiwake (tridactyla)
  • Black-legged Kittiwake (Pacific) —> Black-legged Kittiwake (pollicaris)
  • Caspian Gull (Mongolian) —> Herring Gull (Mongolian)
  • Yellow-legged Gull (Azorean) —> Yellow-legged Gull (atlantis)
  • Yellow-legged Gull (Mediterranean) —> Yellow-legged Gull (michahellis)
  • Caspian Gull (Caspian) —> Caspian Gull
  • Iceland Gull (Kumlien’s) —> Iceland Gull (kumlieni)
  • Caspian Gull (Steppe) —> Lesser Black-backed Gull (Steppe)
  • Lesser Black-backed Gull (Taimyr) —> Lesser Black-backed Gull (taimyrensis)
  • Kelp Gull (Kelp) —> Kelp Gull (dominicanus)
  • Kelp Gull (Antarctic) —> Kelp Gull (austrinus)
  • Kelp Gull (Indian Ocean) —> Kelp Gull (judithae)
  • Kelp Gull (Cape) —> Kelp Gull (vetula)
  • Kelp Gull (Madagascar) —> Kelp Gull (melisandae)
  • Black Noddy (Caribbean) —> Black Noddy (americanus)
  • Black Noddy (Hawaiian) —> Black Noddy (melanogenys)
  • Black Noddy (Black) —> Black Noddy (minutus Group)
  • Common Tern (Common) —> Common Tern (hirundo)
  • Common Tern (Siberian) —> Common Tern (longipennis)
  • Black Skimmer (Northern) —> Black Skimmer (niger)
  • Ground-Dove/Inca Dove —> ground-dove/Inca Dove
  • Gray-chested Dove (cassini) —> Gray-chested Dove (cassinii)
  • White-eared Dove —> White-eared Brown-Dove
  • Amethyst Dove —> Amethyst Brown-Dove
  • Dark-eared Dove (Mindanao) —> Mindanao Brown-Dove
  • Dark-eared Dove (Tawitawi) —> Tawitawi Brown-Dove
  • Asian Koel (Pacific) —> Pacific Koel
  • Kai Coucal —> Pheasant Coucal (Kai)
  • Pheasant Coucal —> Pheasant Coucal (Pheasant)
  • African Scops-Owl (Annabon) —> African Scops-Owl (Annobon)
  • Otus sp. —> scops-owl sp.
  • Brown Fish-Owl (Western) —> Brown Fish-Owl (Turkish)
  • African Barred-Owlet (Bar-fronted) —> African Barred Owlet (Bar-fronted)
  • Hume’s Owl —> Desert Owl
  • Barred Owl (Mexican) —> Barred Owl (Cinereous)
  • Great Gray Owl (Eurasian) —> Great Gray Owl (Lapland)
  • Jungle Boobook —> Papuan Boobook
  • Papuan Boobook —> Papuan Owl
  • New Caledonian Owlet-Nightjar —> New Caledonian Owlet-nightjar
  • Feline Owlet-Nightjar —> Feline Owlet-nightjar
  • Starry Owlet-Nightjar —> Starry Owlet-nightjar
  • Wallace’s Owlet-Nightjar —> Wallace’s Owlet-nightjar
  • Archbold’s Owlet-Nightjar —> Archbold’s Owlet-nightjar
  • Mountain Owlet-Nightjar —> Mountain Owlet-nightjar
  • Moluccan Owlet-Nightjar —> Moluccan Owlet-nightjar
  • Australian Owlet-Nightjar —> Australian Owlet-nightjar
  • Vogelkop Owlet-Nightjar —> Vogelkop Owlet-nightjar
  • Barred Owlet-Nightjar —> Barred Owlet-nightjar
  • Barred Owlet-Nightjar (Barred) —> Barred Owlet-nightjar (Barred)
  • Barred Owlet-Nightjar (Dwarf) —> Barred Owlet-nightjar (Dwarf)
  • Black Swift (Northern) —> Black Swift (borealis)
  • Black Swift (Central American) —> Black Swift (costaricensis)
  • Black Swift (Caribbean) —> Black Swift (niger)
  • Papuan Needletail —> Papuan Spinetailed Swift
  • Cave Swiftlet (Cave) —> Cave Swiftlet
  • Cave Swiftlet (Bornean) —> Bornean Swiftlet
  • Papuan Swiftlet —> Three-toed Swiftlet
  • Long-billed Hermit (Jalisco) —> Mexican Hermit (Jalisco)
  • Long-billed Hermit (Mexican) —> Mexican Hermit (Mexican)
  • Magnificent Hummingbird (Northern) —> Magnificent Hummingbird (Rivoli’s)
  • Magnificent Hummingbird (Costa Rican) —> Magnificent Hummingbird (Admirable)
  • Plovercrest (Emerald-crested) —> Green-crowned Plovercrest
  • Plovercrest (Violet-crested) —> Violet-crowned Plovercrest
  • Berylline x Magnificent Hummingbird (hybrid) —> Magnificent x Berylline Hummingbird (hybrid)
  • New World trogon sp. —> new world trogon sp.
  • Southern x Damara Red-billed Hornbill (hybrid) —> Southern Red-billed x Damara Red-billed Hornbill (hybrid)
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (Dimorphic) —> Dimorphic Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (Sula) —> Sula Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (North Moluccan) —> North Moluccan Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (Seram) —> Seram Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (Buru) —> Buru Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (New Guinea) —> Papuan Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (Manus) —> Manus Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (New Ireland) —> New Ireland Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (New Britain) —> New Britain Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (Bougainville) —> Bougainville Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (New Georgia) —> New Georgia Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (North Solomons) —> North Solomons Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (Malaita) —> Malaita Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (Guadalcanal) —> Guadalcanal Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Variable Dwarf-Kingfisher (Makira) —> Makira Dwarf-Kingfisher
  • Chestnut-bellied Kingfisher —> Vanuatu Kingfisher
  • Mangaia Kingfisher —> Mewing Kingfisher
  • Tahiti Kingfisher —> Society Kingfisher
  • Collared Kingfisher (Vanuatu) —> Pacific Kingfisher (Vanuatu)
  • Collared Kingfisher (South Pacific) —> Pacific Kingfisher (South Pacific)
  • Collared Kingfisher (Solomon Is.) —> Pacific Kingfisher (Solomon Is.)
  • Sacred Kingfisher (Fiji) —> Pacific Kingfisher (Fiji)
  • Micronesian Kingfisher (Palau) —> Palau Kingfisher
  • Micronesian Kingfisher —> Guam Kingfisher
  • Micronesian Kingfisher (Miyako-Jima I.) —> Guam Kingfisher (Miyako-Jima I.)
  • Micronesian Kingfisher (Guam) —> Guam Kingfisher (Guam)
  • Micronesian Kingfisher (Pohnpei) —> Pohnpei Kingfisher
  • Collared Kingfisher (Sordid) —> Torresian Kingfisher
  • Collared Kingfisher (Marianas Is.) —> Mariana Kingfisher
  • Collared Kingfisher (St. Matthias Is.) —> Melanesian Kingfisher (St. Matthias Is.)
