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Taxonomy update for 2014

For American birders, large rail splits are most likely to give Life Lists a boost in this revision. Be careful reporting Clapper Rail: it should only be used for East Coast and Gulf Coast birds now! Photo of Clapper Rail in Massachusetts by Ryan Schain.
For American birders, large rail splits are most likely to give Life Lists a boost in this revision. Be careful reporting Clapper Rail: it should only be used for East Coast and Gulf Coast birds now! Photo of Clapper Rail in Massachusetts by Ryan Schain.

The taxonomic update for 2014 is now complete in eBird. The names and sequence have been changed and eBird records have been updated in cases of splits and lumps. This update includes taxonomic revisions introduced (or accepted) since August 2013 by the two committees of the American Ornithologists’ Union, the  North American Classification Committee (NACC) and the South American Classification Committee (SACC), including several splits detailed below. In North America the most significant change was the split of Clapper Rail into Clapper, Ridgway’s, and Mangrove Rails and the split of King Rail into King and Aztec Rails. In the tropical Americas, Sirystes was split into four species, Bicolored Antbird was split into two, and Knipolegus black-tyrants were revised, among others. In Eurasia, Mourning Wheatear was split into three species, Arctic Warbler was split into three species (two occur in North America, one as a breeder and one as a vagrant or rare migrant) and Two-barred Warbler was split from Greenish Warbler.

In addition, there were some changes to scientific names and sequence of doves, and several other groups of birds. Elsewhere in the world, a large number of taxa were split in the Pacific Islands, New Guinea, Indonesia, and Malaysia along with several important splits in Africa.

The full taxonomy can be downloaded. Also, we have a version of the full taxonomy with changes in common name, scientific name, and new additions highlighted; download that here. For those proficient with spreadsheets, this may be the easiest way to review the changes.

A full summary of the taxonomic changes is below. This is largely in sync with the Clements update; references are not listed in full, but are included in the Clements update. Since this is a long article, here is a short index:

  • Introduction
  • Species splits
  • Subspecies group changes
  • Species lumps
  • New species
  • New subspecies groups
  • New hybrids and intergrades
  • New forms
  • New domestics
  • New slashes and spuhs
  • Common Name changes
  • Scientific Name changes

For taxonomic changes affecting North America, Middle America, and South America, please see the more complete summary on the Neotropical Birds site; Neotropical Birds is a free online resource with the goal of providing complete species accounts for life history, habits, range, and behavior for all species in Middle and South America.

INTRODUCTION

When the taxonomy is updated in eBird, many of the changes are fairly simple to implement. When a common name changes, a scientific name changes, or when the taxonomic sequence is revised, those changes roll through and start appearing in eBird output fairly quickly. Keeping track of name changes is a challenge, and Avibase is one of the best ways to do so. Just type any bird name in Avibase and Avibase will show you what the history of that name is, and–if it differs from eBird–it will show what the eBird equivalent is for that name. Try it for Louisiana Heron, for example.

When species are lumped, eBird usually retains the former species as an identifiable group. In these cases, your records may shift to the lumped form and your totals may (or may not) drop by one. The actual entity that you observed and reported has not changed in any way other than being “demoted” from species to subspecies.

When splits occur, however, the process is more complicated. In many cases, we have had subspecies options available for reporting in anticipation of the split. All these records update automatically to the new species. But when a bird is reported at the species level, and then that species is split, we update the records in eBird to one of the “child” species whenever possible. We try to be very conservative with this. When two species do not overlap in range (i.e., they are allopatric) we go ahead and make the change. When the species do overlap (i.e., are sympatric), and do not have clear seasonal or habitat differences, we usually do not make the change. This results in your records being left as the more conservative “slash” option.

As an example, this year Arctic Warbler (Phylloscopus borealis) was split into Arctic Warbler (Phylloscopus borealis), Kamchatka Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus examinandus) and Japanese Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus xanthodryas). The breeding ranges are largely allopatric, and Arctic Warbler is much more widespread overall, but they overlap extensively in migration and winter. So for eBird we changed all the records from the summer and from areas where only Arctic Warbler is known or expected to be common (e.g., western Europe, Alaska). Sightings that specified the subspecies were updated automatically (we recommend being specific when possible, but only when you understand the subspecies options you select for data entry!) Before this update, if you did not identify an “Arctic Warbler” to a particular subspecies group at the time of the sighting, then is the equivalent to reporting a warbler to eBird as Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler–the only difference is that the taxa involved are now considered species instead of subspecies. If you know which one you saw, we encourage you to update your records. If you are not sure (and this is one of the toughest identification issues in the World, so don’t feel bad!), then your data is best listed as the slash option.

One issue with eBird is that reviewing your records of “Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler” or of “Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher” is not currently easy using the My eBird tools. If you know the checklist it is on, you can find the list in “Manage My Observations” and edit it as needed. If you can find your checklist on the range map of “Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler” then you can just click on the stickpin for your list and open it from there. But the best option to review your records is to go to My eBird and then click “Download My Data” from the right side. This downloads your entire eBird database as a CSV file that can be opened in Excel or a similar spreadsheet program. From there, you should easily be able to sort by name or search for “Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler” to find your records. Then you can scroll to the correct date or just replace the Submission ID in the URL for a checklist view.

 

SPECIES SPLITS

The below species were all split in eBird. To see a map of the new species, click “map”. To see you personal lists in My eBird, just make sure you are logged in and click “my records”. If you have seen the species but don’t have any records shown, then please enter your sightings! Below are the splits for this update:

Within Dusky Scrubfowl (M. freycinet), the monotypic group Dusky Scrubfowl (Biak) Megapodius freycinet geelvinkianus is elevated to species rank as Biak Scrubfowl Megapodius geelvinkianus (Roselaar 1994, Jones et al. 1995).

The two taxa formerly classified as subspecies of Herald Petrel (P. arminjoniana) each are recognized as separate species. These correspond to the two monotypic groups previously recognized in the eBird/Clements checklist, as Herald Petrel (Trindade) (Pterodroma arminjoniana arminjoniana) and Herald Petrel (Pacific) (Pterodroma arminjoniana heraldica). The rationale for recognizing two species is outlined in SACC Proposal 582; of the literature on this situation, an important recent contribution is Brown et al. (2011). Trindade Petrel occurs primarily in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, while Herald Petrel is mostly restricted to the Pacific. Note that this split follows SACC, but NACC has yet to consider this proposal.

Clapper Rail (R. longirostris) is split into three species, in accord with NACC (Chesser et al. 2014). This split is based primarily on Maley and Brumfield (2013). Clapper Rail is now restricted to the Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico shoreline, mostly in saltmarshes; Ridgway’s Rail occurs in west Mexico, California, and Arizona, mostly in saltmarshes but also in fresh marshes along the Colorado River, at the Salton Sea, and in se. Arizona.

King Rail (R. elegans) is split into King Rail (R. elegans) and Aztec Rail (R. tenuirostris). King Rail occurs in the Canada, United States and coastal ne. Mexico south to the marshes of the Veracruz coast. Aztec Rail occurs in highlands in Mexico, as well as in freshwater marshes near sea level in Colima and possibly nearby Mexican states.

King Rail is split into Aztec and King Rails, which are very similar but do not overlap in range. This King Rail was photographed in Massachusetts. Photo by Marshall Iliff.

King Rail is split into Aztec and King Rails, which are very similar but do not overlap in range. This King Rail was photographed in Massachusetts. Photo by Marshall Iliff.

African Scops-Owl (O. senegalensis) split into African Scops-Owl, Socotra Scops-Owl, and Arabian Scops-Owl. The ranges are fairly well delineated, with African Scops-Owl widespread in Africa, Arabian Scops-Owl occurring on the southern and eastern Arabian Peninsula, and Socotra Scops-Owl restricted to Socotra.

Javan Frogmouth (B. javensis) is split into Blyth’s, Javan, and Palawan Frogmouths. Palawan Frogmouth is an endemic to that Philippine island, Blyth’s is widespread in se. Asia, and Javan Frogmouth is now restricted to Java and Bali.

White-throated Nightjar (E. mystacalis) is split into White-throated, Solomons, and New Caledonian Nightjar, following Cleere (2010) and Dutson (2011). Solomons Nightjar is restricted to the Solomon Islands, New Calendonian Nightjar is restricted to New Caledonia and possibly extinct, while White-throated Nightjar is widespread in New Guinea and Australia.

Gray Nightjar (C. indicus) is split into Gray, Jungle, and Palau Nightjars, following Rasmussen and Anderton (2005) and Cleere (2010). Palau Nightjar is a Palau endemic, Jungle Nightjar occurs in peninsular India south of the Himalayas and on Sri Lanka, while Gray Nightjar occurs in the Himalayas and much of East and Southeast Asia. Gray Nightjar has two records from western Alaska.

Subspecies are rearranged in Mauritius Parakeet, causing name changes to the scientific and common names. Recent authors follow Cheke (1987) in recognizing an extinct parakeet from Réunion Island, which was given the name eques by Boddaert in 1783. This extinct parakeet is very poorly known (and was not included at all in Peters 1937), but apparently was very similar to echo, the parakeet on Mauritius. Consequently these two usually are considered to be conspecific; since the name eques predates the name echo (1876), the scientific name for the species becomes Psittacula eques. Furthermore, the English name Mauritius Parakeet no longer is appropriate; change the English name to Echo Parakeet.

Each of the four subspecies of Bearded Helmetcrest (O. guerinii) is elevated to species rank, in accord with SACC Proposal 609; this revision is based on Collar and Salaman (2013). Subspecies stubelii becomes Buffy Helmetcrest (Oxypogon stubelii). Note the correction of the spelling of this scientific name, from stuebelii to stubelii. Buffy and Green-bearded occur in different sections of the Colombian Andes (see eBird range map links below), White-bearded occurs in the Andes of western Venezuela, and Blue-bearded is restricted to the Santa Marta Mountains of n. Colombia but it may be extinct, as it has not been reported in over 50 years.

Brown Barbet (C. fuliginosus) is split into two species, based on Den Tex and Leonard (2013): Sooty Barbet occurs widely in Southeast Asia, while Brown Barbet is restricted to Borneo.

Blue-eared Barbet (P. duvaucelii) is split into two species, with Little Barbet occurring on Java and Bali and Blue-eared Barbet widespread elsewhere in Southeast Asia.

Within Gold-whiskered Barbet (P. chrysopogon), the Borneo population is split as a separate species: Gold-faced Barbet.

Blue-throated Barbet is widespread in Southeast Asia west to Pakistan and south to northern peninsular Thailand; the highly localized endemic to mountains of central peninsular Thailand Turquoise-throated Barbet is hereby recognized as a distinct species. Turquoise-thorated Barbet has not yet be definitely recorded by eBirders.

  • Blue-throated Barbet Psilopogon asiaticus [map] [my records]
  • Turquoise-throated Barbet Psilopogon chersonesus [map] [my records]

Both Gilded Barbet (C. aurantus) and Black-spotted Barbet (C. niger) have been a part of the eBird-Clements Checklist since its inception, and this is not so much a split as a substantive redefinition of the component subspecies and ranges. However, the subspecies were incorrectly divided among the two species up until this year. The current arrangement considers Black-spotted Barbet to be monotypic, occurring from E Venezuela, the Guianas, and ne. Brazil n of the Amazon; all subspecies (other than the nominate niger) previously assigned to Black-spotted Barbet are now considered to be part of Gilded Barbet. eBird records have been revised accordingly.

The widespread polytypic Red-bellied Pitta (E. erythrogaster) is split into 16 species, following Irestedt et al. (2013). Red-bellied Pitta now is restricted to two subspecies, erythrogaster and propinqua, and the English name is changed to Blue-breasted Pitta to minimize confusion with the former, widespread species. Ranges are included after the species name to clarify their patterns of occurrence, especially since some have yet to be reported to eBird.

  • Blue-breasted Pitta Erythropitta erythrogaster [map] [my records] – Philippines
  • Sulu Pitta Erythropitta yairocho [map] [my records] – Sulu Islands
  • Talaud Pitta Erythropitta inspeculata [map] [my records] – Talaud Islands
  • Sangihe Pitta Erythropitta caeruleitorques [map] [my records] – Sangihe I., n. of Sulawesi
  • Siao Pitta Erythropitta palliceps [map] [my records] – Siau and Tahulandang Is. (Celebes Sea)
  • Sulawesi Pitta Erythropitta celebensis [map] [my records] – Sulawesi
  • Moluccan Pitta Erythropitta rufiventris [map] [my records] – North Moluccas
  • Buru Pitta Erythropitta rubrinucha [map] [my records] – Buru I. (S. Moluccas)
  • Seram Pitta Erythropitta piroensis [map] [my records] – Seram I. (S. Moluccas)
  • Papuan Pitta Erythropitta macklotii [map] [my records] – S New Guinea and n. Queensland
  • Habenicht’s Pitta Erythropitta habenichti [map] [my records] – N New Guinea
  • New Ireland Pitta Erythropitta extima [map] [my records] – New Hanover and New Ireland (Bismarck Archipelago)
  • Tabar Pitta Erythropitta splendida [map] [my records] – Tabar I. (e. of New Ireland)
  • New Britain Pitta Erythropitta gazellae [map] [my records] – New Britain and adjacent islands
  • D’Entrecasteaux Pitta Erythropitta finschii [map] [my records] – Fergusson, Goodenough, and maybe Normanby islands
  • Louisiade Pitta Erythropitta meeki [map] [my records]

Bicolored Antbird (G. leucaspis) is split into Bicolored and White-cheeked Antbirds, with the former occurring in Central America and areas west of the Andes and the latter in South America east of the Andes.

Spotted Antpitta (H. macularius) is split into Spotted, Snethlage’s, and Alta Floresta Antpitta, following SACC Proposal 622. Note that Alta Floresta Antpitta was recognized as a new species by eBird/Clements last year, but the split of records within eBird was not completed until this year. Records should currently be correct, with Spotted occurring north of the Amazon and in the far west, Snethlage’s south of the Amazon and east of the Xingu River, and Alta Floresta in the Xingu-Madeiros interfluvium.

White-winged Black-Tyrant Knipolegus aterrimus is split, as Caatinga Black-Tyrant Knipolegus franciscanus is a newly recognized species, following SACC Proposal 574 and based on Hosner and Moyle (2012). Previously franciscanus was classified as a subspecies of White-winged Black-Tyrant Knipolegus aterrimus (but also had been recognized as a monotypic group, White-winged Black-Tyrant (Caatinga) Knipolegus aterrimus franciscanus). Caatanga Black-Tyrant occurs in eastern Brazil while White-winged Black-Tyrant lives only on the eastern edge of the Andes on Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Paraguay.

  • Caatinga Black-Tyrant Knipolegus franciscanus [map] [my records]
  • White-winged Black-Tyrant Knipolegus aterrimus [map] [my records]

Previously we recognized a polytypic Andean Tyrant Knipolegus signatus, with two distinctive monotypic groups, Andean Tyrant (Black) Knipolegus signatus signatus and Andean Tyrant (Plumbeous) Knipolegus signatus cabanisi. These groups now are recognized as distinct species, in accord with SACC Proposal 573 (which is based on Hosner and Moyle 2012): Jelski’s Black-Tyrant Knipolegus signatus and Plumbeous Black-Tyrant Knipolegus cabanisi. Jelski’s Black-Tyrant occurs in the Andes of s. Ecuador and northern Peru, while Plumbeous Black-Tyrant is more widespread and occurs farther south from from Cuzco, Peru, south to n Argentina.

  • Caatinga Black-Tyrant Knipolegus franciscanus [map] [my records]
  • White-winged Black-Tyrant Knipolegus aterrimus [map] [my records]

Sirystes (Sirystes sibilator) is split into four species in accord with SACC Proposal 610, which have distinct vocal differences and do not overlap in range. Choco Sirystes occurs from Panama to nw. Ecuador, west of the Andes; White-rumped occurs east of the Andes in the foothills and in Amazonia south of the Amazon River; Todd’s Sirystes occurs in ne. Brazil and the Guianas, east of the Negro River and north of the Amazon River; and Sibilant Sirystes occurs in southeast Brazil west to eastern Bolivia and south to northern Argentina.

From within Chatham Island Bellbird A. melanocephala, the extinct Chatham Island Bellbird is recognized as distinct.

From within Graceful Honeyeater Meliphaga gracilis, subspecies stevensi and cinereifrons of Graceful Honeyeater are separated and recognized as a distinct species, Elegant Honeyeater Meliphaga cinereifrons, following Norman et al. (2007) and Nyári and Joseph (2011).

Wattled Honeyeater (Foulehaio carunculatus) is split into three species, following Andersen et al. (2014b): Eastern Wattled-Honeyeater; Northern Wattled-Honeyeater; and Western Wattled-Honeyeater. See the maps below for their ranges.

  • Eastern Wattled-Honeyeater Foulehaio carunculatus [map] [my records]
  • Northern Wattled-Honeyeater Foulehaio taviuensis [map] [my records]
  • Western Wattled-Honeyeater Foulehaio procerior [map] [my records]

Giant Honeyeater (Gymnomyza viridis) is split into two species, following Andersen et al. (2014b): Chattering Giant-Honeyeater and Duetting Giant-Honeyeater. See the maps below for their ranges.

  • Chattering Giant-Honeyeater Gymnomyza viridis [map] [my records]
  • Duetting Giant-Honeyeater Gymnomyza brunneirostris [map] [my records]

The two subspecies of Hooded Whistler (Pachycephala implicata) each are elevated to species rank, as Guadalcanal Hooded Whistler (Pachycephala implicata) and Bougainville Hooded Whistler (Pachycephala richardsi), following Dutson (2011) and Andersen et al. (2014a).

  • Guadalcanal Hooded Whistler Pachycephala implicata [map] [my records]
  • Bougainville Hooded Whistler Pachycephala richardsi [map] [my records]

Andersen et al. (2014a) found that the nominate subspecies of New Caledonian Whistler (Pachycephala caledonica caledonica), is the sister species to Hooded Whistler (Pachycephala implicata), whereas subspecies Pachycephala caledonica intacta is related to a different group of species of whistlers. These results are a strong indication that caledonica and intacta each are different species, but unfortunately do not indicate how to classify other subspecies that have been included in New Caledonian Whistler. Tentatively we split New Caledonian Whistler, and recognize each of our two groups as separate species: New Caledonian Whistler (Pachycephala caledonica), including subspecies caledonica and littayei; and Vanuatu Whistler (Pachycephala chlorura), including subspecies cucullata, chlorura, intacta, and vankorensis. We would not be surprised, of course, if future research shows that either or both of these species will need to be split (again) as well.

