News & Features

Taxonomy update for 2017

Chinese Rubythroat by Ian Davies/Macaulay Library

The eBird taxonomy update is essentially COMPLETE. All major changes have occurred, and we have only a small number of minor changes yet to make. This may affect the lists of a very small number of users as we implement these over the next few days. We do this update once each year, taking into account the past 12 months worth of recent taxonomic knowledge on splits, lumps, name changes, and changes in the sequence of the species lists As of this point, all eBird data will be reflecting the new taxonomy. This includes your My eBird lists, range maps, bar charts, region and hotspot lists, and data entry. eBird Mobile should also be updated to the new taxonomy. If you see unfamiliar bird names in the list, please refer to the story below to understand the change and why it happened. In addition, we list a number of new options for data entry (hybrids, spuhs, slashes, etc.), all of which are listed below.

eBirders who do not speak English as their first language will see updated names to reflect the new taxonomy. Remember that the language you choose for bird names needs to be selected separately from the language of the website (read more about common name translations).

IMPORTANT: As with all taxonomic updates, we endeavor to update your records for you, using known range, your checklist comments, and other information to try to assign records to a species when possible. However, we ask that everyone review their lists (made simple by the “my records” links below). With the publication of this story, please do review your records (but note that some species may have a “changes still underway” note).

This year, for the first time, corrections are SUPER EASY to make with our new “Change Species” functionality. If we miss a correction, or you want to assign a record to a certain species, you can do this with a single button now. Since it changes all media and notes, these changes are easier than ever before.

NOTE: If you use eBird Mobile on iPhone or Android hopefully you have the newest versions of each; if not, update those in the App Store and Google Play Store, respectively. Also, please make sure to submit a list from a new location near you (i.e., not one of your stored “recent locations”). This will ensure that the checklist filter is updated to the newest version. If you do not do this, you may accidentally (and unknowingly) submit something like Northern/Hen Harrier on your checklist, instead of the post-split option, Northern Harrier.

2017 eBird Taxonomic Update

This year’s update is v2017 of the eBird/Clements Checklist. The eBird/Clements Checklist is an integrated global taxonomy for the birds of the world, including all species and subspecies, as well as additional taxa useful to field birders to report in eBird. The list of species available in eBird is the eBird Taxonomy (v2017) and includes all species, subspecies groups (which we call identifiable sub-specific forms or ISSF), hybrids, intergrades, spuhs (e.g., scoter sp.), slashes (e.g., Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher), domestics, and forms. The Clements Checklist includes only the species and subspecies, along with subspecies groups which are further identified as monotypic (consisting of one subspecies) or polytypic (consisting of more than one subspecies). In this way, the eBird/Clements Checklist is completely integrated, but can also be divided into these two groups. Read more about the eBird Taxonomy.

The Clements Checklist provides two update pages (overview and 2017 updates & corrections) and also provides all three files (eBird/Clements, Clements, and eBird) for download.

The Clements Checklist 2017 updates & corrections provides details (including references) for all species splits and lumps, new species descriptions, revisions to subspecies groups (ISSFs) or subspecies, and other changes relevant to the Clements Checklist. We refer anyone wishing to learn more about these splits to that page.

A list of all the taxonomic changes is below. Most changes for the AOS-NACC Fifty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds are incorporated, as well as AOS-SACC revisions to the South American check-List through 22 April 2017.

This is largely in sync with the above Clements update; references are not listed in full, but are included in the Clements update. Since this is a long article, here is a short index:

  • Introduction
  • Languages
  • Species splits
  • Subspecies group changes
  • Species lumps
  • New species
  • New subspecies groups
  • New hybrids and intergrades
  • New forms
  • New domestics
  • New slashes and spuhs
  • Common name “ambiguation” and subspecies group lumps
  • Common Name changes
  • Scientific Name changes

INTRODUCTION

When the taxonomy is updated in eBird, many of the changes are fairly simple to implement. When a common name changes, a scientific name changes, or when the taxonomic sequence is revised, those changes roll through and start appearing in eBird output fairly quickly. Keeping track of name changes is a challenge, and consulting Avibase is one of the best ways to do so. Just type any bird name in Avibase and Avibase will show you the history of that name, and—if it differs from eBird—it will show what the eBird equivalent is for that name. Try it with “Louisiana Heron”, for example.

When species are ‘lumped’ (e.g., two taxonomic entities that used to be considered separate species, but are now one), eBird usually retains the former species as an identifiable group. In these cases, your records may shift to the lumped form and your totals may (or may not) drop by one. The actual entity that you observed and reported has not changed in any way other than being changed from species to subspecies. For example, this year, you’ll notice that your previous reports of Iceland Gull and Thayer’s Gull have changed to Iceland Gull (Iceland) and Iceland Gull (Thayer’s).

When splits occur, the process is more complicated. In many cases, we have had subspecies options available for reporting in anticipation of the split. All these records update automatically to the new species. But when a bird is reported at the broader species level (without a subspecies listed on your entry), and then that species is split, we update the records in eBird to one of the “child” species whenever possible. We try to be very conservative with this. When two species do not overlap in range (i.e., they are allopatric) we go ahead and make the change. When the species do overlap (i.e., are sympatric), and do not have clear seasonal or habitat differences, we usually do not make the change. This results in your records being left as the more conservative “slash” option.

As an example, this year Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus was split into two species, Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus and Northern Harrier Circus hudsonius. This split is fairly easy to understand: Hen Harrier occurs in Eurasia and Northern Harrier occurs in the Americas. A few vagrant Northern Harriers have reached Western Europe and a couple vagrant Hen Harriers have been recorded in the westernmost Aleutian Islands of Alaska, but otherwise they stick to their continents. You’ll note that the rules and norms of nomenclature result in the scientific name staying the same for the Eurasian bird, and the common name staying the same for the North American bird. Sightings that specified the subspecies have been updated automatically (we recommend being specific when possible, but only when you understand the subspecies options you select for data entry and specifically identified it as that form in the field!).

Before this update, if you observed a Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus from Attu Island, Alaska, or other areas right at the contact zone, it would be considered in eBird as Hen/Northern Harrier–the only difference now is that the taxa involved are now considered species instead of subspecies. If you know which one you saw, we encourage you to update your records. If you are not sure (and this is one of the tougher identification issues in the world, so don’t feel bad!), then your observation is best listed as the slash option.

If you want to review your records of “Hen/Northern Harrier” or of “Short-billed/Long-billed Dowitcher”, there are a couple ways to do this through the My eBird tools. If you know the checklist it is on, you can find the list in “Manage My Observations” and edit it as needed. If you can find your checklist on the range map of “Hen/Northern Harrier” then you can just click on the marker for your list and open it from there. But the best option to review your records is to go to My eBird and then click “Download My Data” from the right side. This downloads your entire eBird database as a CSV file that can be opened in Excel or a similar spreadsheet program. From there, you should easily be able to sort by name or search for “Hen/Northern Harrier” to find your records. Then you can scroll to the correct date or just replace the Submission ID in the URL for a checklist view.

LANGUAGES

We provide common names for birds in the eBird taxonomy in cases where a different language is spoken as well as where alternate English names are used in that area. For example, Pluvialis squatorola is known as Black-bellied Plover in our taxonomy, but known by its duller winter dress in some areas such as the United Kingdom, where they call it Grey Plover. You can access these under “Preferences” from most eBird pages, which is also where you can set the names to shows as common names or scientific names. One additional option is English (IOC), which gives a full translation of species names into the IOC World Bird List (v7.3) nomenclature. Note that these names are exact taxonomic matches, so they reflect as slashes when a species is split by IOC and not by eBird; similarly, species split by eBird will appear as subspecies groups for IOC. Our Common Name Translations article explains more about regional common name preferences.