  • Collared Kingfisher (Dampier Straits) —> Melanesian Kingfisher (Dampier Straits)
  • Collared Kingfisher (New Ireland) —> Melanesian Kingfisher (New Ireland)
  • Collared Kingfisher (New Britain) —> Melanesian Kingfisher (New Britain)
  • Collared Kingfisher (Bougainville-Guadalcanal) —> Melanesian Kingfisher (Bougainville-Guadalcanal)
  • Black-mandibled Toucan —> Yellow-throated Toucan
  • Black-mandibled Toucan (Chestnut-mandibled) —> Yellow-throated Toucan (Chestnut-mandibled)
  • Black-mandibled Toucan (Black-mandibled) —> Yellow-throated Toucan (Black-mandibled)
  • Eurasian Kestrel (Rock) —> Rock Kestrel
  • Red-fronted Parakeet —> Red-crowned Parakeet
  • Yellow-fronted Parakeet —> Yellow-crowned Parakeet
  • Bluebonnet —> Greater Bluebonnet
  • Bluebonnet (Yellow-vented) —> Greater Bluebonnet (Yellow-vented)
  • Bluebonnet (Red-vented) —> Greater Bluebonnet (Red-vented)
  • Bluebonnet (Naretha) —> Naretha Bluebonnet
  • Black-crowned Pitta —> Graceful Pitta
  • Black-headed Pitta —> Black-crowned Pitta
  • Blackish Antbird (Blackish) —> Blackish Antbird
  • Blackish Antbird (Riparian) —> Riparian Antbird
  • Chestnut-belted Gnateater (Snethage’s) —> Chestnut-belted Gnateater (Snethlage’s)
  • Rusty-breasted Antpitta (Pululahua) —> Rusty-breasted Antpitta (rara)
  • Rusty-breasted Antpitta (Tumbes) —> Rusty-breasted Antpitta (Leimebamba)
  • Serra Tapaculo (undescribed form) —> Boa Nova Tapaculo
  • Lineated Woodcreeper (Duida) —> Duida Woodcreeper
  • Lineated Woodcreeper (Lineated) —> Guianan Woodcreeper
  • Lineated Woodcreeper (Rondonia) —> Rondonia Woodcreeper
  • Lineated Woodcreeper (Layard’s) —> Layard’s Woodcreeper
  • Rusty-backed Spinetail (Rusty-backed) —> Rusty-backed Spinetail
  • Rusty-backed Spinetail (Coiba) —> Coiba Spinetail
  • Ochre-bellied/Macconnell’s Flycatcher —> Ochre-bellied/McConnell’s Flycatcher
  • Golden-faced Tyrannulet (Amazonas) (undescribed form) —> Peruvian Tyrannulet (Amazonas) (undescribed form)
  • Sucunduri Flycatcher —> Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Sucunduri)
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (Vermilion) —> Vermilion Flycatcher (obscurus Group)
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (Southern) —> Vermilion Flycatcher (rubinus)
  • Jelksi’s/Plumbeous Black-Tyrant —> Jelski’s/Plumbeous Black-Tyrant
  • Nutting’s Flycatcher (West Mexican) —> Nutting’s Flycatcher (Nutting’s)
  • Nutting’s Flycatcher (Southern) —> Nutting’s Flycatcher (flavidior)
  • flycatcher sp. —> flycatcher sp. (Tyrannidae sp.)
  • Green-and-black Fruiteater (tallmanorum) —> Green-and-black Fruiteater (Sira)
  • Red-throated Myzomela —> Ruby-throated Myzomela
  • Black Myzomela —> Papuan Black Myzomela
  • Mountain Myzomela —> Elfin Myzomela
  • Scarlet-bibbed Myzomela —> Sclater’s Myzomela
  • Ebony Myzomela —> Bismarck Black Myzomela
  • New Hebrides Honeyeater —> Vanuatu Honeyeater
  • Olive-streaked Honeyeater —> Yellow-streaked Honeyeater
  • Black-backed Honeyeater —> Gray-streaked Honeyeater
  • White-naped Honeyeater (Western) —> Gilbert’s Honeyeater
  • White-naped Honeyeater (Eastern) —> White-naped Honeyeater
  • Makira Melidectes —> Makira Honeyeater
  • Mountain Gerygone —> Gray Thornbill
  • New Guinea Babbler —> Papuan Babbler
  • Northern Logrunner —> Papuan Logrunner
  • Lemon-breasted Berrypecker —> Mid-mountain Berrypecker
  • Kokako (North Island) —> North Island Kokako
  • Kokako (South Island) —> South Island Kokako
  • Saddleback (North Island) —> North Island Saddleback
  • Saddleback (South Island) —> South Island Saddleback
  • Nullarbor Quail-Thrush —> Nullarbor Quail-thrush
  • Fernando Po Batis —> Bioko Batis
  • Fuelleborn’s Boubou (Usumbara) —> Fuelleborn’s Boubou (Usambara)
  • Australasian Magpie —> Australian Magpie
  • Australasian Magpie (Papuan) —> Australian Magpie (Papuan)
  • Australasian Magpie (Black-backed) —> Australian Magpie (Black-backed)
  • Australasian Magpie (Western) —> Australian Magpie (Western)
  • Australasian Magpie (Black-backed x Western) —> Australian Magpie (Black-backed x Western)
  • Australasian Magpie (White-backed) —> Australian Magpie (White-backed)
  • Australasian Magpie (Black-backed x White-backed) —> Australian Magpie (Black-backed x White-backed)
  • Australasian Magpie (Tasmanian) —> Australian Magpie (Tasmanian)
  • Rufous Shrike-Thrush —> Little Shrikethrush
  • Rufous Shrike-Thrush (Rufous) —> Little Shrikethrush (Rufous)
  • Rufous Shrike-Thrush (Little) —> Little Shrikethrush (Little)
  • Sooty Shrike-Thrush —> Sooty Shrikethrush
  • Sandstone Shrike-Thrush —> Sandstone Shrikethrush
  • Gray Shrike-Thrush —> Gray Shrikethrush
  • Bower’s Shrike-Thrush —> Bower’s Shrikethrush
  • Mottled Whistler —> Mottled Berryhunter
  • Crested Pitohui —> Piping Bellbird
  • Tepui Greenlet —> Tepui Vireo
  • Oriolus sp. —> old world oriole sp.
  • Velvet-mantled Drongo (Príncipe) –> Velvet-mantled Drongo (Principe)
  • Japanese/Asian Paradise-Flycatcher —> Japanese/Amur Paradise-Flycatcher
  • Asian Paradise-Flycatcher —> Indian Paradise-Flycatcher
  • Black Monarch —> Fantailed Monarch
  • Black-backed Monarch —> Kofiau Monarch
  • Rufous-collared Monarch —> Ochre-collared Monarch
  • Campina Jay —> Azure-naped Jay (Campina)
  • Canary Flycatcher —> Papuan Flycatcher
  • Alpine Robin —> Subalpine Robin
  • Purple Martin (Northern) —> Purple Martin (subis/arboricola)
  • Purple Martin (Desert) —> Purple Martin (hesperia)
  • Cliff Swallow (Northern) —> Cliff Swallow (pyrrhonota/ganieri)
  • Cliff Swallow (Southwestern) —> Cliff Swallow (melanogaster)
  • White-winged Tit —> White-naped Tit
  • Brown Creeper (Pacific) —> Brown Creeper (occidentalis Group)
  • Brown Creeper (Rocky Mts) —> Brown Creeper (montana/idahoensis)
  • Brown Creeper (Eastern) —> Brown Creeper (americana/nigrescens)
  • Brown Creeper (Mexican) —> Brown Creeper (albescens/alticola)
  • Brown Creeper (Guatemalan) —> Brown Creeper (pernigra)
  • Brown Creeper (Honduran) —> Brown Creeper (extima)
  • Pacific Wren (Alaskan islands) —> Pacific Wren (alascensis Group)
  • Pacific Wren (Southern) —> Pacific Wren (pacificus Group)
  • Sedge Wren (Northern) —> Sedge Wren (Sedge)
  • Sedge Wren (Middle America) —> Sedge Wren (Grass)
  • Marsh Wren (Pacific) —> Marsh Wren (paludicola Group)
  • Marsh Wren (Interior West) —> Marsh Wren (plesius Group)
  • Marsh Wren (Eastern) —> Marsh Wren (palustris Group)
  • Marsh Wren (Worthington’s) —> Marsh Wren (griseus)
  • Marsh Wren (Central Mexico) —> Marsh Wren (tolucensis)
  • Bewick’s Wren (Eastern) —> Bewick’s Wren (bewickii/altus)
  • Bewick’s Wren (Interior West) —> Bewick’s Wren (eremophilus Group)
  • Bewick’s Wren (Pacific) —> Bewick’s Wren (spilurus Group)
  • Cactus Wren (Eastern) —> Cactus Wren (brunneicapillus Group)
  • Cactus Wren (Western) —> Cactus Wren (affinis Group)
  • Long-billed Gnatwren (obscurus) —> Long-billed Gnatwren (Chattering)
  • Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Eastern) —> Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (caerulea)
  • Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Western) —> Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (obscura Group)
  • Inambari Gnatcatcher —> Guianan Gnatcatcher (Inambari)
  • Laura’s Wood-Warbler —> Laura’s Woodland-Warbler
  • Yellow-throated Wood-Warbler —> Yellow-throated Woodland-Warbler
  • Uganda Wood-Warbler —> Uganda Woodland-Warbler
  • Mountain Warbler (Negros) —> Mountain Warbler (Philippines)