The subspecies of Bismarck Whistler (Pachycephala citreogaster) from the Louisiade Archipelago (collaris, misimae, and rosseliana) are split as a separate species, Louisiade Whistler, following Andersen et al. (2014a).

Two subspecies, ornata and utupuae, are removed from White-throated Whistler (Pachycephala vitiensis) (which now is classified as Fiji Whistler (White-throated) Pachycephala vitiensis [vitiensis Group] (see Lumps below) and are elevated to species rank as Temotu Whistler (Pachycephala utupuae), following Andersen et al. (2014a). Position Temotu Whistler immediately following Louisiade Whistler (Pachycephala collaris).

Tropical Boubou Laniarius aethiopicus is split into two species, a monotypic Ethiopian Boubou Laniarius aethiopicus, and a polytypic Tropical Boubou Laniarius major, which includes all other subspecies previously included in Laniarius aethiopicus (Nguembock et al. 2008). Ethiopian Boubou occurs in eastern Africa from extreme northern Kenya north to Eritrea, while Tropical Boubou occurs in the remainder of the range in western, eastern, and southern Africa.

Tahiti Monarch (P. nigra) is split into two species, following Cibois et al. (2004): Tahiti Monarch (Pomarea nigra) and Maupiti Monarch (Pomarea pomarea). Also, the sequence of species in Pomarea is revised, following Cibois et al. (2004).

Iphis Monarch (P. iphis) is split into two species, following Cibois et al. (2004): Iphis Monarch (Pomarea iphis) and the extinct Eiao Monarch (Pomarea fluxa).

Several subspecies of Marquesas Monarch (P. mendozae) were recognized by Watson et al. (1986), but were not included in previous versions of the eBird/Clements Checklist. Following Cibois et al. (2004), we reinstate these taxa. Subspecies nukuhivae, is recognized as a separate species, Nuku Hiva Monarch (Pomarea nukuhivae), with range “formerly Marquesas Islands (Nuku Hiva); extinct, last reported in the 1930s” and subspecies mira, the Ua Pou Monarch (Pomarea mira), with range “Marquesas Islands (Ua Pou); critically endangered, if not extinct”.

The taxon weigoldicus, previously classified (see Lumps) as a subspecies of Songar Tit (Poecile songanus), is elevated to species rank as Sichuan Tit (Poecile weigoldicus), following Salzburger et al. (2002) and Eck and Martens (2006).

White-eared Bulbul (Pycnonotus leucotis) and White-cheeked Bulbul (Pycnonotus leucogenys) had errors in the assignment of subspecies in the Clements Checklist v6.8; in addition ,the name of White-cheeked Bulbul is changed to Himalayan Bulbul, which will mitigate confusion. Subspecies mesopotamiae and dactylus, assigned to Himalayan Bulbul (Pycnonotus leucogenys), properly belong with White-eared Bulbul (Pycnonotus leucotis).

Northern Golden-Bulbul (Alophoixus longirostris) is split into five species, following Collar et al. (2013).

The populations of cupwing in southern China, previously included in the nominate subspecies of Scaly-breasted Cupwing (Pnoepyga albiventer albiventer), are distinct (Päckert et al 2013) and are recognized as a separate species, Chinese Cupwing with range “south central China”.

The taxon canturians often has been classified as a separate species, Manchurian Bush-Warbler (e.g., Sibley and Monroe 1990, Rasmussen and Alderton 2005, and recent editions of the eBird/Clements Checklist). Recent genetic data indicates, however, that canturians is more closely related to cantans, a subspecies of Japanese Bush-Warbler (Horornis diphone) (Alström et al. 2011b). Alström et al. (2011b) also indicate, however, that borealis, previously considered to be a subspecies of Japanese Bush-Warbler, is a distinct from canturians + cantans. Unfortunately other subspecies have not been surveyed genetically. Provisionally we elevate borealis to species rank as Manchurian Bush-Warbler (Horornis borealis), and the subspecies canturians is reclassified as Horornis diphone canturians. Revise the range of borealis from “Manchuria to Korea and s China; winters to Taiwan” to “breeds northeastern China, adjacent southeastern Siberia, and Korea; winters to southeastern China”.

In accord with NACC (and others), Phyllscopus examinandus (Kamchatka Leaf Warbler) and P. xanthodryas (Japanese Leaf Warbler) are split from P. borealis (Arctic Warbler) (Chesser et al. 2014). Field identification of this complex is very difficult and best accomplished by voice; many eBird records from East and Southeast Asia were retained as Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler; we encourage eBirders to review their records carefully and refine them if possible, noting that documentation should be provided to support identifications to species made in wintering or migration areas, which will help resolve the winter ranges and migration routes.

Within Greenish Warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides), the monotypic group Greenish Warbler (Two-barred) Phylloscopus trochiloides plumbeitarsus is elevated to species rank as Two-barred Warbler, following Alcaide et al. (2014). The two taxa segregate well by range, so we provisionally changed most eBird records to the expected taxon; however, many records not specified to the subspecies level (now species level) could not be changed in northern Thailand, Myanmar, and other nearby areas, since both taxa overlap to varying extents there. Note that Two-barred has also occurred as a vagrant to Western Europe. These records are retained as Greenish/Two-barred Warbler; we encourage eBirders to change their records to the correct species if it is known.

Each of the two subspecies of Tahiti Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus caffer) is recognized as a separate species, following Cibois et al. (2008): Tahiti Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus caffer) and the extinct Moorea Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus longirostris).

A subspecies of Buff-throated Apalis, Apalis rufogularis argentea, is elevated to species rank as Kungwe Apalis, following Hall and Moreau (1970). Note the correction of argenteus to argentea. eBirders have yet to find this highly localized species, that occurs in a tiny region of four countries from E Democratic Republic of the Congo to Rwanda, Burundi and w Tanzania.

White-browed Chinese Warbler is split into two species, following Leader et al. (2013): Tarim Babbler (Rhopophilus albosuperciliaris) and Beijing Babbler (Rhopophilus pekinensis). Subspecies leptorhynchus is lumped with nominate pekinensis, so both species are monotypic.

Mascarene White-eye (Zosterops borbonicus) is split into two species, following Warren et al. (2006), Milá et al. 2010), and Safford and Hawkins (2013): Reunion White-eye and Mauritius White-eye.

  • Reunion Gray White-eye Zosterops borbonicus [map] [my records]
  • Mauritius Gray White-eye Zosterops mauritianus [map] [my records]

Orange River White-eye is split from Cape White-eye (Z. capensis), with Orange River White-eye generally occupying the west side of southernmost Africa (western South Africa into Namibia) and Cape White-eye occupying the east side (eastern South Africa into southernmost Zimbabwe)

Four endemics to islands or groups of islands are split from Madagascar White-eye: Moheli White-eye, Aldabra White-eye, Anjouan White-eye, and Kirk’s White-eye.

Blue-and-white Flycatcher (Cyanoptila cyanomelana) is split into two species, following Leader and Carey (2012): Blue-and-white Flycatcher (Cyanoptila cyanomelana), which includes cyanomelana and a newly added subspecies, intermedia; and Zappey’s Flycatcher (Cyanoptila cumatilis). Zappey’s Flycatcher is quite rare and poorly known, so most eBird records were assumed to pertain to Blue-and-white Flycatcher unless specifically noted as Zappey’s. If you have seen Zappey’s Flycatcher, or have seen breeding birds of this complex in the range of Zappey’s (central China from Shaanxi east to Beijing, and south to northwest Hubei), please do update your eBird records accordingly and be sure to add some notes about how the identification was made. The wintering grounds and migration route of Zappey’s remain poorly known, so records outside of the breeding season would be of particular interest and it would be especially important to add documentation on those records.

  • Blue-and-white Flycatcher Cyanoptila cyanomelana [map] [my records]
  • Zappey’s Flycatcher Cyanoptila cumatilis [map] [my records]

Within Narcissus Flycatcher Ficedula narcissina, the monotypic group Narcissus Flycatcher (Green-backed) Ficedula narcissina elisae is elevated to species rank as Green-backed Flycatcher Ficedula elisae, following Zhang et al. (2006). Green-backed Flycatcher breeds in northeastern China (Shanxi and Hebei); migrates to southern China, Hainan, and southeast Asia (Thailand, Malaya, and Vietnam). most records were retained as Narcissus Flycatcher, except those from within the breeding range or from southern Thailand and Malaya, where Narcissus is very rare. Please check your records of both species carefully and update them as needed.

Mourning Wheatear (Oenanthe lugens) is split into three species, following Schweizer and Shirihai (2013): Mourning Wheater (Oenanthe lugens), which occurs from Morocco east to the Middle East and includes subspecies lugens, halophila, warriae, and persica; Arabian Wheatear (Oenanthe lugentoides), which is restricted to the southeastern Arabian Peninsula and includes subspecies lugentoides and boscaweri; and the the East African (Eritrea south to n. Tanzania) species Abyssinian Wheatear (Oenanthe lugubris), which includes subspecies vauriei, lugubris, and schalowi.

San Cristobal Thrush (Zoothera margaretae) is split into two species, following Gibbs (1996) and Dutson (2011): Makira Thrush (Zoothera margaretae) and Guadalcanal Thrush (Zoothera turipavae). Revise the range of Makira Thrush from “Mountains of San Cristóbal (Solomon Islands)” to “Makira (Solomon Islands)”.

In accord with NACC (Chesser et al. 2014), the local island endemic from off the west coast of Baja California, Guadalupe Junco (Junco insularis), is split from the widespread Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis).

Cinnamon-breasted Bunting (Emberiza tahapisi) is split into two species, following Olsson et al. (2013): Cinnamon-breasted Bunting (Emberiza tahapisi), including the subspecies arabica, insularis, septemstriata, and tahapisi; and Gosling’s Bunting (Emberiza goslingi).

Subspecies argyrophrys, previously included in Chinese Beautiful Rosefinch (Carpodacus davidianus), instead belongs with Himalayan Beautiful Rosefinch (Carpodacus pulcherrimus) (Tietze et al. 2013).

  • Himalayan Beautiful Rosefinch Carpodacus pulcherrimus [map] [my records]
  • Chinese Beautiful Rosefinch Carpodacus davidianus [map] [my records]

Vinaceous Rosefinch (Carpodacus vinaceus) is split with the recognition of the Taiwan endemic Taiwan Rosefinch.

Pale Rosefinch (Carpodacus synoicus) is split into two species, following Tietze et al. (2013): Sinai Rosefinch (Carpodacus synoicus), which is monotypic; and Pale Rosefinch (Carpodacus stoliczkae), which includes the subspecies salimalii, stoliczkae, and beicki.

Socotra Sparrow (Passer insularis) is split into two species (Kirwan 2008, Ryan et al. 2010), with the very localized island endemic Abd’ Al Kuri Sparrow being granted species status. So far, no eBirders have seen this species, so let’s try to get some records in!

 

SUBSPECIES REARRANGEMENTS

Several subspecies groups were split or lumped as well and these are summarized below. To review your records of any of these, simply open your Life List on eBird and use a browser search to search for the species name in question. Click the species to open all reports for that species; your subspecies reports will appear in this list and you can review those for correctness.

The formerly monotypic “Subarctic” subspecies group of Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle) expanded to include multiple subspecies (all subspecies except mandtii). While the “Arctic” subspecies is distinctive, especially in winter plumage, the lower latitude birds in North America and Eurasia are not clearly separable in the field.

  • Black Guillemot (Subarctic) Cepphus grylle [grylle Group] [map]

The formerly monotypic subspecies group Black Noddy (East Pacific) is expanded to include multiple subspecies (all subspecies except americanus and melanogenys) and the common name changed to Black Noddy (Black). There is probably still group level uniqueness within this species that is not yet reflected in the eBird taxonomy.

  • Black Noddy (Black) Anous minutus [minutus Group] [map]

Within Barn Owl (Eurasian), several unique groups from Africa and east Atlantic islands are recognized. Please review your records of Barn Owl to make sure these are reported correctly.

  • Barn Owl (Eurasian) Tyto alba [alba Group] [map]
  • Barn Owl (Madeiran) Tyto alba schmitzi [map]
  • Barn Owl (Canary Islands) Tyto alba gracilirostris [map]         
  • Barn Owl (African) Tyto alba affinis [map]         
  • Barn Owl (Bioko) Tyto alba poensis [map]

Following the split of Socotra Scops-Owl and Arabian Scops-Owl from African Scops-Owl, the African Scops-Owl (African) group is split into several field-identifiable groups as well.

  • African Scops-Owl (African) Otus senegalensis senegalensis [map]
  • African Scops-Owl (Annabon) Otus senegalensis feae [map]
  • African Scops-Owl (Snowy) Otus senegalensis nivosus [map]

Mottled Owl (Mottled) split into two field-identifiable groups: Amazonian and Mottled

  • Mottled Owl (Mottled) Ciccaba virgata [virgata Group] [map]
  • Mottled Owl (Amazonian) Ciccaba virgata superciliaris/macconnelli [map]

Within Southern Boobook (Southern), subspecies leucopsis is removed from the [boobook Group] and recognized as field-dentifiable group its own, endemic to Tasmania:

  • Southern Boobook (Boobook) Ninox novaeseelandiae [boobook Group] [map]
  • Southern Boobook (Tasmanian) Ninox novaeseelandiae leucopsis [map]

Band-winged Nightjar (Tepui) is split from Band-winged Nightjar (Band-winged) as separate identifiable subspecies groups

  • Band-winged Nightjar (Band-winged) Systellura longirostris [longirostris Group] [map]
  • Band-winged Nightjar (Tepui) Systellura longirostris roraimae [map]

The group Mourning Wheatear (Mourning) is redefined to include only persica and lugens. This is because the “Mahgreb” and “Basalt” groups are now recognized from within what was formerly a more expansive Mourning Wheatear (Mourning).

  • Mourning Wheatear (Mourning) Oenanthe lugens lugens/persica [map]
  • Mourning Wheatear (Maghreb) Oenanthe lugens halophila [map]
  • Mourning Wheatear (Basalt) Oenanthe lugens warriae [map]

The Blue-headed group of Cameroon Sunbird is split into Bioko and Blue-headed groups; field differences are subtle, but they should be field identifiable.

  • Cameroon Sunbird (Blue-headed) Cyanomitra oritis oritis [map]
  • Cameroon Sunbird (Bioko) Cyanomitra oritis poensis [map]

The group Masked Yellowthroat (Masked) should have been considered monotypic and peruviana should have been listed as part of “Black-lored” group; the scientific names are changed accordingly, as follows. This extends the range of the Black-lored group south to La Libertad in Peru; the Masked group occurs from NE Colombia to Venezuela, Guianas, Suriname, n Brazil, and Trinidad.

  • Masked Yellowthroat (Masked) Geothlypis aequinoctialis aequinoctialis [map]
  • Masked Yellowthroat (Black-lored) Geothlypis aequinoctialis auricularis/peruviana [map]

The species Black-faced Dacnis earlier was divided into two groups, the monotypic group Black-faced Dacnis (Yellow-tufted) Dacnis lineata egregia, and a polytypic group Black-faced Dacnis (Black-faced) Dacnis lineata lineata/aequatorialis. Subspecies aequatorialis properly belongs with the Black-faced Dacnis (Yellow-tufted) group, however, and so Black-faced Dacnis (Yellow-tufted) becomes a polytypic group, Dacnis lineata egregia/aequatorialis. As a result Black-faced Dacnis (Black-faced) becomes a monotypic group, Dacnis lineata lineata.

  • Black-faced Dacnis (Yellow-tufted) Dacnis lineata egregia/aequatorialis [map]
  • Black-faced Dacnis (Black-faced) Dacnis lineata lineata [map]

Eastern Meadowlark (Lilian’s), is redefined as two Mexican subspecies–auropectoralis and saundersi–are added to this group and removed from the “Eastern” group. Both share the pale cheek and extra white in the tail of Lilian’s Meadowlark. They occur in central Mexico from Durango south to Oaxaca.

  • Eastern Meadowlark (Eastern) Sturnella magna [magna Group] [map] [my records]
  • Eastern Meadowlark (Lilian’s) Sturnella magna [lilianae Group] [map] [my records]

Within Streaky-headed Seedeater, subspecies montanorum and elgonensis are removed from the Streaky-headed group and added to the West African group

  • Streaky-headed Seedeater (West African) Serinus gularis [canicapilla Group] [map]
  • Streaky-headed Seedeater (Streaky-headed) Serinus gularis [gularis Group] [map]

 

LUMPS and INVALID SPECIES

In eBird taxonomic revision, lumps are very easy to deal with. Usually the taxa become subspecies groups, so there is no changing of records necessary, just a recalculation of lists as the species drop to identifiable subspecies. Whenever possible, we encourage birders to continue reporting at the subspecies level, but whenever you select these options, be sure you understand the taxa that you are using; do not try to guess at the subspecies based on the name! This section also includes invalid species descriptions: these are rare but occur when an original description of a species or subspecies is proven to be a hybrid, rare variant, or other form of natural variation that does not represent a species.

Sharpe’s Rail (Gallirallus sharpei) is deleted; the single specimen of this rail is a melanistic example of Buff-banded Rail (Gallirallus philippensis) (van Grouw 2010).

Bamboo Antwren (Myrmotherula oreni) is a recently described species (Miranda et al. 2013) that was added, provisionally, to eBird/Clements Checklist 6.8, pending review by SACC of the proposed new species. Based on current information, SACC has voted to not recognize oreni as a species (SACC Proposal 618). Consequently we now classify oreni as a subspecies (and monotypic group), Ihering’s Antwren (Bamboo).

  • Ihering’s Antwren Myrmotherula iheringi [map] [my records]
  • Ihering’s Antwren (Bamboo) Myrmotherula iheringi oreni [map]

Xingu Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes retentus) is a recently described species (Batista et al. 2013) that was added, provisionally, to eBird/Clements Checklist 6.8, pending review by SACC of the proposed new species. Since then, SACC has voted not to recognize retentus as a species (SACC Proposal 621). Consequently we now classify retentus as a subspecies (and monotypic group), Amazonian Barred-Woodcreeper (Xingu).