SPECIES SPLITS

The species below were split in eBird. To see a map of the new species, click “map”. To see your personal lists in My eBird, just make sure you are logged in and click “my records”. If you have seen the species but don’t have any records shown, then please enter your sightings! Full details for all below accounts can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page. We encourage all birders to carefully review the below splits and check your personal records and to update them if you think we made an error. Below are the splits for this update:

Gray-breasted Partridge Arborophila orientalis is split into four species: Malaysian Partridge Arborophila campbelli of peninsular Malaysia; Roll’s Partridge Arborophila rolli of western Sumatra; Sumatran Partridge Arborophila sumatrana of eastern Sumatra; and Gray-breasted Partridge Arborophila orientalis of Java.

Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus is split into two species. The widespread Eurasian species, Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus, retains the scientific name and the English name familiar in Europe. It is a species of much conservation concern, especially in the United Kingdom where it continues to be persecuted. The North American species, which has reached northern South America as a winter vagrant, is Northern Harrier Circus hudsonius, retaining the English name familiar in North America. Although both species are vagrants out of rage, with a couple western Alaska records of Hen Harrier and several western Europe records of Northern Harrier. Records in eBird will be converted to the appropriate species for a given continent, unless the subspecies is specified. Although it will be rarely needed, Hen/Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus/hudsonius is retained for records from areas where the species might be ambiguous, but there are very few regions where both forms are rare (e.g., Azores, western Alaska, Central Pacific Islands, etc.).

Identification of Hen Harrier (pictured here) and Northern Harrier is a major challenge, and several articles have been written on the topic from the European perspective. Adult males are perhaps more distinctive, with Hen Harriers being cleaner and paler. Adult females (like the bird here) are a bigger challenge, but counting the number of bands on the outermost primary is a proposed field mark: this bird has four visible dark bands. Photo by Craig Brelsford/Macaulay Library.

 

As with many species, identification first depends on accurate ageing and sexing. Eye color helps with harriers: brown in juveniles, yellow in adult females. This well-marked adult female is presumably a Northern Harrier, since it was photographed in Canada. The five complete bars on the outer primaries is considered a good field mark for Northern Harrier, dispelling hope that this was Quebec’s first Hen Harrier. Photo by Yves Darveau/Macaulay Library

Glossy Swiftlet Collocalia esculenta is split into eight species, based largely on genetic analyses by Rheindt et al. (2017). Although they are very similar in appearance, each is resident and restricted to its unique range as listed below

  • Christmas Island Swiftlet Collocalia natalis [map] [media] [my records]
    • RANGE: Christmas Island
  • Plume-toed Swiftlet Collocalia affinis [map] [media] [my records]
    • RANGE: Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India), Mergui Archipelago (off Myanmar)
      Thai-Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Natuna Island, and lowland Borneo
      Nias I. (off w Sumatra), and Batu Islands and Mentawi Islands (off w Sumatra)
  • Gray-rumped Swiftlet Collocalia marginata [map] [media] [my records]
    • RANGE: Philippines only:central Luzon to Mindoro, Panay, Negros, Bohol, and Leyte, Calayan, Camiguin Norte, Babuyan, Claro, Fuga. Likely also Palawan, though that may be Ridgetop Swiftlet.
  • Ridgetop Swiftlet Collocalia isonota [map] [media] [my records]
    • RANGE: Philippines only: northern Philippines (Northern Luzon) and southern Philippines (montane Mindoro, Mindanao, and Sulu Archipelago)
  • Tenggara Swiftlet Collocalia sumbawae [map] [media] [my records]
    • RANGE: western Lesser Sundas (Sumbawa, Flores, Besar, and Sumba)
  • Drab Swiftlet Collocalia neglecta [map] [media] [my records]
    • RANGE: Lesser Sundas (Sawu, Roti, Semau, Timor, Alor, Wetar, and Kisar); populations on Romang, Damar and Tanimbar possibly introgressant with Glossy Swiftlet
  • Glossy Swiftlet Collocalia esculenta [map] [media] [my records]
    • RANGE: N Moluccas, N Sulawesi, Sangihe, Siau, Talasea and Talaud islands, central and southern Sulawesi, Banggai and Sula islands, South Moluccas (to Kai Islands), and Aru Islands, Salayar, Bonerate, Tanahjampea and Kalao is. (n Flores Sea), New Guinea and adjacent Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, and Solomon Islands
  • Satin Swiftlet Collocalia uropygialis [map] [media] [my records]
    • RANGE: Santa Cruz Is. and Vanuatu (including Torres and Banks Is.), New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands

Magnificent Hummingbird Eugenes fulgens is split into two allopatric species: Rivoli’s Hummingbird Eugenes fulgens occurs from Arizona and New Mexico to n. Nicaragua, while Talamanca Hummingbird Eugenes spectabilis is found in Costa Rica and western Panama. Talamanca Hummingbird has also been known recently (e.g., by the IOC) as Admirable Hummingbird. No overlap in their ranges is known.

Emerald Toucanet Aulacorhynchus prasinus has a number of populations that some have split into as many as seven species. This year the species is divided into two species, Northern Emerald-Toucanet Aulacorhynchus prasinus, occurring from northwesternmost Colombia (Cerro Tacarcuna) north to northeast Mexico, and Southern Emerald-Toucanet Aulacorhynchus albivitta which occurs throughout the remainder of South America. Subspecies groups and ranges are included as well.

  • Northern Emerald-Toucanet Aulacorhynchus prasinus [map] [media] [my records]
    • Northern Emerald-Toucanet (Wagler’s) Aulacorhynchus prasinus wagleri
      • RANGE: Sierra Madre del Sur of sw Mexico (Guerrero and sw Oaxaca)
    • Northern Emerald-Toucanet (Emerald) Aulacorhynchus prasinus [prasinus Group]
      • RANGE: SE and s Mexico to n Nicaragua
    • Northern Emerald-Toucanet (Blue-throated) Aulacorhynchus prasinus caeruleogularis/maxillaris
      • RANGE: Highlands of Costa Rica east to highlands of central Panama
    • Northern Emerald-Toucanet (Violet-throated) Aulacorhynchus prasinus cognatus
      • RANGE: Mts. of e Panama (Darién) and adjacent Colombia
  • Southern Emerald-Toucanet Aulacorhynchus albivitta [map] [media] [my records]
    • Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Santa Marta) Aulacorhynchus albivitta lautus
      • RANGE: Santa Marta Mountains (ne Colombia)
    • Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Gray-throated) Aulacorhynchus albivitta griseigularis
      • RANGE: N end of W Andes and w slope of Central Andes of Colombia
    • Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Andean) Aulacorhynchus albivitta albivitta/phaeolaemus
      • RANGE: Andes of Colombia, e Ecuador and w Venezuela
    • Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Black-throated) Aulacorhynchus albivitta [atrogularis Group]
      • RANGE: Humid Andes from se Ecuador to n Bolivia

Horned Parakaeet Eunymphicus cornutus is split into two species, with Horned Parakeet Eunymphicus cornutus occurring through most of the rage on New Caledonia and Ouvea Parakeet Eunymphicus uvaeensis being restricted to the island of Ouvea off New Caledonia’s north coast.

Ouvea Parakeet, Eunymphicus uvaeensis is a newly-split species that occurs on a small remote island (Ouvea) off the north side of a larger, extremely remote island (New Caledonia). Only a few intrepid eBirders have made the trek to find this species, but their efforts are now rewarded with an addition to their life list (presuming they also saw the more widespread Horned Parakeet on New Caledonia itself). Photo Tommy Pedersen/Macaulay Library.