  • Sulawesi Leaf-Warbler —> Sulawesi Leaf Warbler
  • Timor Leaf-Warbler —> Timor Leaf Warbler
  • Island Leaf-Warbler —> Island Leaf Warbler
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Halmahera) —> Island Leaf Warbler (Halmahera)
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Bacan) —> Island Leaf Warbler (Bacan)
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Buru) —> Island Leaf Warbler (Buru)
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Seram) —> Island Leaf Warbler (Seram)
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Taliabu) (undescribed form) —> Island Leaf Warbler (Taliabu) (undescribed form)
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Banggai) (undescribed form) —> Island Leaf Warbler (Banggai) (undescribed form)
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Kai) —> Island Leaf Warbler (Kai)
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Numfor) —> Island Leaf Warbler (Numfor)
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (Biak) —> Island Leaf Warbler (Biak)
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (New Guinea) —> Island Leaf Warbler (New Guinea)
  • Island Leaf-Warbler (South Pacific) —> Island Leaf Warbler (South Pacific)
  • Philippine Leaf-Warbler —> Philippine Leaf Warbler
  • Makira Leaf-Warbler —> Makira Leaf Warbler
  • Kulambangra Leaf-Warbler —> Kulambangra Leaf Warbler
  • Black-necked Cisticola —> Black-backed Cisticola
  • Black-necked Cisticola (Ghana/Pale) —> Black-backed Cisticola (winneba)
  • Black-necked Cisticola (Black-necked) —> Black-backed Cisticola (Black-backed)
  • Blackcap —> Eurasian Blackcap
  • Red Sea Warbler —> Arabian Warbler
  • Subalpine Warbler (moltonii) —> Moltoni’s Warbler
  • Fernando Po Speirops —> Bioko Speirops
  • White-throated White-eye —> Tagula White-eye
  • Gray White-eye —> Gray-brown White-eye
  • Black-chinned Laughingthrush (Nilgiri) —> Black-chinned Laughingthrush (Banasura)
  • Black-chinned Laughingthrush (Brahmagiri) —> Black-chinned Laughingthrush (Nilgiri)
  • Kerala Laughingthrush (Central Kerala) —> Kerala Laughingthrush (Palani)
  • Kerala Laughingthrush (South Kerala) —> Kerala Laughingthrush (Travancore)
  • Sulawesi Brown Flycatcher (undescribed form) —> Sulawesi Streaked Flycatcher
  • Scaly Thrush (White’s) —> White’s Thrush
  • Scaly Thrush —> White’s/Scaly Thrush
  • Scaly Thrush (Nilgiri) —> Nilgiri Thrush
  • Scaly Thrush (Sri Lanka) —> Sri Lanka Thrush
  • Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush (Orange-billed) —> Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush (Brown-headed)
  • Hermit Thrush (Western lowlands) —> Hermit Thrush (guttatus Group)
  • Hermit Thrush (Western mountains) —> Hermit Thrush (auduboni Group)
  • Hermit Thrush (Northern/Eastern) —> Hermit Thrush (faxoni/crymophilus)
  • Island Thrush (Keller’s) —> Island Thrush (Apo)
  • Island Thrush (Celeb) —> Island Thrush (Lompobattang)
  • Island Thrush (Australasian) —> Island Thrush (North Melanesian)
  • Island Thrush (Layard’s) —> Island Thrush (Viti Levu)
  • Island Thrush (Viti) —> Island Thrush (Vanua Levu)
  • Island Thrush (Tempest) —> Island Thrush (Taveuni)
  • American Robin (Newfoundland) —> American Robin (nigrideus)
  • American Robin (Eastern) —> American Robin (migratorius Group)
  • Red-legged Thrush (Western) —> Red-legged Thrush (plumbeus/schistaceus)
  • Red-legged Thrush (West Cuban) —> Red-legged Thrush (rubripes/coryi)
  • Red-legged Thrush (Eastern) —> Red-legged Thrush (ardosiaceus/albiventris)
  • Curve-billed Thrasher (Eastern) —> Curve-billed Thrasher (curvirostre Group)
  • Curve-billed Thrasher (Western) —> Curve-billed Thrasher (palmeri Group)
  • Jungle/Common Myna —> Common/Jungle Myna
  • Black-bellied Glossy-Starling —> Black-bellied Starling
  • Purple-headed Glossy-Starling —> Purple-headed Starling
  • Copper-tailed Glossy-Starling —> Copper-tailed Starling
  • Burchell’s Glossy-Starling —> Burchell’s Starling
  • Rueppell’s Glossy-Starling —> Rueppell’s Starling
  • Long-tailed Glossy-Starling —> Long-tailed Glossy Starling
  • Meves’s Glossy-Starling —> Meves’s Starling
  • Meves’s Glossy-Starling (Meves’s) —> Meves’s Starling (Meves’s)
  • Meves’s Glossy-Starling (Benguela) —> Meves’s Starling (Benguela)
  • Splendid Glossy-Starling —> Splendid Starling
  • Principe Glossy-Starling —> Principe Starling
  • Lesser Blue-eared Glossy-Starling —> Lesser Blue-eared Starling
  • Lesser Blue-eared Glossy-Starling (Lesser) —> Lesser Blue-eared Starling (Lesser)
  • Lesser Blue-eared Glossy-Starling (Miombo) —> Lesser Blue-eared Starling (Miombo)
  • Sharp-tailed Glossy-Starling —> Sharp-tailed Starling
  • Greater Blue-eared Glossy-Starling —> Greater Blue-eared Starling
  • Purple Glossy-Starling —> Purple Starling
  • Cape Glossy-Starling —> Cape Starling
  • Bronze-tailed Glossy-Starling —> Bronze-tailed Starling
  • glossy-starling sp. —> Lamprotornis sp.
  • Rufous-throated White-eye —> Madanga
  • Oriental Pipit —> Paddyfield Pipit
  • American Pipit (Siberian) —> American Pipit (japonicus)
  • American Pipit (American) —> American Pipit (rubescens/pacificus)
  • American Pipit (Western montane) —> American Pipit (alticola)
  • Blue-winged x Golden-winged Warbler (hybrid) —> Golden-winged x Blue-winged Warbler (hybrid)
  • Blue-winged/Golden-winged Warbler —> Golden-winged/Blue-winged Warbler
  • Nashville Warbler (Eastern) —> Nashville Warbler (ruficapilla)
  • Nashville Warbler (Western) —> Nashville Warbler (ridgwayi)
  • Common Yellowthroat (Pacific) —> Common Yellowthroat (arizela Group)
  • Common Yellowthroat (Western) —> Common Yellowthroat (occidentalis Group)
  • Common Yellowthroat (Eastern) —> Common Yellowthroat (trichas Group)
  • Common Yellowthroat (Brownsville) —> Common Yellowthroat (insperata)
  • Common Yellowthroat (Chapala) —> Common Yellowthroat (chapalensis)
  • Masked Yellowthroat (Chiriquí) —> Masked Yellowthroat (Chiriqui)
  • Yellow-throated Warbler (White-lored) —> Yellow-throated Warbler (albilora)
  • Yellow-throated Warbler (Yellow-lored) —> Yellow-throated Warbler (dominica/stoddardi)
  • Rufous-capped Warbler (North Mexico) —> Rufous-capped Warbler (rufifrons Group)
  • Rufous-capped Warbler (South Mexico) —> Rufous-capped Warbler (salvini)
  • Wilson’s Warbler (Mountain West) —> Wilson’s Warbler (pileolata)
  • Wilson’s Warbler (Eastern) —> Wilson’s Warbler (pusilla)
  • Wilson’s Warbler (Pacific Coast) —> Wilson’s Warbler (chryseola)
  • Yellow-breasted Chat (Eastern) —> Yellow-breasted Chat (virens)
  • Yellow-breasted Chat (Western) —> Yellow-breasted Chat (auricollis)
  • warbler sp. —> warbler sp. (Parulidae sp.)
  • tanager sp. —> tanager sp. (Thraupidae sp.)
  • Western Spindalis (Southern Bahamas) —> Western Spindalis (Bahamas Black-backed)
  • Western Spindalis (Northern Bahamas) —> Western Spindalis (Bahamas Green-backed)
  • Brewer’s x Black-chinned Sparrow (hybrid) —> Black-chinned x Brewer’s Sparrow (hybrid)
  • Spizella sp. —> American Tree Sparrow/Spizella sp.
  • Costa Rican Brush-Finch —> Costa Rican Brushfinch
  • Sierra Nevada Brush-Finch —> Sierra Nevada Brushfinch
  • Perija Brush-Finch —> Perija Brushfinch
  • Black-headed Brush-Finch —> Black-headed Brushfinch
  • Caracas Brush-Finch —> Caracas Brushfinch
  • Paria Brush-Finch —> Paria Brushfinch
  • Gray-browed Brush-Finch —> Gray-browed Brushfinch
  • White-browed Brush-Finch —> White-browed Brushfinch
  • stripe-headed brush-finch sp. —> stripe-headed brushfinch sp.