  • Amazonian Barred-Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes certhia [map] [my records]
  • Amazonian Barred-Woodcreeper (Xingu) Dendrocolaptes certhia retentus [map]

Tupana Scythebill (Campylorhamphus gyldenstolpei) and Tapajos Scythebill (Campylorhamphus cardosoi) are recently described species (Aleixo et al. 2013) that was added, provisionally, to eBird/Clements Checklist 6.8, pending review by SACC of this proposed new species by SACC. Since then, SACC has voted to not recognize gyldenstolpei as a species (SACC Proposal 623). Consequently we now classify both as subspecies (and monotypic groups) within Curve-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus procurvoides).

  • Curve-billed Scythebill Campylorhamphus procurvoides [map] [my records]
  • Curve-billed Scythebill (Tupana) Campylorhamphus procurvoides gyldenstolpei [map]
  • Curve-billed Scythebill (Tapajos) Campylorhamphus procurvoides cardosoi [map]

Plain-breasted Earthcreeper (Upucerthia jelskii) is lumped into Buff-breasted Earthcreeper (Upucerthia validirostris) in accord with SACC Proposal 572, based on Areta and Pearman (2013). We retain both taxa as groups within Buff-breasted Earthcreeper:

  • Buff-breasted Earthcreeper Upucerthia validirostris [map] [my records]
  • Buff-breasted Earthcreeper (Plain-breasted) Upucerthia validirostris jelskii/saturata [map]
  • Buff-breasted Earthcreeper (Buff-breasted) Upucerthia validirostris validirostris [map]

White-throated Whistler (Pachycephala vitiensis) and Fiji Whistler (Pachycephala graeffii) are lumped, following Andersen et al. (2014a), as Fiji Whistler (Pachycephala vitiensis). Each former species retains an identity as a polytypic group:

  • Fiji Whistler Pachycephala vitiensis [map] [my records]
  • Fiji Whistler (White-throated) Pachycephala vitiensis [vitiensis Group] [map]
  • Fiji Whistler (Fiji) Pachycephala vitiensis [graeffii Group] [map]

Archer’s Lark (Heteromirafra archeri) and Sidamo Lark (Heteromirafra sidamoensis) are lumped as Liben Lark; since neither species was valid even at the subspecies level, these are not retained as groups.

Songar Tit (Poecilie songanus), including subspecies songanus, affinis, and stoetzneri, are lumped with Willow Tit (Poecile motanus), following Salzburger et al. (2002) and Eck and Martens (2006). These taxa are retained as a polytypic group, Willow Tit (Songar) Poecile montanus [songanus Group]. The former species Willow Tit is thus addedas an identifiable subspecies group as well. See also split of Sichuan Tit above.

  • Willow Tit Poecile montanus [map] [my records]
  • Willow Tit (Willow) Poecile montanus [montanus Group [map]
  • Willow Tit (Songar) Poecile montanus [songarus Group] [map]

Delete the recently described and poorly known Kimberley Pipit (Anthus pseudosimilis); the known specimens of Kimberley Pipit are misidentifed examples of African Pipit (Anthus cinnamomeus), of Long-billed Pipit (Anthus similis), and of Mountain Pipit (Anthus hoeschi) (Davies and Peacock 2014). Since this taxon is not valid, it is not retained as a group. Most eBird records were simply changed to pipit sp.; please update your records as needed if you are able to resolve the identification (see introduction).

Delete the recently described and poorly known Long-tailed Pipit (Anthus longicaudatus). The original series of specimens of Long-tailed Pipit are misidentifed examples of Buffy Pipit (Anthus vaalensis) or of Long-billed Pipit (Anthus similis) (Davies and Peacock 2014). Since this taxon is not valid, it is not retained as a group. Most eBird records were simply changed to pipit sp.; please update your records as needed if you are able to resolve the identification (see introduction).

The three subspecies of Spotted Rosefinch (Carpodacus severtzovi), diabolicus, kodensis, and severtzovi, which were split from Great Rosefinch (Carpodacus rubicilla) in Clements Checklist 6.6 (2011), are lumped back into Great Rosefinch following Tietze et al. (2013).

  • Great Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilla [map] [my records]
  • Great Rosefinch (Great) Carpodacus rubicilla rubicilla [map]
  • Great Rosefinch (Spotted) Carpodacus rubicilla [severtzovi Group] [map]

 

NEW SPECIES

Each year, a few newly described species or populations newly recognized for their distinctiveness are named and added to the eBird/Clements taxonomy. This just goes to show how much remains to be learned about the birds of the World!

Within Mayotte White-eye (Z. mayottensis), subspecies semiflavus was recognized by Moreau (1967) as a subspecies of Mayotte White-eye, but was not included in earlier editions of the eBird/Clements Checklist. We recognize this taxon as a species, Marianne White-eye, following Warren et al. (2006), with range “formerly Marianne Island (Seychelles); extinct ca 1900”.

Kiritimati Sandpiper (P. cancellata): Polynesian sandpipers were extirpated from many islands shortly after their initial discovery by Europeans, and there is little documentation of the appearance or former distribution for most of these species. Many earlier authors used the name cancellata to refer to the extant population on the Tuamotu Archipelago. Here we follow Walters (1993) and Cibois et al. (2012) in restricting the name cancellata to an extinct species. Change the English name of Prosobonia cancellata to Kiritimati Sandpiper, and revise the range from “Isolated islands in Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia)” to “extinct; formerly Kiritimati (Christmas) Island, Line Islands”. The date of extinction is not known; it first, and last, was seen by Europeans in 1768. Finally, move the genus Prosobonia to a new position immediately following Arenaria (Cibois et al. 2012).

Moorea Sandpiper (P. ellisi): Walters (1991) and Cibois et al. (2012) proposed recognition of Prosobonia ellisi Sharpe 1906, with English name Moorea Sandpiper and range “extinct; formerly Moorea (Society Islands)”.

Robb et al. (2013) describe a new species of owl, Omani Owl (Strix omanensis), from the Arabian Peninsula, with range “central Al Hajar mountains, northern Oman”. Position Omani Owl immediately following Hume’s Owl (Strix butleri).

This distinctive taxon recently was described as a species, Cryptic Treehunter (Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti), with range “northeastern Brazil; currently known from only two sites, in Alagoas and Pernambuco”. We provisionally recognize this species, but final ratification awaits the review of this description by SACC.

  • Cryptic Treehunter Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti [map] [my records]

Add a newly described species, Sierra Madre Ground-Warbler (Robsonius thompsoni) Hosner et al. 2013, immediately following Cordillera Ground-Warbler (Robsonius rabori). The range of Sierra Madre Ground-Warbler is “northeastern Luzon (Philippines)”.

  • Sierra Madre Ground-Warbler Robsonius thompsoni [map] [my records]

Add Bougainville Thrush (Zoothera atrigena) immediately following New Britain Thrush (Zoothera talaseae). The range of Bougainville Thrush is “Bougainville (Solomon Islands)”. This population was described as a subspecies, Zoothera talaseae atrigena Ripley and Hadden 1982, but was overlooked in previous editions of the eBird/Clements Checklist. We now add it, but recognize it as a species, following Dutson (2011).

Tropeiro Seedeater (Sporophila beltoni) was described as a new species by Repenning and Fontana (2013), and ratified by SACC (Proposal 615). The range of Tropeiro Seedeater is “breeds southern Brazil (Paraná south to Rio Grande do Sul); migrates north to Goiás, Minas Gerais, and southwestern Bahia”.

 

NEW SUBSPECIES GROUPS

The following new subspecies groups are now available for data entry. When you are certain you have seen representatives of these groups, and ideally have identified them critically based on their field marks, please report them to ebird. Please do not guess based on the names like “Northern” and “Southern” or “African” and “Asian”; make sure you understand the differences being represented before reporting at so specific a level.