Cardinal Myzomela Myzomela cardinalis is split into two species, with the recognition of Samoan Myzomela Myzomela nigriventris. The remaining subspecies stay under Cardinal Myzomela Myzomela cardinalis.

Northern Shrike Lanius excubitor is split into two species. As with harriers, the familiar common names are retained for the New World and Old World, with the species of Europe and western Asia referred to as Great Gray Shrike Lanius excubitor and also retaining the scientific name. The species of the New World, Northern Shrike Lanius borealis has a scientific name change but shows no change in English name, retaining the preferred name in the Americas. However, Northern Shrike is very much a species of the Old World too, since it breeds west of central Siberia and northern Mongolia and winters widely in northern China, Japan, and Korea. Exact movements of the two species are complex and not well known, and field identification is very challenging, so Great Gray/Northern Shrike Lanius excubitor/borealis should be used liberally in Siberia, eastern Kazakhstan, and nearby areas. To add to the complexity, Northern Shrike has occurred as a trans-Atlantic vagrant to western Europe (e.g., the Azores) and also as a vagrant or rare winter visitor (Lanius borealis sibiricus) to Ukraine at least. [Note: For those that prefer “grey” over “gray”, just change your eBird language to English (Malaysia), which shows the exact names from Clements with this spelling conversion. Other languages include other local modifications, but also spell it “grey”, such as English (India), English (United Kingdom), or English (Australia). See more in this story) — if you make this change in your preferences, all bird names will be spelled in that way, including the below links. In this text story, we obviously use the American English names (e.g., Great Gray Shrike).

 

Shrike identification in the Old World has never been easy, and recent taxonomic revisions have added to the challenge. Great Gray Shrike used to be considered one widespread species, breeding as far south as northern Africa, but now Great Gray Shrike is restricted to northern areas of Europe and western Asia, with Southern Gray Shrike being the species of southern Europe, northern Africa, and much of the Middle East. A new challenge is the separation of Northern Shrike from Great Gray Shrike. This adult Great Gray Shrike in Germany shows classic and crisp gray, black, and white plumage, without the buff or ochre tones usually present on Northern Shrike. Photo by Christoph Moning/Macaulay Library.

Northern Shrikes are easy to identify by range in North America, where this photos was taken, but in Siberia and eastern Europe (or mid-Atlantic islands) birders should be very careful with their identifications. The brown primaries and primary coverts indicate that this Northern Shrike is not a full adult, but even as a subadult, the extensive buffy wash on the face and upper breast, and the fairly prominent barring on the breast, probably suffice to help eliminate Great Gray Shrike, with which it had previously been lumped. Photo by Jeremiah Trimble/Macaulay Library.

An extinct species Piopio Turnagra capensis is split into two species, each of which was formerly an endemic to each of the two main islands of New Zealand. The North Island Piopio Turnagra tanagra was last seen 1902 and South Island Piopio Turnagra capensis just three years later in 1905. Sadly, with both species extinct, the entire genus was also lost.

Silktail Lamprolia victoriae is split into two species, both endemic to Fiji and each a single island endemic: Taveuni Silktail Lamprolia victoriae and Natewa Silktail Lamprolia klinesmithi.

Superb Bird-of-Paradise is split into three species, including Vogelkop Superb Bird-of-Paradise Lophorina niedda (restricted to far western Papua); Greater Superb Bird-of-Paradise Lophorina superba (of central New Guinea), and a Lesser Superb Bird-of-Paradise Lophorina minor (of easternmost Papua New Guinea). Note also that the name superba, previously applied to the population in the mountains of the Bird’s Head Peninsula, instead should refer to the population of the central highlands of New Guinea.

Magnificent Riflebird Ptiloris magnificus is split into two species, which differ primarily in vocalizations: Magnificent Riflebird Ptiloris magnificus, which occurs in ne. Australia (n Cape York Peninsula) and lowlands of w and w-central New Guinea, and Growling Riflebird Ptiloris intercedens, restricted to lowlands of central and se Papua New Guinea.

Their vocalizations are quite distinct. Compare the Macaulay Library recordings below, beginning with the gruff calls of Growling Riflebird (and be sure to check out the video too!).

Please review your records with care, and if you know which vocal type you heard, make sure your observations are in the correct species. The exact ranges of these two forms is still being resolved:

Buff-vented Bulbul Iole olivacea was formerly considered monotypic, but recent studies show that the Borneo form is unique and should be split. Adding to confusion, the name Iole olivacea was not valid, and the correct name before the split should have been Iole charlottae. After the split, the name Iole charlottae is applied to the Borneo species,Charlotte’s Bulbul Iole charlottae and the species of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and adjacent islands retains its English name, but uses a new scientific name: Buff-vented Bulbul Iole crypta

Olive Bulbul Iole virescens is split into two species, with the recognition of Cachar Bulbul Iole cacharensis from ne India (Assam) and e Bangladesh. In the rest of the species’s range in Southeast Asia, it is still known  Olive Bulbul Iole viridescens.

Each of the two monotypic groups of Black-chinned Laughingthrush Trochalopteron cachinnans is elevated to species rank: Black-chinned Laughingthrush (Banasura) Trochalopteron cachinnans jerdoni becomes Banasura Laughingthrush Montecincla jerdoni and Black-chinned Laughingthrush (Nilgiri) Trochalopteron cachinnans cachinnans becomes Nilgiri Laughingthrush Montecincla cachinnans. Note also that the genus changes from Trochalopteron to Montecincla. 

Each of the two monotypic groups of Kerala Laughingthrush Trochalopteron fairbanki is elevated to species rank: Kerala Laughingthrush (Palani) Trochalopteron fairbanki fairbanki becomes Palani Laughingthrush Montecincla fairbanki; and Kerala Laughingthrush (Travancore) Trochalopteron fairbanki meridionale becomes Ashambu Laughingthrush Montecincla meridionale. Note also that the genus changes from Trochalopteron to Montecincla. 

The taxonomy of Montecincla laughingthrushes in the Ghats of southern India was revised this year, with four species each replacing one another as one moves southward. What had been known as Rufous-breasted Laughingthrush, was then revised to Black-chinned Laughingthrush, and then split into two species: this is Nilgiri Laughingthrush. Regardless of the shifting names, these are striking and beautiful birds. Photo by David Irving/Macaulay Library.

Within Blue-throated Flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides, the monotypic group Blue-throated Flycatcher (Chinese) Cyornis rubeculoides glaucicomans is elevated to species rank as Chinese Blue Flycatcher Cyornis glaucicomans. Although the breeding range of Blue-throated Flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides and Chinese Blue Flycatcher are largely distinct, the migration and winter ranges overlap broadly in s China (Yunnan), e Myanmar, Thailand, w. Laos, which means that records not identified clearly to subspecies in eBird prior to the split will be treated as Blue-throated/Chinese Blue Flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides/glaucicomans.

  • Blue-throated Flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides [map] [media] [my records]
  • Chinese Blue Flycatcher Cyornis glaucicomans [map] [media] [my records]
  • Blue-throated/Chinese Blue Flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides/glaucicomans [map] [media]

In addition to the above split, Blue-throated Flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides has another important change, as subspecies klossi, previously classified as a subspecies of Blue-throated Flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides, is transferred to Hainan Blue Flycatcher Cyornis hainanus. This significantly changes the range for both species, with the birds occurring from e Thailand to s Laos and s Vietnam now being part of Hainan Blue Flycatcher. Apparently they are somewhat polytypic in this area, and there may still be some puzzles to unravel.