  • Green-striped Brush-Finch —> Green-striped Brushfinch
  • Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch —> Chestnut-capped Brushfinch
  • Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch (Plain-breasted) —> Chestnut-capped Brushfinch (Plain-breasted)
  • Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch (Chestnut-capped) —> Chestnut-capped Brushfinch (Chestnut-capped)
  • Dark-eyed Junco (Cassiar) —> Dark-eyed Junco (cismontanus)
  • White-crowned Sparrow (Eastern) —> White-crowned Sparrow (leucophrys)
  • White-crowned Sparrow (Mountain) —> White-crowned Sparrow (oriantha)
  • White-crowned Sparrow (Nuttall’s) —> White-crowned Sparrow (nuttalli)
  • White-crowned Sparrow (Puget Sound) —> White-crowned Sparrow (pugetensis)
  • White-throated x White-crowned Sparrow (hybrid) —> White-crowned x White-throated Sparrow (hybrid)
  • White-throated/White-crowned Sparrow —> White-crowned/White-throated Sparrow
  • White-throated x Golden-crowned Sparrow (hybrid) —> Golden-crowned x White-throated Sparrow (hybrid)
  • White-throated Sparrow x Dark-eyed Junco (hybrid) —> Dark-eyed Junco x White-throated Sparrow (hybrid)
  • Bell’s Sparrow (Bell’s) —> Bell’s Sparrow (belli)
  • Bell’s Sparrow (Mojave) —> Bell’s Sparrow (canescens)
  • Bell’s Sparrow (San Clemente) —> Bell’s Sparrow (clementeae)
  • Bell’s Sparrow (Gray) —> Bell’s Sparrow (cinerea)
  • Bell’s/Sagebrush Sparrow (Sage Sparrow) —> Sagebrush/Bell’s Sparrow (Sage Sparrow)
  • Song Sparrow (Eastern) —> Song Sparrow (melodia/atlantica)
  • Song Sparrow (Aleutian) —> Song Sparrow (sanaka/maxima)
  • Song Sparrow (Pacific Northwest) —> Song Sparrow (rufina Group)
  • Song Sparrow (Interior West) —> Song Sparrow (montana/merrilli)
  • Song Sparrow (California) —> Song Sparrow (heermanni Group)
  • Song Sparrow (San Pablo Saltmarsh) —> Song Sparrow (samuelis)
  • Song Sparrow (South San Francisco Bay Saltmarsh) —> Song Sparrow (pusillula)
  • Song Sparrow (Southwest) —> Song Sparrow (fallax Group)
  • Song Sparrow (Mexican) —> Song Sparrow (mexicana Group)
  • Spotted Towhee (Pacific) —> Spotted Towhee (oregonus Group)
  • Spotted Towhee (Great Plains) —> Spotted Towhee (arcticus)
  • Spotted Towhee (Rocky Mts.) —> Spotted Towhee (maculatus Group)
  • Collared x Spotted Towhee (hybrid) —> Spotted x Collared Towhee (hybrid)
  • Rufous-capped Brush-Finch —> Rufous-capped Brushfinch
  • White-naped Brush-Finch —> White-naped Brushfinch
  • White-naped Brush-Finch (White-naped) —> White-naped Brushfinch (White-naped)
  • White-naped Brush-Finch (Yellow-throated) —> White-naped Brushfinch (Yellow-throated)
  • Moustached Brush-Finch —> Moustached Brushfinch
  • Tepui Brush-Finch —> Tepui Brushfinch
  • Santa Marta Brush-Finch —> Santa Marta Brushfinch
  • Ochre-breasted Brush-Finch —> Ochre-breasted Brushfinch
  • Yellow-headed Brush-Finch —> Yellow-headed Brushfinch
  • Dusky-headed Brush-Finch —> Dusky-headed Brushfinch
  • White-rimmed Brush-Finch —> White-rimmed Brushfinch
  • White-headed Brush-Finch —> White-headed Brushfinch
  • Rufous-eared Brush-Finch —> Rufous-eared Brushfinch
  • Tricolored Brush-Finch —> Tricolored Brushfinch
  • Tricolored Brush-Finch (Choco) —> Tricolored Brushfinch (Choco)
  • Tricolored Brush-Finch (Tricolored) —> Tricolored Brushfinch (Tricolored)
  • Slaty Brush-Finch —> Slaty Brushfinch
  • Pale-naped Brush-Finch —> Pale-naped Brushfinch
  • Antioquia Brush-Finch —> Antioquia Brushfinch
  • Yellow-breasted Brush-Finch —> Yellow-breasted Brushfinch
  • White-winged Brush-Finch —> White-winged Brushfinch
  • White-winged Brush-Finch (White-winged) —> White-winged Brushfinch (White-winged)
  • White-winged Brush-Finch (Paynter’s) —> White-winged Brushfinch (Paynter’s)
  • Pale-headed Brush-Finch —> Pale-headed Brushfinch
  • Bay-crowned Brush-Finch —> Bay-crowned Brushfinch
  • Rusty-bellied Brush-Finch —> Rusty-bellied Brushfinch
  • Apurimac Brush-Finch —> Apurimac Brushfinch
  • Black-spectacled Brush-Finch —> Black-spectacled Brushfinch
  • Vilcabamba Brush-Finch —> Vilcabamba Brushfinch
  • Cuzco Brush-Finch —> Cuzco Brushfinch
  • Black-faced Brush-Finch —> Black-faced Brushfinch
  • Bolivian Brush-Finch —> Bolivian Brushfinch
  • Fulvous-headed Brush-Finch —> Fulvous-headed Brushfinch
  • Yellow-striped Brush-Finch —> Yellow-striped Brushfinch
  • brush-finch sp. —> Atlapetes sp.
  • Cinereous Bunting (Western) —> Cinereous Bunting (Gray-bellied)
  • Cinereous Bunting (Eastern) —> Cinereous Bunting (Yellow-bellied)
  • Piranga sp. —> tanager sp. (Piranga sp.)
  • bunting sp. —> Passerina sp.
  • Red-breasted Blackbird —> Red-breasted Meadowlark
  • White-browed Blackbird —> White-browed Meadowlark
  • Boat-tailed Grackle (Texas) —> Boat-tailed Grackle (major)
  • Boat-tailed Grackle (Yellow-eyed) —> Boat-tailed Grackle (torreyi/alabamensis)
  • Boat-tailed Grackle (Florida) —> Boat-tailed Grackle (westoni)
  • Bay-winged Cowbird (Bay-winged) —> Grayish Baywing
  • Bay-winged Cowbird (Pale) —> Pale Baywing
  • Bay-winged Cowbird —> Grayish/Pale Baywing
  • Hooded Oriole (Eastern) —> Hooded Oriole (cucullatus/sennetti)
  • Hooded Oriole (Western) —> Hooded Oriole (nelsoni Group)
  • Hooded Oriole (Yucatan) —> Hooded Oriole (igneus)
  • oriole sp. —> new world oriole sp.
  • Band-tailed Oropendola —> Band-tailed Cacique
  • Casqued Oropendola —> Casqued Cacique
  • Apapane (Laysan Island) —> Laysan Honeycreeper
  • Nukupuu (Kauai) —> Kauai Nukupuu
  • Nukupuu (Hawaii) —> Oahu Nukupuu
  • Nukupuu (Maui) —> Maui Nukupuu
  • Greater Akialoa (Oahu) —> Oahu Akialoa
  • Greater Akialoa (Kauai) —> Kauai Akialoa
  • Greater Akialoa (Lanai) —> Maui-nui Akialoa
  • Akepa (Hawaii) —> Hawaii Akepa
  • Akepa (Oahu) —> Oahu Akepa
  • Akepa (Maui) —> Maui Akepa
  • Carpodacus sp. —> rosefinch sp.
  • White-winged Crossbill (Eurasian) —> White-winged Crossbill (bifasciata)
  • White-winged Crossbill (American) —> White-winged Crossbill (leucoptera)
  • Abd’ Al Kuri Sparrow —> Abd al Kuri Sparrow
  • Fernando Po Oliveback —> Shelley’s Oliveback

SCIENTIFIC NAME CHANGES

See the Clements Checklist updates (to be posted soon here) for full discussion of the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia that is split into unique species on each continent; the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash.

  • Common Ostrich: Struthio camelus [camelus Group] —> Struthio camelus
  • Somali Ostrich: Struthio camelus molybdophanes —> Struthio molybdophanes
  • Orinoco Goose: Neochen jubata —> Oressochen jubatus
  • Andean Goose: Chloephaga melanoptera —> Oressochen melanopterus
  • Yellow-billed Pintail (South American): Anas georgica spinicauda/nicefori —> Anas georgica spinicauda/niceforoi
  • Moluccan Scrubfowl: Megapodius wallacei —> Eulipoa wallacei
  • Helmeted Guineafowl (Helmeted): Numida meleagris [meleagris Group] —> Numida meleagris meleagris/somaliensis
  • Crested Guineafowl (Western): Guttera pucherani [edouardi Group] —> Guttera pucherani verreauxi/sclateri
  • Northern Bobwhite (Masked): Colinus virginianus [coyolcos Group] —> Colinus virginianus [coyoleos Group]
  • Hainan Peacock-Pheasant: Polyplectron bicalcaratum katsumatae —> Polyplectron katsumatae
  • Gray Peacock-Pheasant: Polyplectron bicalcaratum [bicalcaratum Group] —> Polyplectron bicalcaratum
  • Brown Quail: Coturnix ypsilophora —> Synoicus ypsilophorus
  • Blue-breasted Quail: Coturnix chinensis —> Synoicus chinensis
  • Blue Quail: Coturnix adansonii —> Synoicus adansonii
  • old world quail sp.: Coturnix sp. —> Synoicus/Coturnix sp.