  • Spur-winged Goose (Northern) Plectropterus gambensis gambensis
  • Spur-winged Goose (Southern) Plectropterus gambensis niger
  • Helmeted Guineafowl (Moroccan) Numida meleagris sabyi
  • Helmeted Guineafowl (Helmeted) Numida meleagris [meleagris Group]
  • Stone Partridge (Stone) Ptilopachus petrosus petrosus
  • Stone Partridge (Ethiopian) Ptilopachus petrosus major
  • Coqui Francolin (Plain-breasted) Francolinus coqui [hubbardi Group]
  • Coqui Francolin (Bar-breasted) Francolinus coqui coqui
  • White-throated Francolin (White-throated) Francolinus albogularis [albogularis Group]
  • White-throated Francolin (Chestnut-breasted) Francolinus albogularis dewittei
  • Crested Francolin (Kirk’s) Francolinus sephaena rovuma
  • Crested Francolin (Crested) Francolinus sephaena [sephaena Group]
  • Orange River Francolin (Archer’s) Francolinus levaillantoides gutturalis/lorti
  • Orange River Francolin (Kalahari) Francolinus levaillantoides jugularis
  • Orange River Francolin (Orange River) Francolinus levaillantoides levaillantoides
  • Red-necked Francolin (Cranch’s) Francolinus afer cranchii/harterti
  • Red-necked Francolin (Northern) Francolinus afer [leucoparaeus Group]
  • Red-necked Francolin (Benguela) Francolinus afer afer
  • Red-necked Francolin (Southern) Francolinus afer castaneiventer
  • Chestnut-naped Francolin (Chestnut-naped) Francolinus castaneicollis castaneicollis
  • Chestnut-naped Francolin (Black-fronted) Francolinus castaneicollis atrifrons
  • Salvadori’s Pheasant (Salvadori’s) Lophura inornata inornata
  • Salvadori’s Pheasant (Hoogerwerf’s) Lophura inornata hoogerwerfi
  • Woolly-necked Stork (African) Ciconia episcopus microscelis
  • Woolly-necked Stork (Asian) Ciconia episcopus episcopus/neglecta
  • Little Bittern (Little) Ixobrychus minutus minutus
  • Little Bittern (African) Ixobrychus minutus payesii
  • Little Bittern (Malagasy) Ixobrychus minutus podiceps
  • Gray Heron (Malagasy) Ardea cinerea firasa
  • Red-chested Goshawk (Banded) Accipiter toussenelii macroscelides
  • Red-chested Goshawk (Red-chested) Accipiter toussenelii toussenelii/canescens
  • Red-chested Goshawk (Bioko) Accipiter toussenelii lopezi
  • African Goshawk (Ethiopian) Accipiter tachiro unduliventer/croizati
  • African Goshawk (Eastern) Accipiter tachiro sparsimfasciatus
  • African Goshawk (Pemba) Accipiter tachiro pembaensis
  • African Goshawk (Southern) Accipiter tachiro tachiro
  • Rufous-chested Sparrowhawk (Ethiopian) Accipiter rufiventris perspicillaris
  • Rufous-chested Sparrowhawk (Rufous-chested) Accipiter rufiventris rufiventris
  • Red-tailed Hawk (Mexican) Buteo jamaicensis kemsiesi/hadropus
  • Red-tailed Hawk (Tres Marias) Buteo jamaicensis fumosus
  • Red-tailed Hawk (Socorro) Buteo jamaicensis socorroensis
  • Red-tailed Hawk (umbrinus) Buteo jamaicensis umbrinus
  • Denham’s Bustard (Denham’s) Neotis denhami denhami
  • Denham’s Bustard (Jackson’s) Neotis denhami jacksoni
  • Denham’s Bustard (Stanley’s) Neotis denhami stanleyi
  • White-spotted Flufftail (Northern) Sarothrura pulchra [pulchra Group]
  • White-spotted Flufftail (Southern) Sarothrura pulchra centralis
  • Dunlin (Icelandic) Calidris alpina schinzii
  • Dunlin (European) Calidris alpina alpina
  • Dunlin (Northeast Asian) Calidris alpina [sakhalina Group]
  • Yellow-legged Gull (Azorean) Larus michahellis atlantis
  • Yellow-legged Gull (Mediterranean) Larus michahellis michahellis
  • Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse (African) Pterocles exustus [exustus Group]
  • Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse (Arabian) Pterocles exustus erlangeri
  • Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse (Asian) Pterocles exustus hindustan
  • Lemon Dove (Western) Columba larvata inornata
  • Lemon Dove (Principe) Columba larvata principalis
  • Lemon Dove (Lemon) Columba larvata larvata/bronzina
  • Guinea Turaco (Buffon’s) Tauraco persa buffoni
  • Guinea Turaco (Guinea) Tauraco persa persa/zenkeri
  • Knysna Turaco (Northern) Tauraco corythaix phoebus
  • Knysna Turaco (Southern) Tauraco corythaix corythaix
  • Black-billed Turaco (Green-rumped) Tauraco schuettii emini
  • Black-billed Turaco (Black-rumped) Tauraco schuettii schuettii
  • Fischer’s Turaco (Fischer’s) Tauraco fischeri fischeri
  • Fischer’s Turaco (Zanzibar) Tauraco fischeri zanzibaricus
  • Yellow-billed Turaco (Yellow-billed) Tauraco macrorhynchus macrorhynchus
  • Yellow-billed Turaco (Verreaux’s) Tauraco macrorhynchus verreauxii
  • White-cheeked Turaco (White-cheeked) Tauraco leucotis leucotis
  • White-cheeked Turaco (Donaldson’s) Tauraco leucotis donaldsoni
  • Ruwenzori Turaco (Ruwenzori) Ruwenzorornis johnstoni johnstoni
  • Ruwenzori Turaco (Mt. Kabobo) Ruwenzorornis johnstoni bredoi
  • Ruwenzori Turaco (Kivu) Ruwenzorornis johnstoni kivuensis
  • Thick-billed Cuckoo (African) Pachycoccyx audeberti validus/brazzae
  • Thick-billed Cuckoo (Malagasy) Pachycoccyx audeberti audeberti
  • Black Cuckoo (Rufous-throated) Cuculus clamosus gabonensis
  • Black Cuckoo (Black) Cuculus clamosus clamosus
  • Barred Long-tailed Cuckoo (Njobo’s) Cercococcyx montanus montanus
  • Barred Long-tailed Cuckoo (Eastern) Cercococcyx montanus patulus
  • African Emerald Cuckoo (African) Chrysococcyx cupreus cupreus
  • African Emerald Cuckoo (Bioko) Chrysococcyx cupreus intermedius
  • African Emerald Cuckoo (Insular) Chrysococcyx cupreus insularum
  • Barn Owl (Madeiran) Tyto alba schmitzi
  • Barn Owl (Canary Islands) Tyto alba gracilirostris
  • Barn Owl (African) Tyto alba affinis
  • Barn Owl (Bioko) Tyto alba poensis
  • Sandy Scops-Owl (Sandy) Otus icterorhynchus icterorhynchus
  • Sandy Scops-Owl (Reddish) Otus icterorhynchus holerythrus
  • European Scops-Owl (European) Otus scops [scops Group]
  • European Scops-Owl (Cyprus) Otus scops cyprius
  • African Scops-Owl (Annabon) Otus senegalensis feae
  • African Scops-Owl (Snowy) Otus senegalensis nivosus
  • Pharaoh Eagle-Owl (Pharaoh) Bubo ascalaphus ascalaphus
  • Pharaoh Eagle-Owl (Desert) Bubo ascalaphus desertorum
  • Cape Eagle-Owl (Northern) Bubo capensis dillonii/mackinderi
  • Cape Eagle-Owl (Cape) Bubo capensis capensis
  • Spotted Eagle-Owl (Arabian) Bubo africanus milesi
  • Spotted Eagle-Owl (Spotted) Bubo africanus africanus/tanae
  • Red-chested Owlet (Western) Glaucidium tephronotum tephronotum
  • Red-chested Owlet (Pycraft’s) Glaucidium tephronotum pycrafti
  • Red-chested Owlet (Eastern) Glaucidium tephronotum medje
  • African Barred Owlet (Spot-fronted) Glaucidium capense scheffleri
  • African Barred-Owlet (Bar-fronted) Glaucidium capense capense/ngamiense
  • Chestnut Owlet (Etchecopar’s) Glaucidium castaneum etchecopari
  • Chestnut Owlet (Chestnut) Glaucidium castaneum castaneum
  • Mottled Owl (Amazonian) Ciccaba virgata superciliaris/macconnelli
  • Tawny Owl (Tawny) Strix aluco [aluco Group]
  • Tawny Owl (Atlas) Strix aluco mauritanica
  • Great Gray Owl (American) Strix nebulosa nebulosa
  • Great Gray Owl (Eurasian) Strix nebulosa lapponica
  • Long-eared Owl (American) Asio otus wilsonianus/tuftsi
  • Long-eared Owl (Eurasian) Asio otus otus/canariensis
  • Southern Boobook (Tasmanian) Ninox novaeseelandiae leucopsis
  • Blyth’s Frogmouth (Indochinese) Batrachostomus affinis continentalis
  • Blyth’s Frogmouth (Blyth’s) Batrachostomus affinis affinis
  • Band-winged Nightjar (Tepui) Systellura longirostris roraimae
  • Nubian Nightjar (Nubian) Caprimulgus nubicus nubicus/tamaricis
  • Nubian Nightjar (Torrid) Caprimulgus nubicus torridus
  • Nubian Nightjar (Socotra) Caprimulgus nubicus jonesi
  • Northern Potoo (Middle American) Nyctibius jamaicensis [mexicanus Group]
  • Northern Potoo (Caribbean) Nyctibius jamaicensis jamaicensis/abbotti
  • Little Swift (Little) Apus affinis [affinis Group]
  • Little Swift (Bannerman’s) Apus affinis bannermani
  • Little Swift (Indian) Apus affinis singalensis
  • Horus Swift (Horus) Apus horus horus
  • Horus Swift (Brown-rumped) Apus horus fuscobrunneus
  • African Palm-Swift (African) Cypsiurus parvus [parvus Group]
  • African Palm-Swift (Comoro) Cypsiurus parvus griveaudi
  • African Palm-Swift (Madagascar) Cypsiurus parvus gracilis
  • Broad-billed Roller (African) Eurystomus glaucurus [afer Group]
  • Broad-billed Roller (Madagascar) Eurystomus glaucurus glaucurus
  • Western Tinkerbird (Western) Pogoniulus coryphaea coryphaea
  • Western Tinkerbird (Eastern) Pogoniulus coryphaea hildamariae
  • Western Tinkerbird (Angola) Pogoniulus coryphaea angolensis
  • Hairy-breasted Barbet (Hairy-breasted) Tricholaema hirsuta hirsuta
  • Hairy-breasted Barbet (Streaky-throated) Tricholaema hirsuta [flavipuncta Group]
  • Black-backed Barbet (Brown-backed) Lybius minor minor
  • Black-backed Barbet (Black-backed) Lybius minor macclounii
  • Golden-throated Barbet (White-eared) Psilopogon franklinii franklinii/ramsayi
  • Golden-throated Barbet (Violet-eared) Psilopogon franklinii auricularis
  • Emerald Toucanet (Gray-throated) Aulacorhynchus prasinus griseigularis
  • Collared Aracari (Stripe-billed) Pteroglossus torquatus sanguineus
  • Collared Aracari (Pale-mandibled) Pteroglossus torquatus erythropygius
  • Rufous-necked Wryneck (Rufous-necked) Jynx ruficollis ruficollis
  • Rufous-necked Wryneck (Bar-throated) Jynx ruficollis pulchricollis
  • Rufous-necked Wryneck (Ethiopian) Jynx ruficollis aequatorialis
  • Golden-spangled Piculet (Undulated) Picumnus exilis undulatus
  • Golden-spangled Piculet (Buffon’s) Picumnus exilis buffoni
  • Golden-spangled Piculet (Pernambuco) Picumnus exilis pernambucensis
  • Golden-spangled Piculet (Bahia) Picumnus exilis exilis
  • Scaled Piculet (Scaled) Picumnus squamulatus [squamulatus Group]
  • Bennett’s Woodpecker (Bennett’s) Campethera bennettii bennettii
  • Bennett’s Woodpecker (Light-spotted) Campethera bennettii capricorni
  • Golden-tailed Woodpecker (Streak-backed) Campethera abingoni chrysura
  • Golden-tailed Woodpecker (Golden-tailed) Campethera abingoni [abingoni Group]
  • Green-backed Woodpecker (Plain-backed) Campethera cailliautii permista
  • Green-backed Woodpecker (Spot-backed) Campethera cailliautii [cailliautii Group]
  • Tullberg’s Woodpecker (Tullberg’s) Campethera tullbergi tullbergi
  • Tullberg’s Woodpecker (Fine-banded) Campethera tullbergi taeniolaema/hausburgi
  • Brown-eared Woodpecker (Western) Campethera caroli arizela
  • Brown-eared Woodpecker (Carol’s) Campethera caroli caroli
  • Elliot’s Woodpecker (Elliot’s) Dendropicos elliotii elliotii
  • Elliot’s Woodpecker (Johnston’s) Dendropicos elliotii johnstoni
  • African Gray Woodpecker (Gray) Dendropicos goertae [goertae Group]
  • African Gray Woodpecker (Sahel) Dendropicos goertae koenigi
  • Olive Woodpecker (Red-bellied) Dendropicos griseocephalus ruwenzori
  • Olive Woodpecker (Montane) Dendropicos griseocephalus kilimensis
  • Olive Woodpecker (Southern) Dendropicos griseocephalus griseocephalus
  • Golden-green Woodpecker (Gold-throated) Piculus chrysochloros xanthochlorus
  • Golden-green Woodpecker (Bar-throated) Piculus chrysochloros capistratus
  • Golden-green Woodpecker (Belem) Piculus chrysochloros paraensis
  • Golden-green Woodpecker (Spot-throated) Piculus chrysochloros laemostictus
  • Golden-green Woodpecker (Golden-green) Piculus chrysochloros chrysochloros
  • Golden-green Woodpecker (Atlantic) Piculus chrysochloros polyzonus
  • Ringed Woodpecker (Ringed) Celeus torquatus torquatus
  • Ringed Woodpecker (Amazonian Black-breasted) Celeus torquatus occidentalis
  • Ringed Woodpecker (Atlantic Black-breasted) Celeus torquatus tinnunculus
  • Red-necked Falcon (Asian) Falco chicquera chicquera
  • Red-necked Falcon (African) Falco chicquera ruficollis/horsbrughi
  • Peregrine Falcon (Red-capped) Falco peregrinus babylonicus
  • Peregrine Falcon (Shaheen) Falco peregrinus peregrinator
  • Peregrine Falcon (Indo-Pacific) Falco peregrinus ernesti/nesiotes
  • Peregrine Falcon (Australian) Falco peregrinus macropus
  • Peregrine Falcon (Buff-fronted) Falco peregrinus submelanogenys
  • Blue-crowned Racquet-tail (Blue-crowned) Prioniturus discurus whiteheadi
  • Blue-crowned Racquet-tail (Blue-capped) Prioniturus discurus discurus
  • Gray Parrot (Timneh) Psittacus erithacus timneh
  • Gray Parrot (Gray) Psittacus erithacus erithacus
  • Brown-necked Parrot (Brown-necked) Poicephalus robustus fuscicollis
  • Brown-necked Parrot (Gray-headed) Poicephalus robustus suahelicus
  • Red-fronted Parrot (Guinean) Poicephalus gulielmi fantiensis
  • Red-fronted Parrot (Red-fronted) Poicephalus gulielmi gulielmi/massaicus
  • Gray-headed Broadbill (Zenker’s) Smithornis sharpei zenkeri
  • Gray-headed Broadbill (Sharpe’s) Smithornis sharpei sharpei
  • Gray-headed Broadbill (Gray-headed) Smithornis sharpei eurylaemus
  • Hooded Pitta (Chestnut-crowned) Pitta sordida cucullata
  • Hooded Pitta (Nicobar) Pitta sordida abbotti
  • Hooded Pitta (Sunda) Pitta sordida mulleri/bangkana
  • Hooded Pitta (Philippine) Pitta sordida sordida/palawanensis
  • Hooded Pitta (Sangihe) Pitta sordida sanghirana
  • Hooded Pitta (Minahassa) Pitta sordida forsteni
  • Hooded Pitta (Papuan) Pitta sordida novaeguineae/goodfellowi
  • Hooded Pitta (Numfor) Pitta sordida mefoorana
  • Hooded Pitta (Biak) Pitta sordida rosenbergii
  • Parana Antwren (Parana) Stymphalornis acutirostris acutirostris
  • Parana Antwren (Sao Paulo) Stymphalornis acutirostris paludicola
  • Chestnut-belted Gnateater (Chestnut-belted) Conopophaga aurita [aurita Group]
  • Chestnut-belted Gnateater (Snethage’s) Conopophaga aurita snethlageae/pallida
  • Magdalena Tapaculo (Yariguies) Scytalopus rodriguezi yariguiorum
  • Magdalena Tapaculo (Upper Magdalena) Scytalopus rodriguezi rodriguezi
  • Ocellated Woodcreeper (Line-crowned) Xiphorhynchus ocellatus beauperthuysii/lineatocapilla
  • McConnell’s Flycatcher (Guianan) Mionectes macconnelli macconnelli
  • McConnell’s Flycatcher (Sierra de Lema) Mionectes macconnelli roraimae
  • McConnell’s Flycatcher (Inambari) Mionectes macconnelli amazonus/peruanus
  • Golden-faced Tyrannulet (Coopman’s) Zimmerius chrysops minimus/cumanensis
  • Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant (Lesser) Stigmatura napensis napensis
  • Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant (Bahia) Stigmatura napensis bahiae
  • Greater Wagtail-Tyrant (Greater) Stigmatura budytoides [budytoides Group]
  • Greater Wagtail-Tyrant (Caatinga) Stigmatura budytoides gracilis
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (Southern) Pyrocephalus rubinus rubinus
  • Boulton’s Batis (Angolan) Batis margaritae margaritae
  • Boulton’s Batis (Eastern) Batis margaritae kathleenae
  • Cape Batis (Malawi) Batis capensis dimorpha/sola
  • Cape Batis (Gray-mantled) Batis capensis [erythrophthalma Group]
  • Cape Batis (Cape) Batis capensis capensis
  • White Helmetshrike (Long-crested) Prionops plumatus plumatus
  • White Helmetshrike (Yellow-eyed) Prionops plumatus [poliocephalus Group]
  • Red-billed Helmetshrike (Red-billed) Prionops caniceps caniceps
  • Red-billed Helmetshrike (Gray-cheeked) Prionops caniceps harterti
  • Tylas Vanga (Eduard’s) Tylas eduardi eduardi
  • Tylas Vanga (White-throated) Tylas eduardi albigularis
  • Chabert Vanga (Chabert) Leptopterus chabert chabert
  • Chabert Vanga (White-tailed) Leptopterus chabert schistocercus
  • Hook-billed Vanga (Hook-billed) Vanga curvirostris curvirostris
  • Hook-billed Vanga (Black-crowned) Vanga curvirostris cetera
  • Marsh Tchagra (Marsh) Tchagra minutus minutus
  • Marsh Tchagra (Anchieta’s) Tchagra minutus reichenowi/anchietae
  • Black-crowned Tchagra (Hooded) Tchagra senegalus cucullatus
  • Black-crowned Tchagra (Black-crowned) Tchagra senegalus [senegalus Group]
  • Gabon Boubou (Gabon) Laniarius bicolor bicolor/guttatus
  • Gabon Boubou (Okavango) Laniarius bicolor sticturus
  • Mountain Sooty Boubou (Cameroon) Laniarius poensis camerunensis
  • Mountain Sooty Boubou (Bioko) Laniarius poensis poensis
  • Mountain Sooty Boubou (Ruwenzori) Laniarius poensis holomelas
  • Fuelleborn’s Boubou (Usumbara) Laniarius fuelleborni usambaricus
  • Fuelleborn’s Boubou (Fuelleborn’s) Laniarius fuelleborni fuelleborni
  • Bokmakierie (Southern) Telophorus zeylonus [zeylonus Group]
  • Bokmakierie (Chimanimani) Telophorus zeylonus restrictus
  • Lagden’s Bushshrike (Lagden’s) Malaconotus lagdeni lagdeni
  • Lagden’s Bushshrike (Eastern) Malaconotus lagdeni centralis
  • Monteiro’s Bushshrike (Mt. Cameroon) Malaconotus monteiri perspicillatus
  • Monteiro’s Bushshrike (Monteiro’s) Malaconotus monteiri monteiri
  • Green-headed Oriole (Green-headed) Oriolus chlorocephalus chlorocephalus/amani
  • Green-headed Oriole (Gorongosa) Oriolus chlorocephalus speculifer
  • Velvet-mantled Drongo (Velvet-mantled) Dicrurus modestus coracinus/atactus
  • Velvet-mantled Drongo (Príncipe) Dicrurus modestus modestus
  • Crested Drongo (Malagasy) Dicrurus forficatus forficatus
  • Crested Drongo (Comoro) Dicrurus forficatus potior
  • Black-headed Paradise-Flycatcher (Tricolored) Terpsiphone rufiventer tricolor/neumanni
  • Eurasian Jay (Eurasian) Garrulus glandarius [glandarius Group]
  • Eurasian Jay (Black-capped) Garrulus glandarius [atricapillus Group]
  • Eurasian Jay (Black-crowned) Garrulus glandarius [cervicalis Group]
  • Eurasian Jay (Iranian) Garrulus glandarius hyrcanus
  • Eurasian Jay (Brandt’s) Garrulus glandarius [brandtii Group]
  • Eurasian Jay (Himalayan) Garrulus glandarius [bispecularis Group]
  • Eurasian Jay (White-faced) Garrulus glandarius leucotis/barringtoni
  • Eurasian Jay (Japanese) Garrulus glandarius [japonicus Group]
  • Eurasian Magpie (Iberian) Pica pica melanotos
  • Eurasian Magpie (African) Pica pica mauritanica
  • Eurasian Magpie (Eurasian) Pica pica [pica Group]
  • Eurasian Magpie (Arabian) Pica pica asirensis
  • Eurasian Magpie (Black-rumped) Pica pica bottanensis
  • Eurasian Magpie (Kamchatkan) Pica pica camtschatica
  • Red-billed Chough (Red-billed) Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax [pyrrhocorax Group]