White-tailed Rubythroat Calliope pectoralis is split into two species: Himalayan Rubythroat Calliope pectoralis, and Chinese Rubythroat Calliope tschebaiewi. They largely do not overlap, but some winter and migration records will be retained as Himalayan/Chinese Rubythroat (White-tailed Rubythroat) Calliope pectoralis/tschebaiewi, especially in ne India. Adult males are easily identifiable since Chinese Rubythroat has a prominent white whisker between the eye and its eponymous ruby throat.

  • Himalayan Rubythroat Calliope pectoralis [map] [media] [my records]
  • Chinese Rubythroat Calliope tschebaiewi [map] [media] [my records]
  • Himalayan/Chinese Rubythroat (White-tailed Rubythroat) Calliope pectoralis/tschebaiewi [map] [media

Himalayan Rubythroat can be easily identified in this plumage by its dark malar, as compared to our feature image of a Chinese Rubythroat, which shows a prominent whitish ‘whisker’. Photo by Henry Cook/Macaulay Library.

Gray-brown White-eye Zosterops cinereus is split into two species, each an island endemic: Pohnpei White-eye Zosterops ponapensis and Kosrae White-eye Zosterops cinereus.

Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch Geospiza difficilis is split into three species: Vampire Ground-Finch Geospiza septentrionalis of remote Darwin and Wolf Islands, Genovesa Ground-Finch Geospiza acutirostris of Genovesa Island and Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch Geospiza difficilis of Pinta, Fernandina, and Santiago Islands. Although few birders have seen or reported Geospiza septentrionalis, its unusual English name is discussed in Wikipedia thus: “occasionally feeds by drinking the blood of other birds, chiefly the Nazca and Blue-footed boobies, pecking at their skin with their sharp beaks until blood is drawn”. Be careful if you go seeking this one for your eBird list!

Large Cactus-Finch Geospiza conirostris is split into two species: Española Cactus-Finch Geospiza conirostris, which is restricted to Española Island, and Genovesa Cactus-Finch Geospiza propinqua, which occurs on Genovesa (and possibly Darwin and Wolf Islands). The number of Galapagos finches continues to increase!

Prevost’s Ground-Sparrow Melozone biarcuata is split into two species: White-faced Ground-Sparrow Melozone biarcuata, which occurs from s Mexico to n Nicaragua, and Cabanis’s Ground-Sparrow Melozone cabanisi, which is a Costa Rican endemic. The two species do not overlap in range and look and sound distinctly different from one another.

White-faced Ground-Sparrow is aptly named, with its distinctive face pattern helping to separate it from Cabanis’s Ground-Sparrow of Costa Rica. The two were previously combined as one species: Prevost’s Ground-Sparrow. Photo by Ian Davies/Macaulay Library.

Formerly considered one of the many call “types” of Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra, the recently described monotypic group, Red Crossbill (South Hills or type 9) Loxia curvirostra sinesciuris is elevated to species rank as Cassia Crossbill Loxia sinesciuris. This split is based on evidence for premating reproductive isolation in the face of sympatry with Red Crossbill and on genomic differences. This new species is endemic to just two counties in Idaho (its namesake Cassia County, and also Twin Falls County) and is already of high conservation concern. Although this is the predominant crossbill in the South Hills of Idaho, other Red Crossbills occur there as well (especially Type 5) so any identifications should ideally include sound recordings of the flight call to confirm the species. It seems safe to say that more surprises can be expected in the Red Crossbill complex, which is just as diverse in call types and habitats in the Old World as it is in the New World.

Yellow-eyed Junco Junco phaeonotus is split with the recognition of the highly localized Baird’s Junco Junco bairdi as a separate species. Baird’s Junco, which is distinctive in plumage and vocalizations, occurs only in the higher elevations of the Sierra de La Laguna of southernmost Baja California Sur, Mexico, and has a very small global population. Yellow-eyed Junco Junco phaeonotus retains its English and scientific name for the remainder of its range from se Arizona to Guatemala.

LUMPS and INVALID SPECIES

In eBird taxonomic revision, lumps are very easy to deal with. Usually the taxa become subspecies groups, so there is no changing of records necessary, just a recalculation of lists as the species drop to identifiable subspecies. Whenever possible, we encourage birders to continue reporting at the subspecies level, but whenever you select these options, be sure you understand the taxa that you are using; do not try to guess at the subspecies based on the name! This section also includes invalid species descriptions: these are rare but occur when an original description of a species or subspecies is proven to be a hybrid, rare variant, or other form of natural variation that does not represent a species. Full details for can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page. Just two lumps this year.

Thayer’s Gull Larus thayeri is lumped with Iceland Gull Larus glaucoides. These two species have caused identification headaches for decades, so this lump will perhaps make it easier to assign a problem gull to the species level.

Iceland Gull and Thayer’s Gull used to be one of the biggest identification challenges in the country, and the “rules” for their identification were terribly inconsistent in North america between the East Coast and the West Coast. The differences between the two were mostly in darkness of wingtip feathers, with Thayer’s more blackish and Iceland Gull running the gamut between pure white to extensively black, and everything in between. This bird would likely get called a Thayer’s by most birders in the West, but was photographed in Massachusetts, where dark-winged birds like this are fairly regular and are most are probably dark extreme Iceland Gulls (Larus glaucoides kumlieni). Furthermore, it may be lacking black on a key feather, where Thayer’s usually has a dark band. But who knows! This bird was wisely reported as a Thayer’s/Iceland, and now that they are lumped, can just be considered an Iceland Gull of unknown subspecies. Photo Sean Williams/Macaulay Library

Western Olive Sunbird Cyanomitra obscura and Eastern Olive Sunbird Cyanomitra olivacea are lumped as a single species: Olive Sunbird Cyanomitra olivacea. These two taxa were not even considered distinctive enough to retain as subspecies groups, so all records in eBird will now appear as Olive Sunbird.

NEW SPECIES

Each year, a few newly described species or populations newly recognized for their distinctiveness are named and added to the eBird/Clements taxonomy. This just goes to show how much remains to be learned about the birds of the World! Full details for can be seen at the Clements Updates & Corrections page.

  • Tanna Ground-Dove Alopecoenas ferrugineus [map] [media] [my records] Tanna Ground-Dove is recognized as a distinct species, but is extinct. It formerly occurred on Tanna Island (Vanuatu), where it was last reported in 1774.
  • Norfolk Ground-Dove Alopecoenas norfolkensis [map] [media] [my records] – Norfolk Ground-Dove is recognized as a distinct species. It formerly occurred on Norfolk Island (Australia) but has been extinct since about 1800.
  • Tatama Tapaculo Scytalopus alvarezlopezi [map] [media] [my records] This is a newly recognized species, previously available in eBird under its former, provisional name: Alto Pisones Tapaculo. It occurs on the Pacific slope of Colombian Andes from western Antioquia south to southwestern Valle del Cauca).

SUBSPECIES RESHUFFLES

When subspecies move around between species, this can have effects like splits or lumps. Thus, for a certain population within a species, the movement of the subspecies from one to another has important data quality implications and can significantly change the range of both species. 

Indian Scops-Owl and Collared Scops-Owl: Subspecies plumipes, previously classified under Indian Scops-Owl Otus bakkamoena, properly belongs with Collared Scops-Owl Otus lettia. Please review your records to see if they may pertain to plumipes (which occurs in the W Himalayas from n Pakistan to w Nepal). If so, please check to make sure your records are under the correct species.