  • Hartlaub’s Francolin: Francolinus hartlaubi —> Pternistis hartlaubi
  • Handsome Francolin: Francolinus nobilis —> Pternistis nobilis
  • Cameroon Francolin: Francolinus camerunensis —> Pternistis camerunensis
  • Chestnut-naped Francolin: Francolinus castaneicollis —> Pternistis castaneicollis
  • Chestnut-naped Francolin (Chestnut-naped): Francolinus castaneicollis castaneicollis —> Pternistis castaneicollis castaneicollis
  • Chestnut-naped Francolin (Black-fronted): Francolinus castaneicollis atrifrons —> Pternistis castaneicollis atrifrons
  • Erckel’s Francolin: Francolinus erckelii —> Pternistis erckelii
  • Djibouti Francolin: Francolinus ochropectus —> Pternistis ochropectus
  • Double-spurred Francolin: Francolinus bicalcaratus —> Pternistis bicalcaratus
  • Heuglin’s Francolin: Francolinus icterorhynchus —> Pternistis icterorhynchus
  • Ahanta Francolin: Francolinus ahantensis —> Pternistis ahantensis
  • Gray-striped Francolin: Francolinus griseostriatus —> Pternistis griseostriatus
  • Scaly Francolin: Francolinus squamatus —> Pternistis squamatus
  • Red-billed Francolin: Francolinus adspersus —> Pternistis adspersus
  • Cape Francolin: Francolinus capensis —> Pternistis capensis
  • Natal Francolin: Francolinus natalensis —> Pternistis natalensis
  • Hildebrandt’s Francolin: Francolinus hildebrandti —> Pternistis hildebrandti
  • Jackson’s Francolin: Francolinus jacksoni —> Pternistis jacksoni
  • Swierstra’s Francolin: Francolinus swierstrai —> Pternistis swierstrai
  • Clapperton’s Francolin: Francolinus clappertoni —> Pternistis clappertoni
  • Harwood’s Francolin: Francolinus harwoodi —> Pternistis harwoodi
  • Swainson’s Francolin: Francolinus swainsonii —> Pternistis swainsonii
  • Yellow-necked Francolin: Francolinus leucoscepus —> Pternistis leucoscepus
  • Gray-breasted Francolin: Francolinus rufopictus —> Pternistis rufopictus
  • Red-necked Francolin: Francolinus afer —> Pternistis afer
  • Red-necked Francolin (Cranch’s): Francolinus afer cranchii/harterti —> Pternistis afer cranchii/harterti
  • Red-necked Francolin (Northern): Francolinus afer [leucoparaeus Group] —> Pternistis afer [leucoparaeus Group]
  • Red-necked Francolin (Benguela): Francolinus afer afer —> Pternistis afer afer
  • Red-necked Francolin (Southern): Francolinus afer castaneiventer —> Pternistis afer castaneiventer
  • Coqui Francolin: Francolinus coqui —> Peliperdix coqui
  • Coqui Francolin (Plain-breasted): Francolinus coqui [hubbardi Group] —> Peliperdix coqui [hubbardi Group]
  • Coqui Francolin (Bar-breasted): Francolinus coqui coqui —> Peliperdix coqui coqui
  • White-throated Francolin: Francolinus albogularis —> Peliperdix albogularis
  • White-throated Francolin (White-throated): Francolinus albogularis [albogularis Group] —> Peliperdix albogularis albogularis/buckleyi
  • White-throated Francolin (Chestnut-breasted): Francolinus albogularis dewittei —> Peliperdix albogularis dewittei
  • Schlegel’s Francolin: Francolinus schlegelii —> Peliperdix schlegelii
  • Latham’s Francolin: Francolinus lathami —> Peliperdix lathami
  • Red-winged Francolin: Francolinus levaillantii —> Scleroptila levaillantii
  • Ring-necked Francolin: Francolinus streptophorus —> Scleroptila streptophora
  • Finsch’s Francolin: Francolinus finschi —> Scleroptila finschi
  • Orange River Francolin: Francolinus levaillantoides —> Scleroptila gutturalis
  • Orange River Francolin (Archer’s): Francolinus levaillantoides gutturalis/lorti —> Scleroptila gutturalis gutturalis/lorti
  • Orange River Francolin (Kalahari): Francolinus levaillantoides jugularis —> Scleroptila gutturalis jugularis
  • Orange River Francolin (Orange River): Francolinus levaillantoides levaillantoides —> Scleroptila gutturalis levalliantoides
  • Gray-winged Francolin: Francolinus africanus —> Scleroptila afra
  • Moorland Francolin: Francolinus psilolaemus —> Scleroptila psilolaema
  • Shelley’s Francolin: Francolinus shelleyi —> Scleroptila shelleyi
  • francolin sp.: Francolinus sp. —> Pternistis/Francolinus/Peliperdix/Scleroptila sp.
  • Lesser Flamingo: Phoenicopterus minor —> Phoeniconaias minor
  • Snow Petrel (Greater): Pagodroma nivea confusa —> Pagodroma nivea major
  • Pink-footed Shearwater: Puffinus creatopus —> Ardenna creatopus
  • Flesh-footed Shearwater: Puffinus carneipes —> Ardenna carneipes
  • Great Shearwater: Puffinus gravis —> Ardenna gravis
  • Cory’s/Great Shearwater: Calonectris diomedea/Puffinus gravis —> Calonectris diomedea/Ardenna gravis
  • Wedge-tailed Shearwater: Puffinus pacificus —> Ardenna pacifica
  • Buller’s Shearwater: Puffinus bulleri —> Ardenna bulleri
  • Sooty Shearwater: Puffinus griseus —> Ardenna grisea
  • Short-tailed Shearwater: Puffinus tenuirostris —> Ardenna tenuirostris
  • Sooty/Short-tailed Shearwater: Puffinus griseus/tenuirostris —> Ardenna grisea/tenuirostris
  • Galapagos Shearwater (Dark-winged): Puffinus subalaris [dark-winged] —> Puffinus subalaris (dark-winged)
  • Galapagos Shearwater (Light-winged): Puffinus subalaris [light-winged] —> Puffinus subalaris (light-winged)
  • Townsend’s Shearwater: Puffinus auricularis auricularis —> Puffinus auricularis
  • Newell’s Shearwater: Puffinus auricularis newelli —> Puffinus newelli
  • Townsend’s/Newell’s Shearwater: Puffinus auricularis —> Puffinus auricularis/newelli
  • Rapa Shearwater: Puffinus auricularis myrtae —> Puffinus myrtae
  • shearwater sp.: Calonectris/Puffinus sp. —> Procellariidae sp. (shearwater sp.)
  • Pygmy Cormorant: Phalacrocorax pygmaeus —> Phalacrocorax pygmeus
  • Gray Heron (Gray): Ardea cinerea [cinerea Group] —> Ardea cinerea cinerea/jouyi
  • Great Egret (African): Ardea alba melanorhyncha —> Ardea alba melanorhynchos
  • Olive Ibis: Bostrychia olivacea [olivacea Group] —> Bostrychia olivacea
  • Sao Tome Ibis: Bostrychia olivacea bocagei —> Bostrychia bocagei
  • Sharp-shinned Hawk (White-breasted): Accipiter striatus chionogaster/madrensis —> Accipiter striatus chionogaster
  • Himalayan Buzzard: Buteo buteo burmanicus —> Buteo refectus
  • Eastern Buzzard: Buteo buteo [japonicus group] —> Buteo japonicus
  • Mountain Buzzard: Buteo oreophilus oreophilus —> Buteo oreophilus
  • Forest Buzzard: Buteo oreophilus trizonatus —> Buteo trizonatus
  • Elgin Buzzard (undescribed form): Buteo oreophilus (Elgin Buzzard) —> Buteo [undescribed form]
  • Aztec/King Rail: Rallus elegans/longirostris —> Rallus tenuirostris/elegans
  • Spot-flanked Gallinule: Gallinula melanops —> Porphyriops melanops
  • Ash-throated Crake: Porzana albicollis —> Mustelirallus albicollis
  • Colombian Crake: Neocrex colombiana —> Mustelirallus colombianus
  • Paint-billed Crake: Neocrex erythrops —> Mustelirallus erythrops
  • rail/crake sp.: Rallidae sp. —> Rallidae sp. (rail/crake sp.)