  • Red-billed Chough (Ethiopian) Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax baileyi
  • Slender-billed Crow (Sierra Madre) Corvus enca samarensis/sierramadrensis
  • Red-winged Lark (Red-winged) Mirafra hypermetra [hypermetra Group]
  • Red-winged Lark (Rift Valley) Mirafra hypermetra gallarum
  • Rufous-naped Lark (Somali) Mirafra africana sharpii
  • Rufous-naped Lark (Sudan) Mirafra africana kurrae
  • Rufous-naped Lark (Bamenda) Mirafra africana stresemanni/bamendae
  • Rufous-naped Lark (Rufous-naped) Mirafra africana [africana Group]
  • Rufous-naped Lark (Serengeti) Mirafra africana tropicalis
  • Rufous-naped Lark (Blackish) Mirafra africana nigrescens/nyikae
  • Rufous-naped Lark (Malbrant’s) Mirafra africana malbranti
  • Sabota Lark (Bradfield’s) Calendulauda sabota [naevia Group]
  • Sabota Lark (Sabota) Calendulauda sabota [sabota Group]
  • Greater Hoopoe-Lark (Cape Verde) Alaemon alaudipes boavistae
  • Greater Hoopoe-Lark (Mainland) Alaemon alaudipes [alaudipes Group]
  • Horned Lark (Atlas) Eremophila alpestris atlas
  • Horned Lark (Black-necklaced) Eremophila alpestris [penicillata Group]
  • Horned Lark (Tibetan) Eremophila alpestris [elwesi Group]
  • Horned Lark (Brandt’s) Eremophila alpestris brandti
  • Horned Lark (South Baja) Eremophila alpestris enertera
  • Horned Lark (Mexican) Eremophila alpestris [chrysolaema Group]
  • Horned Lark (Colombian) Eremophila alpestris peregrina
  • Plain Martin (African) Riparia paludicola [paludicola Group]
  • Plain Martin (Madagascar) Riparia paludicola cowani
  • White-headed Sawwing (White-headed) Psalidoprocne albiceps albiceps
  • White-headed Sawwing (Dusky-throated) Psalidoprocne albiceps suffusa
  • White-bellied Crested-Flycatcher (White-bellied) Elminia albiventris albiventris
  • White-bellied Crested-Flycatcher (Toro) Elminia albiventris toroensis
  • Rufous-bellied Tit (Rufous-bellied) Melaniparus rufiventris rufiventris/masukuensis
  • Rufous-bellied Tit (Cinnamon-breasted) Melaniparus rufiventris pallidiventris
  • African Penduline-Tit (White-bellied) Anthoscopus caroli [ansorgei Group]
  • African Penduline-Tit (Yellow-bellied) Anthoscopus caroli roccatii
  • African Penduline-Tit (Slaty-backed) Anthoscopus caroli rankinei
  • African Penduline-Tit (Buff-vented) Anthoscopus caroli [caroli Group]
  • Eurasian Wren (Iceland) Troglodytes troglodytes islandicus
  • Eurasian Wren (Faeroe) Troglodytes troglodytes borealis
  • Eurasian Wren (Shetland) Troglodytes troglodytes zetlandicus
  • Eurasian Wren (Hebridean) Troglodytes troglodytes hebridensis
  • Eurasian Wren (Fair Isle) Troglodytes troglodytes fridariensis
  • Eurasian Wren (St. Kilda) Troglodytes troglodytes hirtensis
  • Eurasian Wren (British) Troglodytes troglodytes indigenus
  • Eurasian Wren (Eurasian) Troglodytes troglodytes [troglodytes Group]
  • White-capped Dipper (Santa Marta) Cinclus leucocephalus rivularis
  • White-capped Dipper (White-bellied) Cinclus leucocephalus leuconotus
  • White-capped Dipper (White-capped) Cinclus leucocephalus leucocephalus
  • White-throated Greenbul (White-throated) Phyllastrephus albigularis albigularis
  • White-throated Greenbul (Green-crowned) Phyllastrephus albigularis viridiceps
  • White-browed Crombec (White-browed) Sylvietta leucophrys leucophrys/chloronota
  • White-browed Crombec (Chapin’s) Sylvietta leucophrys chapini
  • African Reed-Warbler (African) Acrocephalus baeticatus [baeticatus Group]
  • African Reed-Warbler (Mangrove) Acrocephalus baeticatus avicenniae
  • Evergreen-forest Warbler (Lopez’s) Bradypterus lopezi lopezi/camerunensis
  • Evergreen-forest Warbler (Volcanic) Bradypterus lopezi barakae
  • Evergreen-forest Warbler (Boulton’s) Bradypterus lopezi boultoni
  • Evergreen-forest Warbler (Eastern) Bradypterus lopezi [mariae Group]
  • Little Rush-Warbler (Kenyan Highlands) Bradypterus baboecala elgonensis
  • Little Rush-Warbler (Little) Bradypterus baboecala [baboecala Group]
  • Black-capped Apalis (Black-capped) Apalis nigriceps nigriceps
  • Black-capped Apalis (White-tailed) Apalis nigriceps collaris
  • Yellow-breasted Apalis (Yellow-breasted) Apalis flavida [flavida Group]
  • Buff-throated Apalis (Black-breasted) Apalis rufogularis rufogularis/sanderi
  • Buff-throated Apalis (Angola) Apalis rufogularis angolensis/brauni
  • Buff-throated Apalis (Buff-throated) Apalis rufogularis nigrescens/kigezi
  • Chestnut-throated Apalis (Kabobo) Apalis porphyrolaema kaboboensis
  • Chestnut-throated Apalis (Chestnut-throated) Apalis porphyrolaema porphyrolaema/affinis
  • Gray Apalis (Sclater’s) Apalis cinerea sclateri
  • Gray Apalis (Angola) Apalis cinerea grandis
  • Gray Apalis (Gray) Apalis cinerea cinerea/funebris
  • White-tailed Warbler (Highland) Poliolais lopezi manengubae
  • White-tailed Warbler (Alexander’s) Poliolais lopezi alexanderi
  • White-tailed Warbler (Bioko) Poliolais lopezi lopezi
  • Red-fronted Warbler (Red-fronted) Urorhipis rufifrons rufifrons/smithi
  • Red-fronted Warbler (Rufous-backed) Urorhipis rufifrons rufidorsalis
  • Miombo Wren-Warbler (Miombo) Calamonastes undosus [undosus Group]
  • Miombo Wren-Warbler (Stierling’s) Calamonastes undosus [stierlingi Group]
  • Long-billed Tailorbird (Long-billed) Artisornis moreaui moreaui
  • Long-billed Tailorbird (Njesi) Artisornis moreaui sousae
  • Green Longtail (Green) Urolais epichlorus epichlorus
  • Green Longtail (Bioko) Urolais epichlorus mariae
  • Red-faced Cisticola (Red-faced) Cisticola erythrops [erythrops Group]
  • Red-faced Cisticola (Lepe) Cisticola erythrops lepe
  • Chubb’s Cisticola (Discolored) Cisticola chubbi discolor/adametzi
  • Chubb’s Cisticola (Chubb’s) Cisticola chubbi chubbi/marungensis
  • Rock-loving Cisticola (Rock-loving) Cisticola aberrans [emini Group]
  • Rock-loving Cisticola (Lazy) Cisticola aberrans [aberrans Group]
  • Red-headed Cisticola (Namib) Cisticola subruficapilla newtoni
  • Red-headed Cisticola (Red-headed) Cisticola subruficapilla [subruficapilla Group]
  • Red-headed Cisticola (Plain-breasted) Cisticola subruficapilla jamesi
  • Stout Cisticola (Western) Cisticola robustus santae
  • Stout Cisticola (Stout) Cisticola robustus robustus/schraderi
  • Stout Cisticola (Omo) Cisticola robustus omo
  • Stout Cisticola (Rufous-crowned) Cisticola robustus nuchalis/awemba
  • Stout Cisticola (Angola) Cisticola robustus angolensis
  • Zitting Cisticola (Zitting) Cisticola juncidis [juncidis Group]
  • Zitting Cisticola (African) Cisticola juncidis terrestris/cursitans
  • Cloud Cisticola (Cloud) Cisticola textrix [major Group]
  • Cloud Cisticola (Cape) Cisticola textrix textrix
  • Black-necked Cisticola (Ghana/Pale) Cisticola eximius winneba
  • Black-necked Cisticola (Black-necked) Cisticola eximius eximius/occidens
  • Pectoral-patch Cisticola (Lynes’s) Cisticola brunnescens lynesi/mbangensis
  • Pectoral-patch Cisticola (Pectoral-patch) Cisticola brunnescens [brunnescens Group]
  • Wing-snapping Cisticola (Gabon) Cisticola ayresii gabun
  • Wing-snapping Cisticola (Wing-snapping) Cisticola ayresii [ayresii Group]
  • African Hill Babbler (Mt. Cameroon) Sylvia abyssinica monachus
  • African Hill Babbler (Claude’s) Sylvia abyssinica claudei
  • African Hill Babbler (Stierling’s) Sylvia abyssinica stierlingi
  • Brown Warbler (Brown) Sylvia lugens [lugens Group]
  • Brown Warbler (Gray-vented) Sylvia lugens griseiventris
  • African Yellow White-eye (Forest) Zosterops senegalensis stenocricotus
  • African Yellow White-eye (African Yellow) Zosterops senegalensis [senegalensis Group]
  • Pin-striped Tit-Babbler (Pin-striped) Mixornis gularis [gularis Group]
  • Pin-striped Tit-Babbler (Palawan) Mixornis gularis woodi
  • Bold-striped Tit-Babbler (Bold-striped) Mixornis bornensis [bornensis Group]
  • Bold-striped Tit-Babbler (Mapun) Mixornis bornensis cagayanensis
  • Blackcap Illadopsis (Western) Illadopsis cleaveri cleaveri/johnsoni
  • Blackcap Illadopsis (Eastern) Illadopsis cleaveri batesi/marchanti
  • Blackcap Illadopsis (Bioko) Illadopsis cleaveri poensis
  • Thrush Babbler (Rufous-tailed) Illadopsis turdina harterti
  • Thrush Babbler (Thrush) Illadopsis turdina turdina
  • Thrush Babbler (Olive) Illadopsis turdina upembae
  • Blackcap Babbler (Blackcap) Turdoides reinwardtii reinwardtii
  • Blackcap Babbler (Dusky-throated) Turdoides reinwardtii stictilaema
  • Capuchin Babbler (Capuchin) Turdoides atripennis atripennis/rubiginosus
  • Capuchin Babbler (Brown-throated) Turdoides atripennis bohndorffi
  • Pale Flycatcher (Pale) Bradornis pallidus [pallidus Group]
  • African Forest-Flycatcher (Western) Fraseria ocreata prosphora/kelsalli
  • African Forest-Flycatcher (Eastern) Fraseria ocreata ocreata
  • Olivaceous Flycatcher (Olivaceous) Muscicapa olivascens olivascens
  • Olivaceous Flycatcher (Mt. Nimba) Muscicapa olivascens nimbae
  • Forest Scrub-Robin (Forest) Cercotrichas leucosticta [leucosticta Group]
  • Forest Scrub-Robin (Huila) Cercotrichas leucosticta reichenowi
  • Bearded Scrub-Robin (Bearded) Cercotrichas quadrivirgata quadrivirgata
  • Bearded Scrub-Robin (Zanzibar) Cercotrichas quadrivirgata greenwayi
  • Red-backed Scrub-Robin (Red-backed) Cercotrichas leucophrys [leucophrys Group]
  • Madagascar Magpie-Robin (Black-bellied) Copsychus albospecularis albospecularis
  • Madagascar Magpie-Robin (White-bellied) Copsychus albospecularis inexpectatus
  • Madagascar Magpie-Robin (White-winged) Copsychus albospecularis pica
  • White-bellied Robin-Chat (White-bellied) Cossyphicula roberti roberti
  • White-bellied Robin-Chat (Albertine) Cossyphicula roberti rufescentior
  • Mountain Robin-Chat (Highland) Cossypha isabellae batesi
  • Mountain Robin-Chat (Mountain) Cossypha isabellae isabellae
  • Archer’s Robin-Chat (Archer’s) Cossypha archeri archeri
  • Archer’s Robin-Chat (Kabobo) Cossypha archeri kimbutui
  • Olive-flanked Robin-Chat (White-bellied) Cossypha anomala grotei
  • Olive-flanked Robin-Chat (Black) Cossypha anomala mbuluensis
  • Olive-flanked Robin-Chat (Olive-flanked) Cossypha anomala [anomala Group]
  • Gray-winged Robin-Chat (Black-capped) Cossypha polioptera nigriceps/tessmanni
  • Gray-winged Robin-Chat (Gray-winged) Cossypha polioptera polioptera
  • Swynnerton’s Robin (Udzungwa) Swynnertonia swynnertoni rodgersi
  • Swynnerton’s Robin (Swynnerton’s) Swynnertonia swynnertoni swynnertoni
  • Brown-chested Alethe (Gray-headed) Pseudalethe poliocephala poliocephala
  • Brown-chested Alethe (Gabela) Pseudalethe poliocephala hallae
  • Brown-chested Alethe (Chestnut-backed) Pseudalethe poliocephala compsonota
  • Brown-chested Alethe (Brown-chested) Pseudalethe poliocephala [carruthersi Group]
  • Bocage’s Akalat (Grant’s) Sheppardia bocagei granti
  • Bocage’s Akalat (Bioko) Sheppardia bocagei poensis
  • Bocage’s Akalat (Bocage’s) Sheppardia bocagei [bocagei Group]
  • East Coast Akalat (East Coast) Sheppardia gunningi sokokensis
  • East Coast Akalat (Gunning’s) Sheppardia gunningi [gunningi Group]
  • White-crowned Forktail (White-crowned) Enicurus leschenaulti [leschenaulti Group]
  • White-crowned Forktail (Bornean) Enicurus leschenaulti borneensis
  • Short-toed Rock-Thrush (Short-toed) Monticola brevipes brevipes
  • Short-toed Rock-Thrush (White-crowned) Monticola brevipes pretoriae
  • Brown-tailed Chat (Brown-tailed) Cercomela scotocerca [scotocerca Group]
  • Brown-tailed Chat (Pale) Cercomela scotocerca spectatrix/validior
  • Moorland Chat (Abyssinian) Cercomela sordida sordida
  • Moorland Chat (Rudolf’s) Cercomela sordida rudolfi
  • Moorland Chat (Mt. Kenya) Cercomela sordida ernesti
  • Moorland Chat (Ngorongoro) Cercomela sordida olimotiensis
  • Moorland Chat (Mt. Kilimanjaro) Cercomela sordida hypospodia
  • Mourning Wheatear (Maghreb) Oenanthe lugens halophila
  • Mourning Wheatear (Basalt) Oenanthe lugens warriae
  • Red-tailed Ant-Thrush (Red-tailed) Neocossyphus rufus gabunensis
  • Red-tailed Ant-Thrush (Coastal) Neocossyphus rufus rufus
  • Spotted Ground-Thrush (Lotti) Geokichla guttata maxis
  • Spotted Ground-Thrush (Congo) Geokichla guttata lippensi
  • Spotted Ground-Thrush (Spotted) Geokichla guttata [guttata Group]
  • Black-eared Ground-Thrush (Cameroon) Geokichla camaronensis camaronensis
  • Black-eared Ground-Thrush (Grauer’s) Geokichla camaronensis graueri
  • Gray Ground-Thrush (Prince’s) Geokichla princei princei
  • Gray Ground-Thrush (Bates’s) Geokichla princei batesi
  • Crossley’s Ground-Thrush (Crossley’s) Geokichla crossleyi crossleyi
  • Crossley’s Ground-Thrush (Itombwe) Geokichla crossleyi pilettei
  • Groundscraper Thrush (Heath) Psophocichla litsitsirupa simensis
  • Groundscraper Thrush (Groundscraper) Psophocichla litsitsirupa [litsitsirupa Group]
  • Abyssinian Thrush (Ngorongoro) Turdus abyssinicus oldeani
  • Abyssinian Thrush (Abyssinian) Turdus abyssinicus [abyssinicus Group]
  • African Thrush (African) Turdus pelios [pelios Group]
  • African Thrush (Black-lored) Turdus pelios nigrilorum/poensis
  • African Thrush (Orange-bellied) Turdus pelios stormsi/graueri
  • White-necked Thrush (Gray-flanked) Turdus albicollis [phaeopygus Group]
  • White-necked Thrush (Rufous-flanked) Turdus albicollis [albicollis Group]
  • Meves’s Glossy-Starling (Meves’s) Lamprotornis mevesii mevesii/violacior
  • Meves’s Glossy-Starling (Benguela) Lamprotornis mevesii benguelensis
  • Chestnut-winged Starling (Chestnut-winged) Onychognathus fulgidus fulgidus
  • Chestnut-winged Starling (Hartlaub’s) Onychognathus fulgidus hartlaubii/intermedius
  • Waller’s Starling (Preuss’s) Onychognathus walleri preussi
  • Waller’s Starling (Albertine) Onychognathus walleri elgonensis
  • Waller’s Starling (Waller’s) Onychognathus walleri walleri
  • Babbling Starling (Western) Neocichla gutturalis gutturalis
  • Babbling Starling (Eastern) Neocichla gutturalis angusta
  • Thick-billed Flowerpecker (Thick-billed) Dicaeum agile [agile Group]
  • Thick-billed Flowerpecker (Striped) Dicaeum agile [aeruginosum Group]
  • Gray-sided Flowerpecker (Gray-sided) Dicaeum celebicum [celebicum Group]
  • Gray-sided Flowerpecker (Wakatobi) Dicaeum celebicum kuehni
  • Cameroon Sunbird (Green-headed) Cyanomitra oritis bansoensis
  • Cameroon Sunbird (Bioko) Cyanomitra oritis poensis
  • Montane Double-collared Sunbird (Western) Cinnyris ludovicensis ludovicensis
  • Montane Double-collared Sunbird (Eastern) Cinnyris ludovicensis whytei
  • Northern Double-collared Sunbird (Western) Cinnyris reichenowi preussi
  • Northern Double-collared Sunbird (Eastern) Cinnyris reichenowi reichenowi
  • Palestine Sunbird (Decorse’s) Cinnyris osea decorsei
  • Palestine Sunbird (Palestine) Cinnyris osea osea
  • Oustalet’s Sunbird (Angola) Cinnyris oustaleti oustaleti
  • Oustalet’s Sunbird (Eastern) Cinnyris oustaleti rhodesiae
  • African Pipit (Cameroon) Anthus cinnamomeus camaroonensis
  • African Pipit (Yemen) Anthus cinnamomeus eximius
  • African Pipit (African) Anthus cinnamomeus [cinnamomeus Group]
  • African Pipit (Etosha) Anthus cinnamomeus grotei
  • Long-billed Pipit (West African) Anthus similis bannermani
  • Long-billed Pipit (Middle Eastern) Anthus similis captus
  • Long-billed Pipit (Arabian) Anthus similis arabicus
  • Long-billed Pipit (Socotra) Anthus similis sokotrae
  • Long-billed Pipit (Nicholson’s) Anthus similis [nicholsoni Group]
  • Long-billed Pipit (Persian) Anthus similis decaptus/jerdoni
  • Long-billed Pipit (Indian) Anthus similis similis/travancoriensis
  • Long-billed Pipit (Burmese) Anthus similis yamethini
  • Variable Seedeater (Black) Sporophila corvina corvina
  • Variable Seedeater (Variable) Sporophila corvina [ophthalmica Group]
  • Cuban Bullfinch (Cuban) Melopyrrha nigra nigra
  • Cuban Bullfinch (Grand Cayman) Melopyrrha nigra taylori
  • Great-tailed Grackle (Western) Quiscalus mexicanus [graysoni Group]
  • Great-tailed Grackle (Great-tailed) Quiscalus mexicanus [mexicanus Group]
  • Dead Sea Sparrow (Dead Sea) Passer moabiticus moabiticus
  • Dead Sea Sparrow (Sistan Scrub) Passer moabiticus yatii
  • White-browed Sparrow-Weaver (Black-billed) Plocepasser mahali melanorhynchus
  • White-browed Sparrow-Weaver (White-tailed) Plocepasser mahali ansorgei
  • White-browed Sparrow-Weaver (Spot-chested) Plocepasser mahali pectoralis
  • White-browed Sparrow-Weaver (White-breasted) Plocepasser mahali mahali
  • Black-necked Weaver (Olive-backed) Ploceus nigricollis brachypterus
  • Black-necked Weaver (Black-backed) Ploceus nigricollis nigricollis/melanoxanthus
  • Spectacled Weaver (Yellow-throated) Ploceus ocularis crocatus
  • Spectacled Weaver (Black-throated) Ploceus ocularis ocularis/suahelicus
  • Black-billed Weaver (Western) Ploceus melanogaster melanogaster
  • Black-billed Weaver (Eastern) Ploceus melanogaster stephanophorus
  • Chestnut Weaver (Benguela) Ploceus rubiginosus trothae
  • Chestnut Weaver (Chestnut) Ploceus rubiginosus rubiginosus
  • Maxwell’s Black Weaver (White-naped) Ploceus albinucha albinucha
  • Maxwell’s Black Weaver (Maxwell’s) Ploceus albinucha maxwelli/holomelas
  • Yellow Bishop (Montane) Euplectes capensis phoenicomerus
  • Yellow Bishop (Ethiopian) Euplectes capensis xanthomelas
  • Yellow Bishop (Yellow) Euplectes capensis [capensis Group]
  • Green-backed Twinspot (Orange-breasted) Mandingoa nitidula schlegeli/virginiae
  • Green-backed Twinspot (Green-breasted) Mandingoa nitidula nitidula/chubbi
  • Red-faced Crimson-wing (Western) Cryptospiza reichenovii reichenovii
  • Red-faced Crimson-wing (Eastern) Cryptospiza reichenovii australis/ocularis
  • Western Bluebill (Western) Spermophaga haematina haematina/togoensis
  • Western Bluebill (Red-rumped) Spermophaga haematina pustulata
  • Dusky Twinspot (Angolan) Euschistospiza cinereovinacea cinereovinacea
  • Dusky Twinspot (Grauer’s) Euschistospiza cinereovinacea graueri
  • Black-faced Firefinch (Vinaceous) Lagonosticta larvata vinacea
  • Black-faced Firefinch (Gray) Lagonosticta larvata nigricollis
  • Black-faced Firefinch (Reddish) Lagonosticta larvata larvata
  • Scaly-breasted Munia (Checkered) Lonchura punctulata punctulata
  • Scaly-breasted Munia (Scaled) Lonchura punctulata [nisoria Group]