Square-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo and Fork-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo: The taxonomy of drongo-cuckoos is extraordinarily vexed. A consensus has emerged, however, on subspecies barussarum which is considered to belong to Square-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo Surniculus lugubris, not to Fork-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo Surniculus dicruroidesSurniculus lugubris barussarum breeds in northeastern India, northern Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Indochina, and southeastern China, including Hainan; winters south to Sumatra”, and this subspecies shift essentially restricts Fork-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo to the Indian subcontinent, from the Himalayas south to southern India and Sri Lanka and means that all drongo-cuckoos in Southeast Asia (from Myanmar and Thailand south and east) are Square-tailed Drongo-Cuckoo.

Eurasian Reed Warbler and African Reed Warbler: Subspecies avicenniae is more closely related to Eurasian Reed Warbler than to other subspecies of African Reed Warbler, although it was previously included in African Reed Warbler. It is transferred to Eurasian Reed Warbler and the scientific name of this monotypic group changes to Acrocephalus scirpaceus avicenniae. The placement of this coastal Red Sea population significantly affects the northeastern limit of African Reed Warbler, and the southeastern limit of Eurasian Reed Warbler.

As if that was not confusing enough, Olsson et al. (2016) documented that reed warblers breeding in northwestern Africa and on the Iberian Peninsula, previously included in Eurasian Reed Warbler (Eurasian) Acrocephalus scirpaceus scirpaceus, are genetically distinct from scirpaceus (with high levels of support), and apparently are closely related to African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus baeticatus (although this relationship is less well established). An available name for these birds is ambiguus Brehm 1857. Therefore we add subspecies ambiguus for African Reed Warbler breeding northwestern Africa (Morocco to Tunisia) and southwestern Europe (Iberian Peninsula). We know the Moroccan population is at least partially resident, and Iberian birds may winter in sub-Saharan Africa, but range is not known in detail.

This reassignment of the breeding reed warblers in Portugal, Spain, and nw Africa, causes a lot of confusion. Most eBird records will be changed to Eurasian Reed/African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus/baeticatus. Although Eurasian Reed Warbler is a common migrant through the region, it is very difficult to identify any birds to species, with the best piece of evidence being seeing the species outside of the migration period of Eurasian Reed Warbler at known breeding sites. It will take a number of years to bring more clarity to this surprising situation.

Lesser Whitethroat: The Lesser Whitethroat complex involves at least four species–Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca, Desert Whitethroat Sylvia minula, Hume’s Whitethroat Sylvia althaea, and Margelanic Whitethroat Sylvia margelanica–with plenty of ID challenges at the species level. A few subspecies in the complex, mostly Lesser Whitethroat, were revised in the Clements updates, but one of these has important implications for eBird: subspecies Sylvia curruca jaxartica, with range “Plains of s Transcaspia”, is considered to refer to the same population as does Desert Whitethroat Sylvia minula. Therefore this name is no longer used and the range of Desert Whitethroat is revised slightly from “breeds from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (and probably Iran) east through northern Afghanistan and Tajikistan to western China; winters to the south” to “breeds from Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and central Iran east through northern Afghanistan and Tajikistan to western China; winters to the south”. Some Lesser Whitethroat records from this region, thus would now refer to Desert Whitethroat.

Olive Bulbul and Gray-eyed Bulbul: A population in Myanmar, previously classified as a subspecies of Olive Bulbul (thus Iole virescens myitkyinensis), instead is embedded within Gray-eyed Bulbul and transferred to that species as Iole propinqua myitkyinensis, which we include under the polytypic group Gray-eyed Bulbul (Gray-eyed) Iole propinqua [propinqua Group]. Two other subspecies of Gray-eyed Bulbul, lekahuni and cinnamomeiventris, in turn are reassigned to Olive Bulbul Iole viridescens. This is all very confusing, so we list the full ranges for each, with all component subspecies below (see Clements Checklist update for more information). The species and subspecies groups, both in boldface, can be entered in eBird, but the component subspecies which are not boldfaced cannot be entered in your eBird records — we only allow data entry for subspecies groups. Please check your records of these two species with care!

  • Gray-eyed Bulbul Iole propinqua [map] [media] [my records]
    • Gray-eyed Bulbul (Gray-eyed) Iole propinqua [propinqua Group]
      • Iole propinqua myitkyinensis RANGE: northeastern and eastern Myanmar
      • Iole propinqua propinqua RANGE: E Myanmar to sw China, n Thailand, n Laos and n Vietnam
      • Iole propinqua simulator RANGE: SE Thailand to s Laos, Cambodia and n Vietnam
      • Iole propinqua aquilonis RANGE: S China (sw Guangxi) and n Vietnam
    • Gray-eyed Bulbul (innectens) Iole propinqua innectens RANGE:  S Vietnam
  • Olive Bulbul Iole virescens [map] [media] [my records]
    • Olive Bulbul (Olive) Iole viridescens viridescens/lekhakuni
      • Iole viridescens viridescens RANGE: southern Myanmar and southwestern Thailand
      • Iole viridescens lekhakuni RANGE: southern Myanmar to western Thailand
    • Olive Bulbul (Baker’s) Iole viridescens cinnamomeoventris RANGE: Thai-Malay Peninsula (Mergui District and Isthmus of Kra south at least to Songkhla)

SHUFFLES OF OTHER TAXA and SUBSPECIES GROUP LUMPS

Revisions to eBird subspecies groups, and occasionally other taxa (like spuhs or slashes), can happen in our taxonomic update as well. This effectively changes the definition for these taxa and also changes how you should use them in reporting. To review your records of any of the subspecies groups below, simply open your Life List on eBird and use a browser search to search for the species name in question. Click the species to open all reports for that species; your subspecies reports will appear in this list and you can review those for accuracy. Selected revisions are listed below; for a complete listing of these changes see the Clements updates.

Canada Goose: Canada Goose (parvipes) Branta canadensis parvipes, sometimes known as “Lesser” Canada Goose, has long been a controversial taxon. More recently, studies show that size of Canada Geese is driven largely by nutrition as juveniles, raising a legitimate question about whether variation in size is more a result of genetics or nutrition, with birds possibly averaging smaller in the West. Some suggest that parvipes may not be a valid subspecies. Regardless, it seems clear that parvipes is not safely separable from canadensis/interior so we merge it with the latter group. From this point forth, sightings believe to pertain to parvipes should be submitted using the Canada Goose (canadensis Group) Branta canadensis [canadensis Group] [map] [media].

white egret sp.: Intermediate Egret was always intended to be included in the “white egret sp.” group. With this revision Mesophyx (Intermediate Egret) is now considered part of Ardea and because of this, Intermediate and Great Egret should be considered part of white egret sp. Ardea/Egretta/Bubulcus sp. 

Sharp-shinned Hawk (Northern): Subspecies madrensis is removed from the polytypic group Sharp-shinned Hawk (Northern) Accipiter striatus [velox Group], and instead is recognized as a separate monotypic group Sharp-shinned Hawk (Madrean) Accipiter striatus madrensis. It is distinctive and beautiful, but rarely seen.

Sharp-shinned Hawk (madrensis) is a new subspecies group for eBird, with its very pale throat and upper breast and washed out underparts coloration establishing it as a unique and field-identifiable form, as compared to the “Northern” group in Sharp-shinned Hawk, which has a uniform breast that is barred with reddish. Photo by Nigel Voaden/Macaulay Library.