  • Western Swamphen: Porphyrio porphyrio porphyrio —> Porphyrio porphyrio
  • Black-backed Swamphen: Porphyrio porphyrio indicus/viridis —> Porphyrio indicus
  • African Swamphen: Porphyrio porphyrio madagascariensis —> Porphyrio madagascariensis
  • South Island Takahe: Porphyrio mantelli hochstetteri —> Porphyrio hochstetteri
  • North Island Takahe: Porphyrio mantelli mantelli —> Porphyrio mantelli
  • Australasian Swamphen: Porphyrio porphyrio [melanotus Group] —> Porphyrio melanotus
  • Philippine Swamphen: Porphyrio porphyrio pulverulentus —> Porphyrio pulverulentus
  • Gray-headed Swamphen: Porphyrio porphyrio [poliocephalus Group] —> Porphyrio poliocephalus
  • swamphen sp.: Porphyrio porphyrio —> Porphyrio sp. (swamphen sp.)
  • gallinule/moorhen/coot sp.: Gallinula/Fulica sp. —> Porphyrio/Gallinula/Fulica sp.
  • Gray-winged Trumpeter (Ochre-winged): Psophia leucoptera ochroptera —> Psophia crepitans ochroptera
  • Pale-winged Trumpeter: Psophia leucoptera leucoptera —> Psophia leucoptera
  • Javan Woodcock: Scolopax saturata saturata —> Scolopax saturata
  • New Guinea Woodcock: Scolopax saturata rosenbergii —> Scolopax rosenbergii
  • Herring Gull (Mongolian): Larus cachinnans mongolicus —> Larus argentatus mongolicus
  • Caspian Gull: Larus cachinnans cachinnans —> Larus cachinnans
  • Lesser Black-backed Gull (Steppe): Larus cachinnans barabensis —> Larus fuscus barabensis
  • Emerald Dove (Pacific): Chalcophaps indica [chrysochlora Group] —> Chalcophaps indica [longirostris Group]
  • Mindanao Brown-Dove: Phapitreron cinereiceps brunneiceps —> Phapitreron brunneiceps
  • Tawitawi Brown-Dove: Phapitreron cinereiceps cinereiceps —> Phapitreron cinereiceps
  • Moluccan Cuckoo: Cacomantis heinrichi —> Cacomantis aeruginosus
  • Pacific Koel: Eudynamys scolopaceus [orientalis Group] —> Eudynamys orientalis
  • Pheasant Coucal (Kai): Centropus spilopterus —> Centropus phasianinus spilopterus
  • Pheasant Coucal (Pheasant): Centropus phasianinus —> Centropus phasianinus [phasianinus Group]
  • Desert Owl: Strix butleri —> Strix hadorami
  • Omani Owl: Strix omanensis —> Strix butleri
  • Cave Swiftlet: Collocalia linchi [linchi Group] —> Collocalia linchi
  • Bornean Swiftlet: Collocalia linchi dodgei —> Collocalia dodgei
  • Mexican Hermit (Jalisco): Phaethornis longirostris griseoventer —> Phaethornis mexicanus griseoventer
  • Mexican Hermit (Mexican): Phaethornis longirostris mexicanus —> Phaethornis mexicanus mexicanus
  • Green-crowned Plovercrest: Stephanoxis lalandi lalandi —> Stephanoxis lalandi
  • Violet-crowned Plovercrest: Stephanoxis lalandi loddigesii —> Stephanoxis loddigesii
  • Crowned Woodnymph (Northern Green-crowned): Thalurania colombica [fannyi Group] —> Thalurania colombica [fannyae Group]
  • Magnificent x Berylline Hummingbird (hybrid): Amazilia beryllina x Eugenes fulgens —> Eugenes fulgens x Amazilia beryllina
  • Steely-vented Hummingbird: Amazilia saucerrottei —> Amazilia saucerottei
  • Red-billed Dwarf Hornbill: Tockus camurus —> Lophoceros camurus
  • Crowned Hornbill: Tockus alboterminatus —> Lophoceros alboterminatus
  • Bradfield’s Hornbill: Tockus bradfieldi —> Lophoceros bradfieldi
  • African Pied Hornbill: Tockus fasciatus —> Lophoceros fasciatus
  • Hemprich’s Hornbill: Tockus hemprichii —> Lophoceros hemprichii
  • African Gray Hornbill: Tockus nasutus —> Lophoceros nasutus
  • Pale-billed Hornbill: Tockus pallidirostris —> Lophoceros pallidirostris
  • White-crowned Hornbill: Aceros comatus —> Berenicornis comatus
  • White-crested Hornbill: Tockus albocristatus —> Horizocerus albocristatus
  • Black Dwarf Hornbill: Tockus hartlaubi —> Horizocerus hartlaubi
  • Silvery-cheeked Hornbill: Ceratogymna brevis —> Bycanistes brevis
  • Black-and-white-casqued Hornbill: Ceratogymna subcylindrica —> Bycanistes subcylindricus
  • Brown-cheeked Hornbill: Ceratogymna cylindrica —> Bycanistes cylindricus
  • White-thighed Hornbill: Ceratogymna albotibialis —> Bycanistes albotibialis
  • Trumpeter Hornbill: Ceratogymna bucinator —> Bycanistes bucinator
  • Piping Hornbill: Ceratogymna fistulator —> Bycanistes fistulator
  • Knobbed Hornbill: Aceros cassidix —> Rhyticeros cassidix
  • Sumba Hornbill: Aceros everetti —> Rhyticeros everetti
  • Wreathed Hornbill: Aceros undulatus —> Rhyticeros undulatus
  • Plain-pouched Hornbill: Aceros subruficollis —> Rhyticeros subruficollis
  • Narcondam Hornbill: Aceros narcondami —> Rhyticeros narcondami.