NEW HYBRIDS and INTERGRADES

eBird has a long list of field identifiable hybrids. These are always listed in taxonomic order (the species that comes first sequentially is listed first) and are always followed by “hybrid”. If you identified a hybrid, especially any of the below, please do report it to eBird (hopefully with photos)! eBird also maintains a much shorter lists of intergrades (hybrids between subspecies groups); these can be identified by the structure of the names which indicates that it is a subspecies. Hybrids and intergrades are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Greater White-fronted x Bar-headed Goose (hybrid) Anser albifrons x indicus
  • Pink-footed x Barnacle Goose (hybrid) Anser brachyrhynchus x Branta leucopsis
  • Greater White-fronted x Barnacle Goose (hybrid) Anser albifrons x Branta leucopsis
  • Graylag Goose x Canada Goose (hybrid) Anser anser x Branta canadensis
  • Domestic goose sp. (Domestic type) x Canada Goose (hybrid) Anser sp. (Domestic type) x Branta canadensis
  • Snow/Ross’s x Cackling/Canada Goose (hybrid) Chen caerulescens/rossii x Branta hutchinsii/canadensis
  • Yellow-billed Duck x Mallard (hybrid) Anas undulata x platyrhynchos
  • Eurasian Wigeon x Northern Pintail (hybrid) Anas penelope x acuta
  • Gadwall x Green-winged Teal (hybrid) Anas strepera x crecca
  • Cinnamon x Green-winged Teal (hybrid) Anas cyanoptera x crecca
  • Common Pochard x Ferruginous Duck (hybrid) Aythya ferina x nyroca
  • Green x Striated Heron (hybrid) Butorides virescens x striata
  • Common x Long-legged Buzzard (hybrid) Buteo buteo x rufinus
  • Eurasian Collared-Dove x Mourning Dove (hybrid) Streptopelia decaocto x Zenaida macroura
  • Black-chinned x Calliope Hummingbird (hybrid) Archilochus alexandri x Selasphorus calliope
  • Amazonian x Rufous-capped Motmot (hybrid) Momotus momota x Baryphthengus ruficapillus
  • Eurasian Green Woodpecker (Eurasian x Iberian) Picus viridis viridis x sharpei
  • Crimson Rosella (Crimson x Yellow) Platycercus elegans [elegans Group] x flaveolus
  • Pacific-slope x Cordilleran Flycatcher (hybrid) Empidonax difficilis x occidentalis
  • Pied x Black-eared Wheatear (hybrid) Oenanthe pleschanka x hispanica
  • Magnolia x Chestnut-sided Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga magnolia x pensylvanica
  • Magnolia x Yellow-rumped Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga magnolia x coronata
  • Northern Cardinal x Pyrrhuloxia (hybrid) Cardinalis cardinalis x sinuatus