Northern Fantail subspecies groups are revised: the polytypic group Northern Fantail (Plain) Rhipidura rufiventris [rufiventris Group], which included subspecies cinerea, assimilis, and gularis, is partitioned. Subspecies assimilis and subspecies finitima, formerly included in the polytypic group Northern Fantail (Cream-bellied) Rhipidura rufiventris [rufiventris Group], form a new group, Northern Fantail (Kai) Rhipidura assimilis/finitima. Subspecies gularis is transferred, with subspecies vidua (formerly included in the polytypic group Northern Fantail (Slaty) Rhipidura rufiventris vidua/kordensis) to the polytypic group Northern Fantail (Melanesian) Rhipidura rufiventris [setosa Group]. Subspecies cinerea is recognized as a new monotypic group, Northern Fantail (Seram) Rhipidura rufiventris cinerea.

  • Northern Fantail (Kai) Rhipidura rufiventris assimilis/finitima [map] [media] [my records]
  • Northern Fantail (Timor) Rhipidura rufiventris rufiventris/pallidiceps [map] [media] [my records]

Slaty-capped Flycatcher (superciliaris): In light of vocal differences (e.g., Ridgely and Greenfield 2001), we resurrect subspecies transandinus and recognize it as a monotypic group Slaty-capped Flycatcher (transandinus) Leptopogon superciliaris transandinus, which effectively splits Slaty-capped Flycatcher (superciliaris) Leptopogon superciliaris superciliaris into two taxa. The range of transandius is “highlands of Costa Rica and Panama, and west slope of the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador” with superciliaris found in “coastal mountains and Andes of Venezuela south through Andes of Colombia (except for west slope of Western Andes) and east slope of Andes of Ecuador and Peru (south to the Apurímac Valley in Cuzco)”

Barn Owl: Some authorities (e.g., IOC) have split Barn Owl into Eastern Barn Owl and Western Barn Owl. The eBird group Barn Owl (Eastern) was incorrectly defined since two subspecies properly belong with Barn Owl (Eastern) Tyto alba [delicatula Group], instead of Barn Owl (Eurasian) Tyto alba [alba Group] where they were formerly listed. Thus, subspecies stertens (Indian subcontinent to n Sri Lanka, sw China and s Thailand) and  subspecies javanica (Malay Peninsula to Greater Sundas) are moved to Barn Owl (Eastern), resulting in a signifcant change in the range of that form in eBird.

Black-billed Thrush: We remove Turdus ignobilis murinus from Black-billed Thrush (Drab)Turdus ignobilis [ignobilis Group] and recognize it as a new monotypic group, the polytypic group Black-billed Thrush (Drab) changes includes only Black-billed Thrush (Drab) Turdus ignobilis ignobilis/goodfellowi. Thus, any reports from the range of murinus should be reported as that group, not as Black-billed Thrush (Drab).

Eurasian Jay: Subspecies Garrulus glandarius oatesi, of the upper Chindwin and Chin Hills of Myanmar, was previously included in the group Eurasian Jay (Himalayan) Garrulus glandarius [bispecularis Group] , but should be placed in the Eurasian Jay (White-faced) Garrulus glandarius leucotis/oatesi.

Common Chiffchaff: eBird previously provided three groups in Common Chiffchaff: Common Chiffchaff (Siberian) Phylloscopus collybita tristis, Common Chiffchaff (collybita) Phylloscopus collybita collybita, and Common Chiffchaff (abietinus) Phylloscopus collybita abietinus . However, collybita and abietinus are almost identical in plumage and vocalizations, so are merged under a single group: Common Chiffchaff (Common) Phylloscopus collybita [collybita Group]. In addition, three subspecies from the Caucasus and Middle East, Phylloscopus collybita brevirostrisPhylloscopus collybita caucasicus, and Phylloscopus collybita menzbieri are also included in this group.

Grasshopper Sparrow: Grasshopper Sparrow previously had three groups in eBird: Grasshopper Sparrow (Western) Ammodramus savannarum perpallidus/ammolegus, Grasshopper Sparrow (Eastern) Ammodramus savannarum pratensis, and Grasshopper Sparrow (Florida) Ammodramus savannarum floridanus. However, while there are very minor color differences in the subspecies, these are too subtle to be safely used for identification in the field. Thus, these do not meet the requirements for recognition as a subspecies group. Past records will now be treated simply as Grasshopper Sparrow.

NEW SUBSPECIES GROUPS

The following new subspecies groups are now available for data entry. When you are certain you have seen representatives of these groups, and ideally have identified them critically based on their field marks, please report them to eBird. Please do not guess based on the name, such as “Northern” and “Southern” or “African” and “Asian”; make sure you understand the differences being represented before reporting at so specific a level. Many new subspecies groups were added this year, largely because we reviewed the work by Nigel Collar and the Birdlife International team, who assessed a large number of avian taxa based on morphological and acoustic information and scored their relative distinctiveness (also known as the Tobias criteria). While we don’t necessarily follow the species-level splits from Handbook of the Birds of the World, these were useful for helping identify distinctive subspecies groups, resulting in the large number of additions this year. 

See appendix A for this list. Since it is so long this year, we are moving it to the bottom of this article.

NEW HYBRIDS and INTERGRADES

eBird has a long list of field identifiable hybrids. These are always listed in taxonomic order (the species that comes first sequentially is listed first) and are always followed by “hybrid”. If you identified a hybrid, especially any of the below, please do report it to eBird (hopefully with photos)! eBird also maintains a much shorter lists of intergrades (hybrids between subspecies groups); these are followed by the phrase “intergrade” and can be identified from the scientific name by the structure of the names which indicates that it is a subspecies. Hybrids and intergrades are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

This year, with Change Species, eBirders were able to quickly update their lists. We have added a “ph” to link to a photo of each of these when we know it has already been entered in eBird and wanted to share the photos.

  • Black-bellied x Fulvous Whistling-Duck (hybrid) Dendrocygna autumnalis x bicolor
  • Ruddy x Common Shelduck (hybrid) Tadorna ferruginea x tadorna
  • Wood Duck x American Wigeon (hybrid) Aix sponsa x Mareca americana
  • Mallard x Brown Teal (hybrid) Anas platyrhynchos x chlorotis
  • Mallard x Redhead (hybrid) Anas platyrhynchos x Aythya americana
  • Canvasback x Ring-necked Duck (hybrid) Aythya valisineria x collaris
  • Mallard x Common Eider (hybrid) Anas platyrhynchos x Somateria mollissima
  • Surf x White-winged Scoter (hybrid) Melanitta perspicillata x fusca [ph]
  • Eurasian x Black-faced Spoonbill (hybrid) Platalea leucorodia x minor
  • Common x Hooded Crane (hybrid) Grus grus x monacha
  • Blacksmith x White-headed Lapwing (hybrid) Vanellus armatus x albiceps [ph]
  • Gray-hooded x Hartlaub’s Gull (hybrid) Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus x hartlaubii
  • Blue-capped x Lesson’s Motmot (hybrid) Momotus coeruliceps x lessonii
  • Blue-and-yellow x Scarlet Macaw (hybrid) Ara ararauna x macao [ph]
  • Philadelphia x Red-eyed Vireo (hybrid) Vireo philadelphicus x olivaceus
  • Warbling x Red-eyed Vireo (hybrid) Vireo gilvus x olivaceus [ph]
  • Steller’s Jay x Woodhouse’s Scrub-Jay (hybrid) Cyanocitta stelleri x Aphelocoma woodhouseii
  • Cliff x Cave Swallow (hybrid) Petrochelidon pyrrhonota x fulva
  • Javan x Great Myna (hybrid) Acridotheres javanicus x grandis [ph]
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (Channel Wagtail intergrade) Motacilla flava flava x flavissima
  • Bay-breasted x Blackpoll Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga castanea x striata [ph]
  • Yellow-rumped x Black-throated Gray Warbler (hybrid) Setophaga coronata x nigrescens
  • Painted x Slate-throated Redstart (hybrid) Myioborus pictus x miniatus
  • Red-capped x Crimson-fronted Cardinal (hybrid) Paroaria gularis x baeri
  • Cherrie’s x Crimson-backed Tanager (hybrid) Ramphocelus costaricensis x dimidiatus
  • Common Diuca-Finch x Yellow Cardinal (hybrid) Diuca diuca x Gubernatrix cristata
  • White-crowned x Harris’s Sparrow (hybrid) Zonotrichia leucophrys x querula
  • Black-crowned x Gray-crowned Palm-Tanager (hybrid) Phaenicophilus palmarum x poliocephalus
  • Varied x Painted Bunting (hybrid) Passerina versicolor x ciris
  • Bullock’s x Black-backed Oriole (hybrid) Icterus bullockii x abeillei
  • Red Crossbill x Pine Siskin (hybrid) Loxia curvirostra x Spinus pinus [ph]
  • Pine Siskin x American Goldfinch (hybrid) Spinus pinus x tristis [ph]
  • Zebra x Double-barred Finch (hybrid) Taeniopygia guttata x bichenovii