  • Blyth’s Hornbill: Aceros plicatus —> Rhyticeros plicatus
  • Sulawesi Hornbill: Penelopides exarhatus —> Rhabdotorrhinus exarhatus
  • Sulawesi Hornbill (Dwarf): Penelopides exarhatus exarhatus —> Rhabdotorrhinus exarhatus exarhatus
  • Sulawesi Hornbill (Sanford’s): Penelopides exarhatus sanfordi —> Rhabdotorrhinus exarhatus sanfordi
  • Wrinkled Hornbill: Aceros corrugatus —> Rhabdotorrhinus corrugatus
  • Writhe-billed Hornbill: Aceros waldeni —> Rhabdotorrhinus waldeni
  • Writhed Hornbill: Aceros leucocephalus —> Rhabdotorrhinus leucocephalus
  • Common Kingfisher (Cobalt-eared): Alcedo atthis hispidoides/solomonensis —> Alcedo atthis hispidoides/salomonensis
  • Dimorphic Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus margarethae —> Ceyx margarethae
  • Sula Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus wallacii —> Ceyx wallacii
  • North Moluccan Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus uropygialis —> Ceyx uropygialis
  • Seram Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus lepidus —> Ceyx lepidus
  • Buru Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus cajeli —> Ceyx cajeli
  • Papuan Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus solitarius —> Ceyx solitarius
  • Manus Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus dispar —> Ceyx dispar
  • New Ireland Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus mulcatus —> Ceyx mulcatus
  • New Britain Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus sacerdotis —> Ceyx sacerdotis
  • Bougainville Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus pallidus —> Ceyx pallidus
  • New Georgia Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus collectoris —> Ceyx collectoris
  • North Solomons Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus meeki —> Ceyx meeki
  • Malaita Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus malaitae —> Ceyx malaitae
  • Guadalcanal Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus nigromaxilla —> Ceyx nigromaxilla
  • Makira Dwarf-Kingfisher: Ceyx lepidus gentianus —> Ceyx gentianus
  • Pacific Kingfisher (Vanuatu): Todiramphus chloris [juliae Group] —> Todiramphus sacer [juliae Group]
  • Pacific Kingfisher (South Pacific): Todiramphus chloris [sacer Group] —> Todiramphus sacer [sacer Group]
  • Pacific Kingfisher (Solomon Is.): Todiramphus chloris [solomonis Group] —> Todiramphus sacer [solomonis Group]
  • Pacific Kingfisher (Fiji): Todiramphus sanctus [vitiensis Group] —> Todiramphus sacer [vitiensis Group]
  • Palau Kingfisher: Todiramphus cinnamominus pelewensis —> Todiramphus pelewensis
  • Pohnpei Kingfisher: Todiramphus cinnamominus reichenbachii —> Todiramphus reichenbachii
  • Torresian Kingfisher: Todiramphus chloris [sordidus Group] —> Todiramphus sordidus
  • Mariana Kingfisher: Todiramphus chloris [albicilla Group] —> Todiramphus albicilla
  • Melanesian Kingfisher (St. Matthias Is.): Todiramphus chloris matthiae —> Todiramphus tristrami matthiae
  • Melanesian Kingfisher (Dampier Straits): Todiramphus chloris stresemanni —> Todiramphus tristrami stresemanni
  • Melanesian Kingfisher (New Ireland): Todiramphus chloris [nusae Group] —> Todiramphus tristrami [nusae Group]
  • Melanesian Kingfisher (New Britain): Todiramphus chloris tristrami —> Todiramphus tristrami tristrami
  • Melanesian Kingfisher (Bougainville-Guadalcanal): Todiramphus chloris alberti —> Todiramphus tristrami alberti
  • Hairy-breasted Barbet (Streaky-throated): Tricholaema hirsuta [flavipuncta Group] —> Tricholaema hirsuta [flavipunctata Group]
  • Rock Kestrel: Falco tinnunculus rupicolus —> Falco rupicolus
  • American Kestrel (Cuban): Falco sparverius sparveroides —> Falco sparverius sparverioides
  • American Kestrel (South American): Falco sparverius [cinnamonimus Group] —> Falco sparverius [cinnamominus Group]
  • Naretha Bluebonnet: Northiella haematogaster narethae —> Northiella narethae
  • Gray Parrot (Timneh): Psittacus erithacus timneh —> Psittacus erithacus timneh/princeps
  • Painted Parakeet (Venezuelan): Pyrrhura picta emma/auricularis —> Pyrrhura picta emma
  • New Ireland Pitta: Erythropitta extima —> Erythropitta novaehibernicae
  • Blue Pitta: Hydrornis cyanea —> Hydrornis cyaneus
  • Willis’s Antbird: Cercomacra laeta —> Cercomacroides laeta
  • Parker’s Antbird: Cercomacra parkeri —> Cercomacroides parkeri
  • Dusky Antbird: Cercomacra tyrannina —> Cercomacroides tyrannina
  • Black Antbird: Cercomacra serva —> Cercomacroides serva
  • Blackish Antbird: Cercomacra nigrescens [nigrescens Group] —> Cercomacroides nigrescens
  • Riparian Antbird: Cercomacra nigrescens fuscicauda —> Cercomacroides fuscicauda
  • Boa Nova Tapaculo: Scytalopus [undescribed Bahia form] —> Scytalopus gonzagai
  • Black-faced Antthrush (Central American): Formicarius analis [analis Group] —> Formicarius analis [hoffmanni Group]
  • Ocellated Woodcreeper (Ocellated): Xiphorhynchus ocellatus ocellatus/perpluxus —> Xiphorhynchus ocellatus ocellatus/perplexus
  • Duida Woodcreeper: Lepidocolaptes albolineatus duidae —> Lepidocolaptes duidae
  • Guianan Woodcreeper: Lepidocolaptes albolineatus albolineatus —> Lepidocolaptes albolineatus
  • Rondonia Woodcreeper: Lepidocolaptes albolineatus fuscicapillus —> Lepidocolaptes fuscicapillus
  • Layard’s Woodcreeper: Lepidocolaptes albolineatus layardi —> Lepidocolaptes layardi
  • Striped Woodhaunter (Eastern South America): Automolus subulatus subulatus —> Automolus subulatus subulatus/lemae
  • Rusty-backed Spinetail: Cranioleuca vulpina [vulpina Group] —> Cranioleuca vulpina
  • Coiba Spinetail: Cranioleuca vulpina dissita —> Cranioleuca dissita
  • Peruvian Tyrannulet (Amazonas) (undescribed form): Zimmerius chrysops [undescribed form] —> Zimmerius viridiflavus [undescribed form]
  • Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Sucunduri): Tolmomyias sucunduri —> Tolmomyias assimilis sucunduri
  • Nutting’s Flycatcher (Nutting’s): Myiarchus nuttingi inquietus —> Myiarchus nuttingi nuttingi/inquietus
  • Nutting’s Flycatcher (flavidior): Myiarchus nuttingi nuttingi/flavidior —> Myiarchus nuttingi flavidior
  • Yellow Honeyeater: Lichenostomus flavus —> Stomiopera flava
  • White-gaped Honeyeater: Lichenostomus unicolor —> Stomiopera unicolor
  • Yellow-faced Honeyeater: Lichenostomus chrysops —> Caligavis chrysops
  • Black-throated Honeyeater: Lichenostomus subfrenatus —> Caligavis subfrenata
  • Obscure Honeyeater: Lichenostomus obscurus —> Caligavis obscura
  • Bridled Honeyeater: Lichenostomus frenatus —> Bolemoreus frenatus
  • Eungella Honeyeater: Lichenostomus hindwoodi —> Bolemoreus hindwoodi
  • Varied Honeyeater: Lichenostomus versicolor —> Gavicalis versicolor
  • Mangrove Honeyeater: Lichenostomus fasciogularis —> Gavicalis fasciogularis
  • Singing Honeyeater: Lichenostomus virescens —> Gavicalis virescens
  • Yellow-plumed Honeyeater: Lichenostomus ornatus —> Ptilotula ornata
  • White-plumed Honeyeater: Lichenostomus penicillatus —> Ptilotula penicillata
  • Yellow-tinted Honeyeater: Lichenostomus flavescens —> Ptilotula flavescens
  • Fuscous Honeyeater: Lichenostomus fuscus —> Ptilotula fusca
  • Gray-headed Honeyeater: Lichenostomus keartlandi —> Ptilotula keartlandi
  • Gray-fronted Honeyeater: Lichenostomus plumulus —> Ptilotula plumula
  • White-eared Honeyeater: Lichenostomus leucotis —> Nesoptilotis leucotis
  • Yellow-throated Honeyeater: Lichenostomus flavicollis —> Nesoptilotis flavicollis
  • Gilbert’s Honeyeater: Melithreptus lunatus chloropsis —> Melithreptus chloropsis
  • White-naped Honeyeater: Melithreptus lunatus lunatus —> Melithreptus lunatus
  • Kadavu Honeyeater: Xanthotis provocator —> Meliphacator provocator
  • Gray Thornbill: Gerygone cinerea —> Acanthiza cinerea
  • North Island Kokako: Callaeas cinereus wilsoni —> Callaeas wilsoni
  • South Island Kokako: Callaeas cinereus cinereus —> Callaeas cinereus
  • North Island Saddleback: Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater —> Philesturnus rufusater
  • South Island Saddleback: Philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus —> Philesturnus carunculatus
  • Large Woodshrike: Tephrodornis gularis —> Tephrodornis virgatus
  • Large/Common Woodshrike: Tephrodornis gularis/pondicerianus —> Tephrodornis virgatus/pondicerianus
  • Tepui Vireo: Hylophilus sclateri —> Vireo sclateri
  • Tawny-crowned Greenlet: Hylophilus ochraceiceps —> Tunchiornis ochraceiceps
  • Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Tawny-crowned): Hylophilus ochraceiceps [ochraceiceps Group] —> Tunchiornis ochraceiceps [ochraceiceps Group]
  • Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Red-fronted): Hylophilus ochraceiceps rubrifrons/lutescens —> Tunchiornis ochraceiceps rubrifrons/lutescens
  • Rufous-naped Greenlet: Hylophilus semibrunneus —> Pachysylvia semibrunnea
  • Golden-fronted Greenlet: Hylophilus aurantiifrons —> Pachysylvia aurantiifrons
  • Dusky-capped Greenlet: Hylophilus hypoxanthus —> Pachysylvia hypoxantha
  • Buff-cheeked Greenlet: Hylophilus muscicapinus —> Pachysylvia muscicapina
  • Lesser Greenlet: Hylophilus decurtatus —> Pachysylvia decurtata
  • Lesser Greenlet (Northern): Hylophilus decurtatus decurtatus/darienensis —> Pachysylvia decurtata decurtata/darienensis
  • Lesser Greenlet (Gray-headed): Hylophilus decurtatus minor —> Pachysylvia decurtata minor
  • greenlet sp.: Hylophilus sp. —> Hylophilus/Tunchiornis/Pachyslvia sp.