 

NEW FORMS

Within eBird, we also have forms for taxa that are field identifiable (or likely potential species) and worth tracking, but are not formally described. These include undescribed species (noted with “undescribed form”), undescribed subspecies groups, and miscellaneous other options. Forms are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Gough Prion (undescribed form) Pachyptila [undescribed form]
  • Yungas Woodcreeper (undescribed form) Deconychura [undescribed form]
  • Evening Grosbeak (type 1) Coccothraustes vespertinus (type 1)
  • Evening Grosbeak (type 2) Coccothraustes vespertinus (type 2)
  • Evening Grosbeak (type 3) Coccothraustes vespertinus (type 3)
  • Evening Grosbeak (type 4) Coccothraustes vespertinus (type 4)
  • Evening Grosbeak (Mexican or type 5) Coccothraustes vespertinus (type 5)

 

NEW DOMESTICS

eBird has certain domesticated species that are regularly seen in a feral or wild state. This particular taxon was added because many domestic geese contain genes from Graylag Goose and Swan Goose, and identifying a given domestic bird to a specific species is ill-advised in many cases. Domestics are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Domestic goose sp. (Domestic type) Anser sp. (Domestic type)

 

NEW SLASHES AND SPUHS

As with hybrids, eBird has a long list of slashes and spuhs. These are useful in the field if you get a good enough look to know it was a scoter, but not good enough to tell if it was a Common Scoter, Black Scoter, Surf Scoter, or White-winged Scoter. You can use “scoter sp.”, in such instances. If you are able to narrow it own to two (or in rare cases, three or four) species options, we have “slashes”, which mention the full common name (and scientific name) for the species that are potential species for your observation. This list is being regularly updated as observers let us know what field identification problems they encounter. Slashes and Spuhs are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Garganey/Green-winged Teal Anas querquedula/crecca
  • curassow sp. Cracidae sp. (curassow sp.)
  • Rock/Red-legged Partridge Alectoris graeca/rufa
  • Red/Painted Spurfowl Galloperdix spadicea/lunulata
  • stork sp. Ciconiidae sp.
  • Great Cormorant/European Shag Phalacrocorax carbo/aristotelis
  • Indian/Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis/niger
  • pelican sp. Pelecanus sp.
  • Green/Striated Heron Butorides virescens/striata
  • Mississippi/Plumbeous Kite Ictinia mississippiensis/plumbea
  • Red-shouldered/Broad-winged Hawk Buteo lineatus/platypterus
  • large rail sp. Rallus sp. (large Rallus sp.)
  • jacana sp. Jacanidae sp.
  • Whimbrel/Eurasian Curlew Numenius phaeopus/arquata
  • Collared/Oriental Pratincole Glareola pratincola/maldivarum
  • Collared/Black-winged Pratincole Glareola pratincola/nordmanni
  • Scripps’s/Craveri’s Murrelet Synthliboramphus scrippsi/craveri
  • Slender-billed/Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus genei/ridibundus
  • Black-headed/Mediterranean Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus/Ichthyaetus melanocephalus
  • Black/Lesser Noddy Anous minutus/tenuirostris
  • Plumbeous/Ruddy Pigeon Patagioenas plumbea/subvinacea
  • Ruddy/Short-billed Pigeon Patagioenas subvinacea/nigrirostris
  • Turtur sp. Turtur sp.
  • Plaintive/Gray-bellied Cuckoo Cacomantis merulinus/passerinus
  • Square-tailed/Fork-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo Surniculus lugubris/dicruroides
  • Pulsatrix sp. Pulsatrix sp.
  • Brown/Northern Boobook Ninox scutulata/japonica
  • boobook sp. Ninox sp.
  • thorntail/coquette sp. Discosura/Lophornis sp.
  • Golden-headed/Crested Quetzal Pharomachrus auriceps/antisianus
  • asian barbet sp. Megalaimidae sp.
  • Golden-fronted/Red-bellied Woodpecker Melanerpes aurifrons/carolinus
  • Red-naped/Red-breasted Sapsucker Sphyrapicus nuchalis/ruber
  • Great Spotted/Syrian Woodpecker Dendrocopos major/syriacus
  • corella sp. Cacatua sp. (corella sp.)
  • Cyanoramphus sp. Cyanoramphus sp.
  • Fischer’s/Yellow-collared Lovebird Agapornis fischeri/personatus
  • Poicephalus sp. Poicephalus sp.
  • Pyrilia sp. Pyrilia sp.
  • Scarlet/Red-and-green Macaw Ara macao/chloropterus
  • Scarlet-fronted/Mitred Parakeet Psittacara wagleri/mitratus
  • Mitred/Red-masked Parakeet Psittacara mitratus/erythrogenys
  • Psittacara sp. Psittacara sp.
  • Erythropitta sp. Erythropitta sp.
  • Hydrornis sp. Hydrornis sp.
  • Pitta sp. (genus Pitta) Pitta sp.
  • Euchrepomis sp. Euchrepomis sp.
  • Common/Puna Miner Geositta cunicularia/punensis
  • Streak-necked/Olive-striped Flycatcher Mionectes striaticollis/olivaceus
  • Ochre-bellied/Macconnell’s Flycatcher Mionectes oleagineus/macconnelli
  • black-tyrant sp. Knipolegus sp.
  • Rusty-margined/Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes cayanensis/similis
  • Gray-capped/Dusky-chested Flycatcher Myiozetetes granadensis/luteiventris
  • Indian Golden/Black-naped Oriole Oriolus kundoo/chinensis
  • Spot-breasted/White-browed Fantail Rhipidura albogularis/aureola
  • fantail sp. Rhipidura sp.
  • Fiji/Black-throated Shrikebill Clytorhynchus vitiensis/nigrogularis
  • Leaden/Satin Flycatcher Myiagra rubecula/cyanoleuca
  • Yellow-billed/Red-billed Blue-Magpie Urocissa flavirostris/erythrorhyncha
  • Purple/Cuban Martin Progne subis/cryptoleuca
  • Caribbean/Sinaloa Martin Progne dominicensis/sinaloae
  • Cuban/Caribbean/Sinaloa Martin (Snowy-bellied Martin) Progne cryptoleuca/dominicensis/sinaloae
  • Bank Swallow/Pale Sand Martin Riparia riparia/diluta
  • Cliff/Chestnut-collared Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota/rufocollaris
  • house-martin sp. Delichon sp.
  • Red-vented/Red-whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer/jocosus
  • Scaly-breasted/Immaculate Cupwing Pnoepyga albiventer/immaculata
  • Willow Warbler/Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus trochilus/collybita
  • Common/Iberian Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita/ibericus
  • Western/Eastern Bonelli’s Warbler Phylloscopus bonelli/orientalis
  • Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus borealis/examinandus
  • Western/Eastern Orphean Warbler Sylvia hortensis/crassirostris
  • Layard’s White-eye/Silver-eye Zosterops explorator/lateralis
  • Jungle/Yellow-billed Babbler Turdoides striata/affinis
  • European Pied/Atlas Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca/speculigera
  • European Pied/Collared/Semicollared Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca/albicollis/semitorquata
  • Taiga/Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula albicilla/parva
  • American Robin/Varied Thrush Turdus migratorius/Ixoreus naevius
  • Jungle/Common Myna Acridotheres fuscus/tristis
  • Chestnut-tailed/Malabar Starling Sturnia malabarica/blythii
  • Red-billed/Yellow-billed Oxpecker Buphagus erythrorhynchus/africanus
  • Thick-billed/Pale-billed Flowerpecker Dicaeum agile/erythrorhynchos
  • flowerpecker sp. Prionochilus/Dicaeum sp.
  • accentor sp. Prunella sp.
  • Northern/Tropical Parula Setophaga americana/pitiayumi
  • warbling-finch sp. Poospiza sp.
  • Pheucticus sp. Pheucticus sp.
  • Screaming/Shiny Cowbird Molothrus rufoaxillaris/bonariensis
  • House/Spanish Sparrow Passer domesticus/hispaniolensis
  • bird sp. Aves sp.

 

COMMON NAME CHANGES

See the Clements Checklist updates for full discussion of the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia that is split into unique species on each continent; the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash.

  • Muscovy Duck (Florida feral type) —> Muscovy Duck (Established Feral)
  • Dusky Scrubfowl (Dusky) —> Dusky Scrubfowl
  • Dusky Scrubfowl (Biak) —> Biak Scrubfowl
  • Forest Francolin —> Latham’s Francolin
  • Silvery Grebe (juninensis) —> Silvery Grebe (Andean)
  • Silvery Grebe (occipitalis) —> Silvery Grebe (Patagonian)
  • Herald Petrel (Trindade) —> Trindade Petrel
  • Herald Petrel (Pacific) —> Herald Petrel
  • Herald Petrel —> Trindade/Herald Petrel
  • Brown Pelican (Caribbean) —> Brown Pelican (Southern)
  • Reunion Solitaire —> Reunion Ibis
  • Common Black-Hawk —> Common Black Hawk
  • Common Black-Hawk (Common) —> Common Black Hawk (Common)
  • Common Black-Hawk (Mangrove) —> Common Black Hawk (Mangrove)
  • Cuban Black-Hawk —> Cuban Black Hawk
  • Great Black-Hawk —> Great Black Hawk
  • Stanley Bustard —> Denham’s Bustard
  • Clapper Rail (San Francisco Bay) —> Ridgway’s Rail (San Francisco Bay)
  • Clapper Rail (Light-footed) —> Ridgway’s Rail (Light-footed)
  • Clapper Rail (South Baja) —> Ridgway’s Rail (South Baja)
  • Clapper Rail (Yuma) —> Ridgway’s Rail (Yuma)
  • King Rail (Mexican) —> Aztec Rail
  • Clapper Rail (Mangrove) —> Mangrove Rail (Ecuadorian)
  • Clapper Rail (South American) —> Mangrove Rail (Atlantic)
  • King Rail —> King/Aztec Rail
  • Clapper Rail —> Ridgway’s/Mangrove/Clapper Rail
  • Clapper/King Rail —> King/Clapper Rail
  • San Cristobal Moorhen —> Makira Moorhen
  • Blacksmith Plover —> Blacksmith Lapwing
  • Spur-winged Plover —> Spur-winged Lapwing
  • Black Noddy (East Pacific) —> Black Noddy (Black)
  • Geotrygon sp. —> quail-dove sp.
  • African Scops-Owl (Socotra) —> Socotra Scops-Owl
  • Western Screech-Owl (North Mexico to Big Bend) —> Western Screech-Owl (Sutton’s)
  • Javan Frogmouth (Javan) —> Javan Frogmouth
  • Javan Frogmouth (Blyth’s) —> Blyth’s Frogmouth
  • Band-winged Nightjar (decussatus) —> Band-winged Nightjar (Tschudi’s)
  • Gray Nightjar —> Jungle/Gray Nightjar
  • Gray Nightjar (Jungle) —> Jungle Nightjar
  • Gray Nightjar (Gray) —> Gray Nightjar
  • Palawan Swiftlet —> Ameline Swiftlet
  • African Swift (Fernando Po) —> African Swift (Bioko)
  • Bearded Helmetcrest —> helmetcrest sp.
  • Anna’s x Selasphorus sp. (hybrid) —> Anna’s Hummingbird x Selasphorus sp. (hybrid)
  • Antillean Crested Hummingbird (Grendines and Grenada) —> Antillean Crested Hummingbird (Grenadines and Grenada)
  • Dwarf Kingfisher —> African Dwarf Kingfisher
  • Megalaima sp. —> Psilopogon sp.
  • Golden-spangled Piculet (Black-spotted) —> Scaled Piculet (Black-dotted)
  • Gray Woodpecker —> African Gray Woodpecker
  • Gray-headed Woodpecker —> Mountain Gray Woodpecker
  • Green Woodpecker —> Eurasian Green Woodpecker
  • Green Woodpecker (Eurasian) —> Eurasian Green Woodpecker (Eurasian)
  • Green Woodpecker (Mesopotamian) —> Eurasian Green Woodpecker (Mesopotamian)
  • Green Woodpecker (Iberian) —> Eurasian Green Woodpecker (Iberian)
  • Gray-faced Woodpecker —> Gray-headed Woodpecker
  • Mauritius Parakeet —> Echo Parakeet
  • Trichoglossus/Psitteuteles sp. —> Psitteuteles/Trichoglossus sp.
  • Aratinga sp. —> large parakeet sp. (former Aratinga sp.)
  • Red-bellied Pitta —> Blue-breasted Pitta
  • Pitta sp. —> Pitta sp. (genus Erythropitta/Hydrornis/Pitta)
  • Bamboo Antwren —> Ihering’s Antwren (Bamboo)
  • Blackish Antbird (fuscicauda) —> Blackish Antbird (Riparian)
  • Spotted Antpitta (Snethlage’s) —> Snethlage’s Antpitta
  • Upper Magdalena Tapaculo —> Magdalena Tapaculo
  • Black-faced Antthrush (Mexican) —> Black-faced Antthrush (Mayan)
  • Xingu Woodcreeper —> Amazonian Barred-Woodcreeper (Xingu)
  • Tupana Scythebill —> Curve-billed Scythebill (Tupana)
  • Tapajos Scythebill —> Curve-billed Scythebill (Tapajos)
  • Plain-breasted Earthcreeper —> Buff-breasted Earthcreeper (Plain-breasted)
  • Buff-breasted Earthcreeper —> Buff-breasted Earthcreeper (Buff-breasted)
  • White-winged Black-Tyrant (Caatinga) —> Caatinga Black-Tyrant
  • Andean Tyrant (Black) —> Jelski’s Black-Tyrant
  • Andean Tyrant (Plumbeous) —> Plumbeous Black-Tyrant
  • Andean Tyrant —> Jelksi’s/Plumbeous Black-Tyrant
  • White-winged Black-Tyrant (White-winged) —> White-winged Black-Tyrant
  • Sirystes (Western) —> Choco Sirystes
  • Sirystes —> sirystes sp.
  • Graceful Honeyeater (Graceful) —> Graceful Honeyeater
  • Graceful Honeyeater (Elegant) —> Elegant Honeyeater
  • Graceful Honeyeater —> Graceful/Elegant Honeyeater
  • Bismarck Melidectes —> Bismarck Honeyeater
  • San Cristobal Melidectes —> Makira Melidectes
  • Kandavu Honeyeater —> Kadavu Honeyeater
  • Wattled Smoky Honeyeater —> Foja Honeyeater
  • Dwarf Honeyeater —> Spectacled Longbill
  • Pygmy Honeyeater —> Pygmy Longbill
  • Blue Vanga (Madagscar) —> Blue Vanga (Madagascar)
  • Large-billed Puffback —> Sabine’s Puffback
  • Tropical Boubou (Ethiopian) —> Ethiopian Boubou
  • Common Gonolek —> Yellow-crowned Gonolek
  • Sooty Boubou —> Lowland Sooty Boubou
  • New Caledonian Whistler (Vanuatu) —> Vanuatu Whistler
  • White-throated Whistler —> Fiji Whistler (White-throated)
  • Fiji Whistler —> Fiji Whistler (Fiji)
  • New Caledonian Whistler (New Caledonian) —> New Caledonian Whistler
  • Rufous-naped Whistler —> Rufous-naped Bellbird
  • Southern Fiscal (Fiscal) —> Southern Fiscal (Southern)
  • Dark-headed Oriole —> Ethiopian Black-headed Oriole
  • Kandavu Fantail —> Kadavu Fantail
  • Bismark Flyrobin (undescribed form) —> Bismarck Flyrobin (undescribed form)
  • Yellow-spotted Nicator —> Western Nicator
  • Horned Lark (flava) —> Horned Lark (Shore)
  • Blue Swallow —> Montane Blue Swallow
  • Songar Tit —> Willow Tit (Songar)
  • Common Bristlebill —> Red-tailed Bristlebill
  • White-cheeked Bulbul —> Himalayan Bulbul
  • Plain Leaf-Warbler —> Plain Leaf Warbler
  • Tickell’s Leaf-Warbler —> Tickell’s Leaf Warbler
  • Alpine Leaf-Warbler —> Alpine Leaf Warbler
  • Pallas’s Leaf-Warbler —> Pallas’s Leaf Warbler
  • Gansu Leaf-Warbler —> Gansu Leaf Warbler
  • Sichuan Leaf-Warbler —> Sichuan Leaf Warbler
  • Chinese Leaf-Warbler —> Chinese Leaf Warbler
  • Brooks’s Leaf-Warbler —> Brooks’s Leaf Warbler
  • Arctic Warbler (Arctic) —> Arctic Warbler
  • Arctic Warbler (Kamchatka) —> Kamchatka Leaf Warbler
  • Arctic Warbler (Japanese) —> Japanese Leaf Warbler
  • Arctic Warbler —> Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler
  • Greenish Warbler (Greenish) —> Greenish Warbler
  • Greenish Warbler (Two-barred) —> Two-barred Warbler
  • Greenish Warbler —> Greenish/Two-barred Warbler
  • Pale-legged Leaf-Warbler —> Pale-legged Leaf Warbler
  • Sakhalin Leaf-Warbler —> Sakhalin Leaf Warbler
  • Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf-Warbler —> Pale-legged/Sakhalin Leaf Warbler
  • Large-billed Leaf-Warbler —> Large-billed Leaf Warbler
  • Tytler’s Leaf-Warbler —> Tytler’s Leaf Warbler
  • Western Crowned Leaf-Warbler —> Western Crowned Leaf Warbler
  • Eastern Crowned Leaf-Warbler —> Eastern Crowned Leaf Warbler
  • Ijima’s Leaf-Warbler —> Ijima’s Leaf Warbler
  • Blyth’s Leaf-Warbler —> Blyth’s Leaf Warbler
  • Claudia’s Leaf-Warbler —> Claudia’s Leaf Warbler
  • Hartert’s Leaf-Warbler —> Hartert’s Leaf Warbler
  • Blyth’s/Claudia’s/Hartert’s Leaf-Warbler —> Blyth’s/Claudia’s/Hartert’s Leaf Warbler
  • Hainan Leaf-Warbler —> Hainan Leaf Warbler
  • Emei Leaf-Warbler —> Emei Leaf Warbler
  • Davison’s Leaf-Warbler —> Davison’s Leaf Warbler
  • Kloss’s Leaf-Warbler —> Kloss’s Leaf Warbler
  • Davison’s/Kloss’s Leaf-Warbler —> Davison’s/Kloss’s Leaf Warbler
  • Limestone Leaf-Warbler —> Limestone Leaf Warbler
  • San Cristobal Leaf-Warbler —> Makira Leaf-Warbler
  • Rusty-faced Babbler —> Cordillera Ground-Warbler
  • Gray-banded Babbler —> Bicol Ground-Warbler
  • Visayan Miniature-Babbler —> Leyte Plumed-Warbler
  • Mindanao Miniature-Babbler —> Mindanao Plumed-Warbler
  • Green-backed Camaroptera (Green-tailed) —> Green-backed Camaroptera (Hartert’s)
  • Gray Cisticola —> Tinkling Cisticola
  • Wailing Cisticola (Lyne’s) —> Wailing Cisticola (Lynes’s)
  • Tinkling Cisticola —> Levaillant’s Cisticola
  • Mascarene White-eye (Reunion) —> Reunion Gray White-eye
  • Mascarene White-eye (Mauritius) —> Mauritius Gray White-eye
  • Cape White-eye (Orange River) —> Orange River White-eye
  • Gray-cheeked Fulvetta —> Morrison’s Fulvetta
  • Bagobo Babbler —> Bagobo Robin
  • Bluethroat (Turkish) —> Bluethroat (Caucasian)
  • Narcissus Flycatcher (Green-backed) —> Green-backed Flycatcher
  • Mourning Wheatear (Arabian) —> Arabian Wheatear
  • Mourning Wheatear (Schalow’s) —> Abyssinian Wheatear
  • San Cristobal Thrush (San Cristobal) —> Makira Thrush
  • San Cristobal Thrush (Guadalcanal) —> Guadalcanal Thrush
  • Island Thrush (Rufous-fronted) —> Island Thrush (Kadavu)
  • San Cristobal Starling —> Makira Starling
  • Scarlet-tufted Sunbird —> Fraser’s Sunbird
  • Little Green Sunbird —> Seimund’s Sunbird
  • Spotted Wren-Babbler —> Spotted Elachura
  • Connecticut x Mourning Warber (hybrid) —> Connecticut x Mourning Warbler (hybrid)
  • White-bridled Finch (Fuegan) —> White-bridled Finch (Fuegian)
  • Dark-eyed Junco (Guadalupe) —> Guadalupe Junco
  • Golden-bellied Grosbeak —> Golden Grosbeak
  • Eastern/Western Meadowlark —> Western/Eastern Meadowlark
  • Vinaceous Rosefinch (Vinaceous) —> Vinaceous Rosefinch
  • Vinaceous Rosefinch (Taiwan) —> Taiwan Rosefinch
  • Great Rosefinch —> Great Rosefinch (Great)
  • Spotted Rosefinch —> Great Rosefinch (Spotted)
  • Gray’s Malimbe —> Blue-billed Malimbe
  • Orange Bishop —> Northern Red Bishop
  • Red Bishop —> Southern Red Bishop
  • Zanzibar Bishop —> Zanzibar Red Bishop
  • Black-faced Waxbill —> Black-lored Waxbill
  • Black-cheeked Waxbill —> Black-faced Waxbill
  • Red-rumped Waxbill —> Black-cheeked Waxbill
  • Blue-breasted Cordonbleu —> Southern Cordonbleu
  • Red-billed Quailfinch —> Black-chinned Quailfinch
  • Nutmeg Mannikin —> Scaly-breasted Munia
  • Northern Paradise-Whydah —> Sahel Paradise-Whydah
  • Long-tailed Paradise-Whydah —> Exclamatory Paradise-Whydah
  • Pale-winged Indigobird —> Wilson’s Indigobird