 

NEW FORMS

Within eBird, we also have forms for taxa that are field identifiable (or likely potential species) and worth tracking, but are not formally described. These include undescribed species and undescribed subspecies groups (both noted with “undescribed form”), slashes at a level between subspecies group and species (e.g., “Whimbrel (White-rumped)” below) and miscellaneous other options. This year’s update includes a number of unique birds from New Guinea (many illustrated in the new field guide), as well as new taxa for Great Cormorant and Subalpine Warbler which will be useful in Eurasia and Africa. Forms are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Great Cormorant (Dark-breasted) Phalacrocorax carbo carbo/sinensis
  • Principe Scops-Owl (undescribed form) Otus [undescribed form]
  • Whistling Antbird (undescribed form) Myrmoderus [undescribed form]
  • Alor Myzomela (undescribed form) Myzomela [undescribed Alor form]
  • Rote Myzomela (undescribed form) Myzomela [undescribed Rote form]
  • Taliabu Myzomela (undescribed form) Myzomela [undescribed Taliabu form]
  • Peleng Fantail (undescribed form) Rhipidura (undescribed form)
  • Rote Leaf Warbler (undescribed form) Phylloscopus (undescribed Rote form)
  • Taliabu Grasshopper-Warbler (undescribed form) Locustella [undescribed form]
  • Subalpine Warbler (cantillans/inornata) Sylvia cantillans cantillans/inornata
  • Meratus White-eye (undescribed Meratus form) Zosterops [undescribed form]
  • Wangi-Wangi White-eye (undescribed form) Zosterops [undescribed Wangi-Wangi form]
  • Obi White-eye (undescribed form) Zosterops [undescribed Obi form]
  • Meratus Jungle-Flycatcher (undescribed form) Cyornis [undescribed Meratus form]
  • Togian Jungle-Flycatcher (undescribed form) Cyornis [undescribed Togian form]

NEW DOMESTICS

eBird has certain domesticated species that are regularly seen in a feral or wild state. The distinction between a “Domestic” and a wild type bird of the same species is in its appearance, and domestics are always identifiable as having domestic ancestry, often in their white, yellow, or otherwise abnormal plumage, or less often, in their size or shape (e.g., Graylag Goose (Domestic type) is larger and more pot-bellied than wild Graylag Geese). Domestics are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist. We have not added any domestics for 2017.

  • No additions for 2017

NEW SLASHES AND SPUHS

As with hybrids, eBird has a long list of “slashes” and “spuhs”. These are useful in the field if you get a good enough look at a bird to know it, for example, a scoter, but not to tell if it was a Common Scoter, Black Scoter, Surf Scoter, or White-winged Scoter. You can use “scoter sp.”, in such instances. If you are able to narrow it down to two (or in rare cases, three or four) species options, we have “slashes”, which mention the full common name (and scientific name) for the species that are potential species for your observation (e.g., Surf/Black Scoter). This list is being regularly updated as observers let us know what field identification problems they encounter. Slashes and spuhs are unique to the eBird taxonomy; they are not found in the Clements Checklist.

  • Roll’s/Sumatran Partridge Arborophila rolli/sumatrana
  • Australasian/Hoary-headed Grebe Tachybaptus novaehollandiae/Poliocephalus poliocephalus
  • Great/Japanese Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo/capillatus
  • Gray/Purple Heron Ardea cinerea/purpurea
  • Tawny/Steppe Eagle Aquila rapax/nipalensis
  • Variable/Brown Goshawk Accipiter hiogaster/fasciatus
  • Common/Long-legged Buzzard Buteo buteo/rufinus
  • Rufous-sided/Red-and-white Crake Laterallus melanophaius/leucopyrrhus
  • Spotted/Little/Baillon’s Crake Porzana porzana/Zapornia parva/pusilla
  • American/Black Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus/bachmani
  • Amboyna/Sultan’s Cuckoo-Dove Macropygia amboinensis/doreya
  • Scarce/Schouteden’s Swift Schoutedenapus myoptilus/schoutedeni
  • Lucifer/Beautiful Hummingbird Calothorax lucifer/pulcher
  • Orange-bellied/Collared Trogon Trogon aurantiiventris/collaris
  • Wreathed/Plain-pouched Hornbill Rhyticeros undulatus/subruficollis
  • Blue-capped/Lesson’s Motmot Momotus coeruliceps/lessonii
  • Streak-breasted/Laced Woodpecker Picus viridanus/vittatus
  • Rainbow/Scaly-breasted Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus/chlorolepidotus
  • Drymophila sp. Drymophila sp.
  • spinetail sp. Furnariidae sp. (spinetail sp.)
  • White-crested/White-bellied Tyrannulet Serpophaga subcristata/munda
  • Sulphur-rumped/Black-tailed Flycatcher Myiobius sulphureipygius/atricaudus
  • Whiskered/Black-tailed Flycatcher Myiobius barbatus/atricaudus
  • Tyrannus sp. Tyrannus sp.
  • melidectes sp. Melidectes sp.
  • Melithreptus sp. Melithreptus sp.
  • pseudo-babbler sp. Pomatostomus sp.
  • Masked/White-browed Woodswallow Artamus personatus/superciliosus
  • Great Gray/Southern Gray Shrike Lanius excubitor/meridionalis
  • Eurasian/African Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus/auratus
  • Pica sp. Pica sp.
  • Greater/Sykes’s Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla/dukhunensis
  • Greater/Lesser Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla/Alaudala rufescens
  • Velvet-fronted/Yellow-billed Nuthatch Sitta frontalis/solangiae
  • Iole sp. Iole sp.
  • Willow Warbler/Common Chiffchaff/Iberian Chiffchaff Phylloscopus trochilus/collybita/ibericus
  • Marsh/Eurasian Reed/African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus palustris/scirpaceus/baeticatus
  • Eurasian Reed/African Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus/baeticatus
  • Desert/Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia minula/curruca
  • Desert/Hume’s/Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia minula/althaea/curruca
  • Desert/Margelanic Whitethroat Sylvia minula/margelanica
  • Pin-striped/Gray-faced Tit-Babbler Mixornis gularis/kelleyi
  • Alpine/Himalayan/Sichuan Thrush Zoothera mollissima/salimalii/griseiceps
  • Gray-sided/Eyebrowed Thrush Turdus feae/obscurus
  • Greater/Lesser Green Leafbird Chloropsis sonnerati/cyanopogon
  • Ixothraupis sp. (speckled tanager sp.) Ixothraupis sp.
  • Tangara sp. Tangara sp.
  • Guira/Rufous-headed Tanager Hemithraupis guira/ruficapilla
  • Common Chaffinch/Brambling Fringilla coelebs/montifringilla
  • African seedeater sp. Crithagra sp.
  • Twite/Eurasian Linnet Linaria flavirostris/cannabina
  • Red/Cassia Crossbill Loxia curvirostra/sinesciuris
  • Citril Finch/European Serin Carduelis citrinella/Serinus serinus
  • European/Fire-fronted/Syrian Serin Serinus pusillus/serinus/syriacus
  • paradise-whydah sp. Vidua sp. (paradise-whydah sp.)