  • Ashy Drongo (Blackish): Dicrurus leucophaeus longicaudatus/nigrescens —> Dicrurus leucophaeus [longicaudatus Group]
  • Ashy Drongo (Chinese White-faced): Dicrurus leucophaeus leucogenis/salangensis —> Dicrurus leucophaeus [innexus Group]
  • Japanese/Amur Paradise-Flycatcher: Terpsiphone atrocaudata/paradisi —> Terpsiphone atrocaudata/incei
  • Azure-naped Jay (Campina): Cyanocorax hafferi —> Cyanocorax heilprini hafferi
  • Varied Tit: Poecile varius —> Sittiparus varius
  • White-fronted Tit: Parus semilarvatus —> Sittiparus semilarvatus
  • Willow Tit (Willow): Poecilie montanus [montanus Group] —> Poecile montanus [montanus Group]
  • White-naped Tit: Parus nuchalis —> Machlolophus nuchalis
  • Yellow Tit: Parus holsti —> Machlolophus holsti
  • Black-lored Tit: Parus xanthogenys —> Machlolophus xanthogenys
  • Indian Tit: Parus aplonotus —> Machlolophus aplonotus
  • Yellow-cheeked Tit: Parus spilonotus —> Machlolophus spilonotus
  • White-breasted Nuthatch (Pacific): Sitta carolinensis [aculeata Group] —> Sitta carolinensis aculeata/alexandrae
  • Long-billed Gnatwren (Chattering): Ramphocaenus melanurus obscurus —> Ramphocaenus melanurus sticturus/obscurus
  • Guianan Gnatcatcher (Inambari): Polioptila attenboroughi —> Polioptila guianensis attenboroughi
  • Zitting Cisticola (African): Cisticola juncidis terrestris/cursitans —> Cisticola juncidis terrestris/uropygialis
  • African Hill Babbler (African): Sylvia abyssinica abysinnica/stictigula —> Sylvia abyssinica abyssinica/stictigula
  • Moltoni’s Warbler: Sylvia cantillans moltonii —> Sylvia subalpina
  • Sulawesi Streaked Flycatcher: Muscicapa [undescribed form] —> Muscicapa sodhi
  • Slaty-backed Flycatcher: Ficedula hodgsonii —> Ficedula sordida
  • Pygmy Blue-Flycatcher: Muscicapella hodgsoni —> Ficedula hodgsoni
  • White’s Thrush: Zoothera dauma aurea/toratugumi —> Zoothera aurea
  • Scaly Thrush (Scaly): Zoothera dauma dauma/hancii —> Zoothera dauma dauma
  • White’s/Scaly Thrush: Zoothera dauma —> Zoothera aurea/dauma
  • Nilgiri Thrush: Zoothera dauma neilgherriensis —> Zoothera neilgherriensis
  • Sri Lanka Thrush: Zoothera dauma imbricata —> Zoothera imbricata
  • Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush (Brown-headed): Catharus aurantiirostris [aurantiirostris Group] —> Catharus aurantiirostris [melpomene Group]
  • American Robin (migratorius Group): Turdus migratorius migratorius/achrusterus —> Turdus migratorius [migratorius Group]
  • Apo Myna: Basilornis mirandus —> Goodfellowia miranda
  • Daurian Starling: Sturnia sturnina —> Agropsar sturninus
  • Chestnut-cheeked Starling: Sturnia philippensis —> Agropsar philippensis
  • Daurian/Chestnut-cheeked Starling: Sturnia sturnina/philippensis —> Agropsar sturninus/philippensis
  • White-faced Starling: Sturnia albofrontata —> Sturnornis albofrontatus
  • Brahminy Starling: Temenuchus pagodarum —> Sturnia pagodarum
  • Red-billed Starling: Sturnus sericeus —> Spodiopsar sericeus
  • White-cheeked Starling: Sturnus cineraceus —> Spodiopsar cineraceus
  • Common/Jungle Myna: Acridotheres fuscus/tristis —> Acridotheres tristis/fuscus
  • Madagascar Starling: Saroglossa aurata —> Hartlaubius auratus
  • Abbott’s Starling: Pholia femoralis —> Poeoptera femoralis
  • Black-bellied Starling: Lamprotornis corruscus —> Notopholia corrusca
  • Purple-headed Starling: Lamprotornis purpureiceps —> Hylopsar purpureiceps
  • Copper-tailed Starling: Lamprotornis cupreocauda —> Hylopsar cupreocauda
  • Ashy Starling: Spreo unicolor —> Lamprotornis unicolor
  • African Pied Starling: Spreo bicolor —> Lamprotornis bicolor
  • White-crowned Starling: Spreo albicapillus —> Lamprotornis albicapillus
  • Fischer’s Starling: Spreo fischeri —> Lamprotornis fischeri
  • White-browed Wagtail: Motacilla madaraspatensis —> Motacilla maderaspatensis
  • Water/Rock Pipit: Anthus spinoletta/littoralis —> Anthus spinoletta/petrosus
  • Three-striped Warbler (Bolivian): Basileuterus tristriatus [inconspicuus Group] —> Basileuterus tristriatus [punctipectus Group]
  • warbler sp. (Parulidae sp.): Parulinae sp. —> Parulidae sp.
  • Gray-headed Tanager (Gray-crested): Eucometis penicillata [spodocephala Group] —> Eucometis penicillata [spodocephalus Group]
  • American Tree Sparrow: Spizella arborea —> Spizelloides arborea
  • Black-chinned x Brewer’s Sparrow (hybrid): Spizella breweri x atrogularis —> Spizella atrogularis x breweri
  • American Tree Sparrow/Spizella sp.: Spizella sp. —> Spizella/Spizelloides sp.
  • American Tree x Harris’s Sparrow (hybrid): Spizella arborea x Zonotrichia querula —> Spizelloides arborea x Zonotrichia querula
  • White-crowned x White-throated Sparrow (hybrid): Zonotrichia albicollis x leucophrys —> Zonotrichia leucophrys x albicollis
  • Golden-crowned x White-throated Sparrow (hybrid): Zonotrichia albicollis x atricapilla —> Zonotrichia atricapilla x albicollis
  • Dark-eyed Junco x White-throated Sparrow (hybrid): Zonotrichia albicollis x Junco hyemalis —> Junco hyemalis x Zonotrichia albicollis
  • Sagebrush/Bell’s Sparrow (Sage Sparrow): Artemisiospiza belli/nevadensis —> Artemisiospiza nevadensis/belli
  • Spotted x Collared Towhee (hybrid): Pipilo ocai x maculatus —> Pipilo maculatus x ocai
  • towhee sp.: Pipilo/Melozone sp. —> Melozone/Pipilo sp.
  • Blue Seedeater (Blue): Amaurospiza concolor concolor/aequatorialis —> Amaurospiza concolor concolor
  • Grayish Baywing: Agelaioides badius badius/bolivianus —> Agelaioides badius
  • Pale Baywing: Agelaioides badius fringillarius —> Agelaioides fringillarius
  • Grayish/Pale Baywing: Agelaioides badius —> Agelaioides badius/fringillarius
  • Laysan Honeycreeper: Himatione sanguinea fraithii —> Himatione fraithii
  • Iiwi: Vestiaria coccinea —> Drepanis coccinea
  • Kauai Nukupuu: Hemignathus lucidus hanapepe —> Hemignathus hanapepe
  • Oahu Nukupuu: Hemignathus lucidus lucidus —> Hemignathus lucidus
  • Maui Nukupuu: Hemignathus lucidus affinis —> Hemignathus affinis
  • Akiapolaau: Hemignathus munroi —> Hemignathus wilsoni
  • Lesser Akialoa: Hemignathus obscurus —> Akialoa obscura
  • Oahu Akialoa: Hemignathus ellisianus ellisianus —> Akialoa ellisiana
  • Kauai Akialoa: Hemignathus ellisianus stejnegeri —> Akialoa stejnegeri
  • Maui-nui Akialoa: Hemignathus ellisianus lanaiensis —> Akialoa lanaiensis
  • Hawaii Amakihi: Hemignathus virens —> Chlorodrepanis virens
  • Hawaii Amakihi (Maui): Hemignathus virens wilsoni —> Chlorodrepanis virens wilsoni
  • Hawaii Amakihi (Hawaii): Hemignathus virens virens —> Chlorodrepanis virens virens
  • Oahu Amakihi: Hemignathus flavus —> Chlorodrepanis flava
  • Kauai Amakihi: Hemignathus kauaiensis —> Chlorodrepanis stejnegeri
  • Greater Amakihi: Hemignathus sagittirostris —> Viridonia sagittirostris
  • Hawaii Akepa: Loxops coccineus coccineus —> Loxops coccineus
  • Oahu Akepa: Loxops coccineus wolstenholmei —> Loxops wolstenholmei
  • Maui Akepa: Loxops coccineus ochraceus —> Loxops ochraceus

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