 

SCIENTIFIC NAME CHANGES

See the Clements Checklist updates for full discussion of the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia that is split into unique species on each continent; the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash.

  • Muscovy Duck (Established Feral): Cairina moschata (Domestic type – Florida) —> Cairina moschata (Established Feral)
  • merganser sp.: Lophodytes/Mergus sp. —> Mergellus/Lophodytes/Mergus sp.
  • Dusky Scrubfowl: Megapodius freycinet freycinet —> Megapodius freycinet
  • Biak Scrubfowl: Megapodius freycinet geelvinkianus —> Megapodius geelvinkianus
  • Forsten’s Scrubfowl: Megapodius forstenii —> Megapodius forsteni
  • New Guinea Scrubfowl: Megapodius affinis —> Megapodius decollatus
  • Madagascar Partridge: Margaroperdix madagascarensis —> Margaroperdix madagarensis
  • Sri Lanka Junglefowl: Gallus lafayetii —> Gallus lafayettii
  • Black-billed Capercaillie: Tetrao parvirostris —> Tetrao urogalloides
  • Trindade Petrel: Pterodroma arminjoniana arminjoniana —> Pterodroma arminjoniana
  • Herald Petrel: Pterodroma arminjoniana heraldica —> Pterodroma heraldica
  • Trindade/Herald Petrel: Pterodroma arminjoniana —> Pterodroma arminjoniana/heraldica
  • Brown Pelican (Southern): Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis —> Pelecanus occidentalis [occidentalis Group]
  • Reunion Ibis: Raphus solitarius —> Threskiornis solitarius
  • Olive Ibis (Sao Tome): Bostrychia olivacea bocagei/rothschildi —> Bostrychia olivacea bocagei
  • Lappet-faced Vulture: Torgos tracheliotus —> Torgos tracheliotos
  • Rueppell’s Griffon: Gyps rueppellii —> Gyps rueppelli
  • White-backed/Rueppell’s Griffon Vulture: Gyps africanus/rueppellii —> Gyps africanus/rueppelli
  • Black Eagle: Ictinaetus malayensis —> Ictinaetus malaiensis
  • Frances’s Goshawk: Accipiter francesii —> Accipiter francesiae
  • Red-tailed Hawk (Western): Buteo jamaicensis calurus —> Buteo jamaicensis calurus/alascensis
  • Rueppell’s Bustard: Eupodotis rueppellii —> Eupodotis rueppelii
  • Galapagos Rail: Laterallus spilonotus —> Laterallus spilonota
  • Ridgway’s Rail (San Francisco Bay): Rallus longirostris obsoletus —> Rallus obsoletus obsoletus
  • Ridgway’s Rail (Light-footed): Rallus longirostris levipes —> Rallus obsoletus levipes
  • Ridgway’s Rail (South Baja): Rallus longirostris beldingi —> Rallus obsoletus beldingi
  • Ridgway’s Rail (Yuma): Rallus longirostris yumanensis —> Rallus obsoletus yumanensis
  • Aztec Rail: Rallus elegans tenuirostris —> Rallus tenuirostris
  • King/Aztec Rail: Rallus elegans —> Rallus elegans/longirostris
  • Clapper Rail (Atlantic Coast): Rallus longirostris crepitans/waynei —> Rallus crepitans crepitans/waynei
  • Clapper Rail (Gulf Coast): Rallus longirostris saturatus/scottii —> Rallus crepitans saturatus/scottii
  • Clapper Rail (Caribbean): Rallus longirostris [caribaeus Group] —> Rallus crepitans [caribaeus Group]
  • Clapper Rail (Yucatan): Rallus longirostris [pallidus Group] —> Rallus crepitans [pallidus Group]
  • Ridgway’s/Mangrove/Clapper Rail: Rallus longirostris —> Rallus obsoletus/longirostris/crepitans
  • King/Clapper Rail: Rallus longirostris/elegans —> Rallus elegans/crepitans
  • Tuamotu Sandpiper: Prosobonia cancellata —> Prosobonia parvirostris
  • Black Guillemot (Subarctic): Cepphus grylle arcticus —> Cepphus grylle [grylle Group]
  • Black Noddy (Black): Anous minutus diamesus —> Anous minutus [minutus Group]
  • Rock Pigeon (Feral Pigeon): Columba livia (Domestic type) —> Columba livia (Feral Pigeon)
  • Great Cuckoo-Dove: Reinwardtoena reinwardtii —> Reinwardtoena reinwardti
  • Barred Dove: Geopelia maugei —> Geopelia maugeus
  • Olive-backed Quail-Dove: Geotrygon veraguensis —> Leptotrygon veraguensis
  • Gray-chested Dove: Leptotila cassini —> Leptotila cassinii
  • Gray-chested Dove (cassini): Leptotila cassini cassini —> Leptotila cassinii cassinii
  • Gray-chested Dove (rufinucha): Leptotila cassini rufinucha —> Leptotila cassinii rufinucha
  • Gray-chested Dove (cerviniventris): Leptotila cassini cerviniventris —> Leptotila cassinii cerviniventris
  • Tuxtla Quail-Dove: Geotrygon carrikeri —> Zentrygon carrikeri
  • Buff-fronted Quail-Dove: Geotrygon costaricensis —> Zentrygon costaricensis
  • Purplish-backed Quail-Dove: Geotrygon lawrencii —> Zentrygon lawrencii
  • White-faced Quail-Dove: Geotrygon albifacies —> Zentrygon albifacies
  • White-throated Quail-Dove: Geotrygon frenata —> Zentrygon frenata
  • Lined Quail-Dove: Geotrygon linearis —> Zentrygon linearis
  • Chiriqui Quail-Dove: Geotrygon chiriquensis —> Zentrygon chiriquensis
  • Russet-crowned Quail-Dove: Geotrygon goldmani —> Zentrygon goldmani
  • quail-dove sp.: Geotrygon sp. —> Geotrygon/Leptotrygon/Zentrygon sp.
  • Red-bellied Fruit-Dove: Ptilinopus greyii —> Ptilinopus greyi
  • Dwarf Fruit-Dove: Ptilinopus nanus —> Ptilinopus nainus
  • White-eared Bronze-Cuckoo: Chrysococcyx meyeri —> Chrysococcyx meyerii
  • Bornean Ground-Cuckoo: Carpococcyx radiatus —> Carpococcyx radiceus
  • Green-billed Coucal: Centropus chlororhynchus —> Centropus chlororhynchos
  • African Scops-Owl (African): Otus senegalensis [senegalensis Group] —> Otus senegalensis senegalensis
  • Socotra Scops-Owl: Otus senegalensis socotranus —> Otus socotranus
  • Palau Owl: Pyrroglaux podarginus —> Pyrroglaux podargina
  • Chestnut-backed Owlet: Glaucidium castanonotum —> Glaucidium castanotum
  • Himalayan Owl: Strix nivicola —> Strix nivicolum
  • Javan Frogmouth: Batrachostomus javensis javensis —> Batrachostomus javensis
  • Blyth’s Frogmouth: Batrachostomus javensis affinis/continentalis —> Batrachostomus affinis
  • Todd’s Nightjar: Setopagis heterurus —> Setopagis heterura
  • Little Nightjar: Setopagis parvulus —> Setopagis parvula
  • Cayenne Nightjar: Setopagis maculosus —> Setopagis maculosa
  • Jungle/Gray Nightjar: Caprimulgus indicus —> Caprimulgus indicus/jotaka
  • Jungle Nightjar: Caprimulgus indicus indicus/kelaarti —> Caprimulgus indicus
  • Gray Nightjar: Caprimulgus indicus [jotaka Group] —> Caprimulgus jotaka
  • Ameline Swiftlet: Aerodramus palawanensis —> Aerodramus amelis
  • Tapajos Hermit: Phaethornis aethopyga —> Phaethornis aethopygus
  • Long-tailed Sylph: Aglaiocercus kingi —> Aglaiocercus kingii
  • Red-tailed Comet: Sappho sparganura —> Sappho sparganurus
  • helmetcrest sp.: Oxypogon guerinii —> Oxypogon sp.
  • Buff-breasted Paradise-Kingfisher (Buff-breasted): Tanysiptera sylvia [sylvia Group] —> Tanysiptera sylvia sylvia/salvadoriana
  • Buff-breasted Paradise-Kingfisher (Black-capped): Tanysiptera sylvia nigriceps —> Tanysiptera sylvia nigriceps/leucura
  • Giant Kingfisher: Megaceryle maximus —> Megaceryle maxima
  • Malabar Barbet: Megalaima malabarica —> Psilopogon malabaricus
  • Crimson-fronted Barbet: Megalaima rubricapillus —> Psilopogon rubricapillus
  • Coppersmith Barbet: Megalaima haemacephala —> Psilopogon haemacephalus
  • Blue-eared Barbet: Megalaima australis —> Psilopogon duvaucelii
  • Bornean Barbet: Megalaima eximia —> Psilopogon eximius
  • Great Barbet: Megalaima virens —> Psilopogon virens
  • Red-vented Barbet: Megalaima lagrandieri —> Psilopogon lagrandieri
  • Red-crowned Barbet: Megalaima rafflesii —> Psilopogon rafflesii
  • Red-throated Barbet: Megalaima mystacophanos —> Psilopogon mystacophanos
  • Black-banded Barbet: Megalaima javensis —> Psilopogon javensis
  • Golden-naped Barbet: Megalaima pulcherrima —> Psilopogon pulcherrimus
  • Yellow-crowned Barbet: Megalaima henricii —> Psilopogon henricii
  • Flame-fronted Barbet: Megalaima armillaris —> Psilopogon armillaris
  • Green-eared Barbet: Megalaima faiostricta —> Psilopogon faiostrictus
  • Lineated Barbet: Megalaima lineata —> Psilopogon lineatus
  • Brown-headed Barbet: Megalaima zeylanica —> Psilopogon zeylanicus
  • White-cheeked Barbet: Megalaima viridis —> Psilopogon viridis
  • Yellow-fronted Barbet: Megalaima flavifrons —> Psilopogon flavifrons
  • Golden-throated Barbet: Megalaima franklinii —> Psilopogon franklinii
  • Mountain Barbet: Megalaima monticola —> Psilopogon monticola
  • Brown-throated Barbet: Megalaima corvina —> Psilopogon corvinus
  • Gold-whiskered Barbet: Megalaima chrysopogon —> Psilopogon chrysopogon
  • Moustached Barbet: Megalaima incognita —> Psilopogon incognitus
  • Taiwan Barbet: Megalaima nuchalis —> Psilopogon nuchalis
  • Chinese Barbet: Megalaima faber —> Psilopogon faber
  • Blue-throated Barbet: Megalaima asiatica —> Psilopogon asiaticus
  • Indochinese Barbet: Megalaima annamensis —> Psilopogon annamensis
  • Black-browed Barbet: Megalaima oorti —> Psilopogon oorti
  • Psilopogon sp.: Megalaima sp. —> Psilopogon sp.
  • Emerald Toucanet (Andean): Aulacorhynchus prasinus [albivitta Group] —> Aulacorhynchus prasinus albivitta/phaeolaemus
  • Scaled Piculet (Black-dotted): Picumnus exilis salvini —> Picumnus squamulatus obsoletus
  • Rufous Woodpecker: Celeus brachyurus —> Micropternus brachyurus
  • Seychelles Kestrel: Falco araea —> Falco araeus
  • Mascarene Parrot: Mascarinus mascarinus —> Mascarinus mascarin
  • Echo Parakeet: Psittacula echo —> Psittacula eques
  • Layard’s Parakeet: Psittacula calthropae —> Psittacula calthrapae
  • New Caledonian Parakeet: Cyanoramphus saissetti —> Cyanoramphus saisseti
  • Port Lincoln Parrot (Port Lincoln): Barnardius zonarius occidentalis/zonarius —> Barnardius zonarius zonarius/occidentalis
  • Yellow-streaked Lory: Chalcopsitta sintillata —> Chalcopsitta scintillata
  • Psitteuteles/Trichoglossus sp.: Trichoglossus/Psitteuteles sp. —> Psitteuteles/Trichoglossus sp.
  • Olive-throated Parakeet: Aratinga nana —> Eupsittula nana
  • Olive-throated Parakeet (Aztec): Aratinga nana astec/vicinalis —> Eupsittula nana astec/vicinalis
  • Olive-throated Parakeet (Jamaican): Aratinga nana nana —> Eupsittula nana nana
  • Orange-fronted Parakeet: Aratinga canicularis —> Eupsittula canicularis
  • Peach-fronted Parakeet: Aratinga aurea —> Eupsittula aurea
  • Brown-throated Parakeet: Aratinga pertinax —> Eupsittula pertinax
  • Brown-throated Parakeet (Veraguas): Aratinga pertinax ocularis —> Eupsittula pertinax ocularis
  • Brown-throated Parakeet (Brown-throated): Aratinga pertinax [pertinax Group] —> Eupsittula pertinax [pertinax Group]
  • Cactus Parakeet: Aratinga cactorum —> Eupsittula cactorum
  • Nanday Parakeet: Nandayus nenday —> Aratinga nenday
  • Red-bellied Macaw: Orthopsittaca manilata —> Orthopsittaca manilatus
  • Blue-crowned Parakeet: Aratinga acuticaudata —> Thectocercus acuticaudatus
  • Blue-crowned Parakeet (Blue-crowned): Aratinga acuticaudata [acuticaudata Group] —> Thectocercus acuticaudatus [acuticaudatus Group]
  • Blue-crowned Parakeet (Highland): Aratinga acuticaudata neumanni —> Thectocercus acuticaudatus neumanni
  • Green Parakeet: Aratinga holochlora —> Psittacara holochlorus
  • Green Parakeet (Green): Aratinga holochlora holochlora/brewsteri —> Psittacara holochlorus holochlorus/brewsteri
  • Green Parakeet (Socorro): Aratinga holochlora brevipes —> Psittacara holochlorus brevipes
  • Green Parakeet (Red-throated): Aratinga holochlora rubritorquis —> Psittacara holochlorus rubritorquis
  • Pacific Parakeet: Aratinga strenua —> Psittacara strenuus
  • Crimson-fronted Parakeet: Aratinga finschi —> Psittacara finschi
  • Scarlet-fronted Parakeet: Aratinga wagleri —> Psittacara wagleri
  • Mitred Parakeet: Aratinga mitrata —> Psittacara mitratus
  • Mitred Parakeet (Mitred): Aratinga mitrata [mitrata Group] —> Psittacara mitratus [mitratus Group]
  • Mitred Parakeet (Chapman’s): Aratinga mitrata alticola —> Psittacara mitratus alticola
  • Red-masked Parakeet: Aratinga erythrogenys —> Psittacara erythrogenys
  • White-eyed Parakeet: Aratinga leucophthalma —> Psittacara leucophthalmus
  • Cuban Parakeet: Aratinga euops —> Psittacara euops
  • Hispaniolan Parakeet: Aratinga chloroptera —> Psittacara chloropterus
  • large parakeet sp. (former Aratinga sp.): Aratinga sp. —> Eupsittula/Aratinga/Thectocercus/Psittacara sp.
  • parakeet sp.: Psittacidae sp. (parakeet sp.) —> Psittaciformes sp. (parakeet sp.)
  • parrot sp.: Psittacidae sp. (parrot sp.) —> Psittaciformes sp. (parrot sp.)
  • Whiskered Pitta: Pitta kochi —> Erythropitta kochi
  • Blue-breasted Pitta: Pitta erythrogaster —> Erythropitta erythrogaster
  • Sula Pitta: Pitta dohertyi —> Erythropitta dohertyi
  • Black-crowned Pitta: Pitta venusta —> Erythropitta venusta
  • Black-headed Pitta: Pitta ussheri —> Erythropitta ussheri
  • Blue-banded Pitta: Pitta arquata —> Erythropitta arquata
  • Garnet Pitta: Pitta granatina —> Erythropitta granatina
  • Eared Pitta: Pitta phayrei —> Hydrornis phayrei
  • Rusty-naped Pitta: Pitta oatesi —> Hydrornis oatesi
  • Blue-naped Pitta: Pitta nipalensis —> Hydrornis nipalensis
  • Blue-rumped Pitta: Pitta soror —> Hydrornis soror
  • Giant Pitta: Pitta caerulea —> Hydrornis caeruleus
  • Schneider’s Pitta: Pitta schneideri —> Hydrornis schneideri
  • Malayan Banded-Pitta: Pitta irena —> Hydrornis irena
  • Javan Banded-Pitta: Pitta guajana —> Hydrornis guajanus
  • Bornean Banded-Pitta: Pitta schwaneri —> Hydrornis schwaneri
  • Blue-headed Pitta: Pitta baudii —> Hydrornis baudii
  • Blue Pitta: Pitta cyanea —> Hydrornis cyanea
  • Bar-bellied Pitta: Pitta elliotii —> Hydrornis elliotii
  • Gurney’s Pitta: Pitta gurneyi —> Hydrornis gurneyi
  • Pitta sp. (genus Erythropitta/Hydrornis/Pitta): Pitta sp. —> Pittidae sp.
  • Ihering’s Antwren (Bamboo): Myrmotherula oreni —> Myrmotherula iheringi oreni
  • White-fringed Antwren (Northern): Formicivora grisea intermedia —> Formicivora grisea [intermedia Group]
  • Snethlage’s Antpitta: Hylopezus macularius paraensis —> Hylopezus paraensis
  • Slate-crowned Antpitta (Slate-crowned): Grallaricula nana nana/olivascens —> Grallaricula nana [nana Group]
  • Amazonian Barred-Woodcreeper (Xingu): Dendrocolaptes retentus —> Dendrocolaptes certhia retentus
  • Ocellated Woodcreeper (Ocellated): Xiphorhynchus ocellatus [ocellatus Group] —> Xiphorhynchus ocellatus ocellatus/perpluxus
  • Buff-throated Woodcreeper (Lafresnaye’s): Xiphorhynchus guttatus guttatus/dorbignyanus —> Xiphorhynchus guttatus guttatoides/dorbignyanus
  • Curve-billed Scythebill (Tupana): Campylorhamphus gyldenstolpei —> Campylorhamphus procurvoides gyldenstolpei
  • Curve-billed Scythebill (Tapajos): Campylorhamphus cardosoi —> Campylorhamphus procurvoides cardosoi
  • Buff-breasted Earthcreeper (Plain-breasted): Upucerthia jelskii —> Upucerthia validirostris jelskii/saturata
  • Buff-breasted Earthcreeper (Buff-breasted): Upucerthia validirostris —> Upucerthia validirostris validirostris
  • Chestnut-capped Foliage-gleaner: Hylocryptus rectirostris —> Clibanornis rectirostris
  • Henna-hooded Foliage-gleaner: Hylocryptus erythrocephalus —> Clibanornis erythrocephalus
  • Ruddy Foliage-gleaner: Automolus rubiginosus —> Clibanornis rubiginosus
  • Ruddy Foliage-gleaner (Rusty): Automolus rubiginosus [rubiginosus Group] —> Clibanornis rubiginosus [rubiginosus Group]
  • Ruddy Foliage-gleaner (Black-tailed): Automolus rubiginosus [nigricauda Group] —> Clibanornis rubiginosus [nigricauda Group]
  • Ruddy Foliage-gleaner (Cinnamon-throated): Automolus rubiginosus cinnamomeigula —> Clibanornis rubiginosus cinnamomeigula
  • Ruddy Foliage-gleaner (Dusky): Automolus rubiginosus [obscurus Group] —> Clibanornis rubiginosus [obscurus Group]
  • Ruddy Foliage-gleaner (Watkins’s): Automolus rubiginosus watkinsi —> Clibanornis rubiginosus watkinsi
  • Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner: Automolus rufipectus —> Clibanornis rufipectus
  • Striped Woodhaunter: Hyloctistes subulatus —> Automolus subulatus
  • Striped Woodhaunter (Eastern South America): Hyloctistes subulatus subulatus —> Automolus subulatus subulatus
  • Striped Woodhaunter (Central American): Hyloctistes subulatus [virgatus Group] —> Automolus subulatus [virgatus Group]
  • Rufous-fronted Thornbird (Plain): Phacellodomus rufifrons inornatus —> Phacellodomus rufifrons inornatus/castilloi
  • Golden-faced Tyrannulet (Golden-faced): Zimmerius chrysops [chrysops Group] —> Zimmerius chrysops chrysops
  • Vermilion Flycatcher (Vermilion): Pyrocephalus rubinus [rubinus Group] —> Pyrocephalus rubinus [obscurus Group]
  • Caatinga Black-Tyrant: Knipolegus aterrimus franciscanus —> Knipolegus franciscanus
  • Jelski’s Black-Tyrant: Knipolegus signatus signatus —> Knipolegus signatus
  • Plumbeous Black-Tyrant: Knipolegus signatus cabanisi —> Knipolegus cabanisi
  • Jelksi’s/Plumbeous Black-Tyrant: Knipolegus signatus —> Knipolegus signatus/cabanisi
  • White-winged Black-Tyrant: Knipolegus aterrimus [aterrimus Group] —> Knipolegus aterrimus
  • Choco Sirystes: Sirystes sibilator albogriseus —> Sirystes albogriseus
  • sirystes sp.: Sirystes sibilator —> Sirystes sp.
  • Yellow-headed Manakin: Xenopipo flavicapilla —> Chloropipo flavicapilla
  • Jet Manakin: Xenopipo unicolor —> Chloropipo unicolor
  • Green Manakin: Xenopipo holochlora —> Cryptopipo holochlora
  • Graceful Honeyeater: Meliphaga gracilis [gracilis Group] —> Meliphaga gracilis
  • Elegant Honeyeater: Meliphaga gracilis cinereifrons —> Meliphaga cinereifrons
  • Graceful/Elegant Honeyeater: Meliphaga gracilis —> Meliphaga gracilis/cinereifrons
  • Black Honeyeater: Sugomel niger —> Sugomel nigrum
  • Bismarck Honeyeater: Melidectes whitemanensis —> Vosea whitemanensis
  • Barred Honeyeater: Phylidonyris undulatus —> Gliciphila undulata
  • New Hebrides Honeyeater: Phylidonyris notabilis —> Gliciphila notabilis
  • Makira Melidectes: Melidectes sclateri —> Meliarchus sclateri
  • Spectacled Longbill: Toxorhamphus iliolophus —> Oedistoma iliolophus
  • Pygmy Longbill: Toxorhamphus pygmaeum —> Oedistoma pygmaeum
  • Ethiopian Boubou: Laniarius aethiopicus [aethiopicus Group] —> Laniarius aethiopicus
  • Tropical Boubou: Laniarius aethiopicus —> Laniarius major
  • Four-colored Bushshrike (Gorgeous): Telophorus viridis [viridis Group] —> Telophorus viridis viridis
  • Four-colored Bushshrike (Four-colored): Telophorus viridis quadricolor —> Telophorus viridis [quadricolor Group]
  • Sooty Shrike-Thrush: Colluricincla umbrina —> Colluricincla tenebrosa
  • Vanuatu Whistler: Pachycephala caledonica [chlorura Group] —> Pachycephala chlorura
  • Fiji Whistler (White-throated): Pachycephala vitiensis —> Pachycephala vitiensis [vitiensis Group]
  • Fiji Whistler (Fiji): Pachycephala graeffii —> Pachycephala vitiensis [graeffii Group]
  • New Caledonian Whistler: Pachycephala caledonica caledonica/littayei —> Pachycephala caledonica
  • Gray-backed Fiscal: Lanius excubitoroides —> Lanius excubitorius
  • Frilled Monarch: Arses telescophthalmus —> Arses telescopthalmus
  • Dwarf Jay: Cyanolyca nana —> Cyanolyca nanus
  • Andaman Treepie: Dendrocitta bayleyi —> Dendrocitta bayleii
  • Black Sicklebill: Epimachus fastuosus —> Epimachus fastosus
  • Willow Tit (Songar): Poecile songarus —> Poecile montanus [songarus Group]
  • African Penduline-Tit (Buff-bellied): Anthoscopus caroli sylviella —> Anthoscopus caroli sylviella/sharpei
  • Cameroon Mountain Greenbul: Arizelocichla montanus —> Arizelocichla montana
  • Western Mountain-Greenbul: Arizelocichla tephrolaemus —> Arizelocichla tephrolaema
  • Black-and-white Bulbul: Pycnonotus melanoleucus —> Pycnonotus melanoleucos
  • Japanese/Manchurian Bush-Warbler: Horornis diphone/canturians —> Horornis diphone/borealis
  • Arctic Warbler: Phylloscopus borealis [borealis Group] —> Phylloscopus borealis
  • Kamchatka Leaf Warbler: Phylloscopus borealis examinandus —> Phylloscopus examinandus
  • Japanese Leaf Warbler: Phylloscopus borealis xanthodryas —> Phylloscopus xanthodryas
  • Arctic/Kamchatka Leaf/Japanese Leaf Warbler: Phylloscopus borealis —> Phylloscopus borealis/examinandus/xanthodryas
  • Greenish Warbler: Phylloscopus trochiloides [trochiloides Group] —> Phylloscopus trochiloides
  • Two-barred Warbler: Phylloscopus trochiloides plumbeitarsus —> Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus
  • Greenish/Two-barred Warbler: Phylloscopus trochiloides —> Phylloscopus trochiloides/plumbeitarsus
  • Mountain Warbler (Negros): Phylloscopus trivirgatus nigrorum —> Phylloscopus trivirgatus [nigrorum Group]
  • Yellow-breasted Apalis (Brown-tailed): Apalis flavida flavocincta —> Apalis flavida flavocincta/viridiceps
  • Socotra Warbler: Incana incanus —> Incana incana
  • Banded Prinia (Banded): Prinia bairdii [bairdii Group] —> Prinia bairdii bairdii/heinrichi
  • Banded Prinia (Black-faced): Prinia bairdii melanops —> Prinia bairdii melanops/obscura
  • African Hill Babbler (African): Sylvia abyssinica [abyssinica Group] —> Sylvia abyssinica abysinnica/stictigula
  • Reunion Gray White-eye: Zosterops borbonicus borbonicus —> Zosterops borbonicus
  • Mauritius Gray White-eye: Zosterops borbonicus mauritianus —> Zosterops mauritianus
  • Cape White-eye: Zosterops pallidus —> Zosterops capensis
  • Cape White-eye (Cape): Zosterops pallidus [capensis Group] —> Zosterops capensis [capensis Group]
  • Cape White-eye (Green): Zosterops pallidus virens —> Zosterops capensis virens
  • Orange River White-eye: Zosterops pallidus pallidus/sundevalli —> Zosterops pallidus
  • Brown Tit-Babbler: Macronous striaticeps —> Macronus striaticeps
  • Fluffy-backed Tit-Babbler: Macronous ptilosus —> Macronus ptilosus
  • Rusty-capped Fulvetta: Schoeniparus dubus —> Schoeniparus dubius
  • Golden-winged Laughingthrush: Trochalopteron ngoclinhensis —> Trochalopteron ngoclinhense
  • Pale Flycatcher (East Coast): Bradornis pallidus subalaris —> Bradornis pallidus subalaris/erlangeri
  • Red-backed Scrub-Robin (White-winged): Cercotrichas leucophrys leucoptera —> Cercotrichas leucophrys [leucoptera Group]
  • Sulawesi Blue-Flycatcher (Sulawesi): Cyornis omissus [omissus Group] —> Cyornis omissus omissus/peromissus
  • Sulawesi Blue-Flycatcher (Tanahjampea): Cyornis omissus djampeanus —> Cyornis omissus djampeanus/kalaoensis
  • White-crowned Robin-Chat: Cossypha albicapilla —> Cossypha albicapillus
  • Green-backed Flycatcher: Ficedula narcissina elisae —> Ficedula elisae
  • Mourning Wheatear (Mourning): Oenanthe lugens [lugens Group] —> Oenanthe lugens lugens/persica
  • Arabian Wheatear: Oenanthe lugens lugentoides —> Oenanthe lugentoides
  • Abyssinian Wheatear: Oenanthe lugens [lugubris Group] —> Oenanthe lugubris
  • Geomalia: Geomalia heinrichi —> Zoothera heinrichi
  • Makira Thrush: Zoothera margaretae margaretae —> Zoothera margaretae
  • Guadalcanal Thrush: Zoothera margaretae turipavae —> Zoothera turipavae
  • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker: Dicaeum ignipectum —> Dicaeum ignipectus
  • Violet-tailed Sunbird: Anthreptes aurantium —> Anthreptes aurantius
  • Sao Tome Short-tail: Amaurocichla bocagei —> Amaurocichla bocagii
  • Spotted Elachura: Spelaeornis formosus —> Elachura formosa
  • Gray Silky-flycatcher: Ptilogonys cinereus —> Ptiliogonys cinereus
  • Long-tailed Silky-flycatcher: Ptilogonys caudatus —> Ptiliogonys caudatus
  • Masked Yellowthroat (Masked): Geothlypis aequinoctialis aequinoctialis/peruviana —> Geothlypis aequinoctialis aequinoctialis
  • Masked Yellowthroat (Black-lored): Geothlypis aequinoctialis auricularis —> Geothlypis aequinoctialis auricularis/peruviana
  • Mourning Warbler x Common Yellowthroat (hybrid): Geothlypis philadephia x trichas —> Geothlypis philadelphia x trichas
  • San Pedro Tanager (undescribed form): [Thraupidae undescribed form] —> Thraupidae [undescribed form]
  • Black-faced Dacnis (Yellow-tufted): Dacnis lineata egregia —> Dacnis lineata egregia/aequatorialis
  • Black-faced Dacnis (Black-faced): Dacnis lineata lineata/aequatorialis —> Dacnis lineata lineata
  • Thick-billed Seed-Finch: Oryzoborus funereus —> Sporophila funerea
  • Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch: Oryzoborus angolensis —> Sporophila angolensis
  • Nicaraguan Seed-Finch: Oryzoborus nuttingi —> Sporophila nuttingi
  • Great-billed Seed-Finch: Oryzoborus maximiliani —> Sporophila maximiliani
  • Large-billed Seed-Finch: Oryzoborus crassirostris —> Sporophila crassirostris
  • Black-billed Seed-Finch: Oryzoborus atrirostris —> Sporophila atrirostris
  • White-naped Seedeater: Dolospingus fringilloides —> Sporophila fringilloides
  • Green-tailed x Spotted Towhee (hybrid): Pipilo chlororus x maculatus —> Pipilo chlorurus x maculatus
  • Guadalupe Junco: Junco hyemalis insularis —> Junco insularis
  • Eastern Meadowlark (Lilian’s): Sturnella magna lilianae —> Sturnella magna [lilianae Group]
  • Western/Eastern Meadowlark: Sturnella magna/neglecta —> Sturnella neglecta/magna
  • Forbes’s Blackbird: Curaeus forbesi —> Anumara forbesi
  • Yellow-winged Cacique: Cacicus melanicterus —> Cassiculus melanicterus
  • Band-tailed Oropendola: Ocyalus latirostris —> Cacicus latirostris
  • Casqued Oropendola: Clypicterus oseryi —> Cacicus oseryi
  • Pink-rumped Rosefinch: Carpodacus eos —> Carpodacus waltoni
  • Vinaceous Rosefinch: Carpodacus vinaceus vinaceus —> Carpodacus vinaceus
  • Taiwan Rosefinch: Carpodacus vinaceus formosanus —> Carpodacus formosanus
  • Great Rosefinch (Great): Carpodacus rubicilla —> Carpodacus rubicilla rubicilla
  • Great Rosefinch (Spotted): Carpodacus severtzovi —> Carpodacus rubicilla [severtzovi Group]
  • Streaky-headed Seedeater (West African): Serinus gularis canicapilla —> Serinus gularis [canicapilla Group]
  • Bronze Mannikin: Spermestes cucullatus —> Spermestes cucullata
  • Streak-headed Munia (White-spotted): Lonchura tristissima leucosticta —> Lonchura tristissima leucosticta/moresbyensis

DOWNLOAD TAXONOMY

Download full 2014 taxonomy (version 1.55) – click here.

Download full 2014 taxonomy (version 1.55) with changes from 2013 annotated – click here.