COMMON NAME “AMBIGUATION” and SUBSPECIES GROUP LUMPS

A persistent problem in eBird is when birders assume a subspecies group without fully understanding the status, occurrence, range, or field marks of the relevant options. While we want to collect carefully identified records of subspecies, and while known status is always a factor in bird identification, making incorrect assumptions is very dangerous for eBird data quality. An example would be Willet (Eastern) Tringa semipalmata semipalmata and Willet (Western) Tringa semipalmata inornata. Incautious observers regularly report Willet (Eastern) because they are standing on the Atlantic coast without understanding the (very subtle!) field identification characteristics or true status of “Western” Willet. In fact, subspecies inornata (which as a breeding bird is the more westerly of the two, breeding in the interior of the USA and southern Canada, and is the only form on the Pacific coast) is also the common wintering Willet in the southeastern USA and Gulf coast and returning migrants may return to the winter range as early as 1 July (and some birds oversummer!). “Eastern” Willet (which breeds exclusively in Gulf coast and East coast saltmarshes) actually winters almost exclusively in South America, and is very rare in Canada, the USA, and Caribbean after 1 September. Thus, while Willets on the East Coast that are obviously breeding can be identified as “Eastern Willet”, and those carefully identified by plumage and/or structure can be identified with care, the mere presence of a Willet on the East Coast does not allow one to identify it to subspecies. For those that do not understand all these nuances, we encourage conservative reporting as simply “Willet”.

This is not a problem unique to Willets. We often see birders assume an identification of a subspecies group with an “Eastern” or “Northern” moniker in the name, or appearing on the eBird filter, can be safely reported. While this is sometimes true, it is always important to understand the status and field marks for the subspecies you report. And since subspecies groups are often subtle, we always encourage adding photos or notes to support your identification.

To help minimize some of the problems of erroneous assumptions of subspecies group in eBird, in our 2015 taxonomic update we undertook an “ambiguation” process. Several subspecies groups that were formerly described with “eastern” and “western”, or similar geographical monikers, had their names changed to use the formal subspecific epithet. For example, Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Northern) is now Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (fulgens) and Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (Southern) is now Black-bellied Whistling-Duck (autumnalis). This is intended to be a cautionary flag for eBirders: if you see a subspecies group with this name (always in lowercase), it is a very tricky identification issue and one you should only report if you fully understand it. In general, these taxa will not appear on eBird filters and must be intentionally sought in eBird using “Add a species”. This year, we only applied this type of change for one species: Western Yellow Wagtail (also listed in “Common Name changes” below).

  • Western Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava These changes are made largely because the various names — Gray-headed, Blue-headed, Ashy-headed etc. — get pretty confusing and also because many birders identify them by their subspecies name anyway:Western Yellow Wagtail (Gray-headed) –> Western Yellow Wagtail (thunbergi) Motacilla flava thunbergi
    • Western Yellow Wagtail (Blue-headed) –> Western Yellow Wagtail (flava/beema) Motacilla flava flava/beema
    • Western Yellow Wagtail (Ashy-headed) Motacilla flava [cinereocapilla Group] –> Western Yellow Wagtail (iberiae/cinereocapilla/pygmaea) Motacilla flava [cinereocapilla Group]
    • Western Yellow Wagtail (Black-headed) Motacilla flava feldegg –> Western Yellow Wagtail (feldegg) Motacilla flava feldegg
    • Western Yellow Wagtail (White-headed) Motacilla flava leucocephala –> Western Yellow Wagtail (leucocephala) Motacilla flava leucocephala

COMMON NAME CHANGES

See the Clements Checklist updates (here) of the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, if a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia is split into unique species on each continent, the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash). Other name changes maybe be driven by changes in taxonomic sequence (as with hybrids and slashes, where the first-listed species always comes first), an attempt to follow an emerging consensus in local usage, or a taxonomic revision that affects hyphenation rules. Other general changes, including corrections and decisions to use an alternate common name, have been made here.

  • Southern Brown Kiwi (South Island) –> Southern Brown Kiwi (South I.)
  • Southern Brown Kiwi (Stewart Island) –> Southern Brown Kiwi (Stewart I.)
  • Swan x Graylag Goose (Domestic type) (hybrid) –> Graylag x Swan Goose (Domestic type) (hybrid)
  • Greater White-fronted x Bar-headed Goose (hybrid) –> Bar-headed x Greater White-fronted Goose (hybrid)
  • Greater White-fronted x Snow Goose (hybrid) –> Snow x Greater White-fronted Goose (hybrid)
  • Canada Goose (canadensis/interior) –> Canada Goose (canadensis Group)
  • Northern Shoveler x Garganey (hybrid) –> Garganey x Northern Shoveler (hybrid)
  • Gadwall x Northern Shoveler (hybrid) –> Northern Shoveler x Gadwall (hybrid)
  • American Wigeon x Northern Shoveler (hybrid) –> Northern Shoveler x American Wigeon (hybrid)
  • Mallard x Northern Shoveler (hybrid) –> Northern Shoveler x Mallard (hybrid)
  • American Black Duck x Mallard (hybrid) –> Mallard x American Black Duck (hybrid)
  • American Black Duck/Mallard –> Mallard/American Black Duck
  • Northern Pintail x Baikal Teal (hybrid) –> Baikal Teal x Northern Pintail (hybrid)
  • Scaled Quail x Northern Bobwhite (hybrid) –> Northern Bobwhite x Scaled Quail (hybrid)
  • Gray-breasted Partridge (Malayan) –> Malaysian Partridge
  • Gray-breasted Partridge (Roll’s) –> Roll’s Partridge
  • Gray-breasted Partridge (Sumatran) –> Sumatran Partridge
  • Gray-breasted Partridge (Gray-breasted) –> Gray-breasted Partridge
  • Eurasian Capercaillie –> Western Capercaillie
  • Eurasian Capercaillie x Black Grouse (hybrid) –> Western Capercaillie x Black Grouse (hybrid)
  • Jackass Penguin –> African Penguin
  • White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Rapa Island) –> White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Rapa I.)
  • Ascension Island Frigatebird –> Ascension Frigatebird
  • Secretary-bird –> Secretarybird
  • Lammergeier –> Bearded Vulture
  • Lammergeier (Eurasian) –> Bearded Vulture (Eurasian)
  • Lammergeier (African) –> Bearded Vulture (African)
  • White-backed/Cape Griffon –> White-backed Vulture/Cape Griffon
  • Northern Harrier (Eurasian) –> Hen Harrier
  • Northern Harrier (American) –> Northern Harrier
  • Northern Harrier –> Hen/Northern Harrier
  • Northern/Montagu’s Harrier –> Hen/Montagu’s Harrier
  • Ovampo Sparrowhawk –> Ovambo Sparrowhawk
  • Common Buzzard (Azorean) –> Common Buzzard (Azores)
  • Common Buzzard (Canary Islands) –> Common Buzzard (Canary Is.)
  • Houbara Bustard (Canary Islands) –> Houbara Bustard (Canary Is.)
  • Black-tailed Native-hen –> Black-tailed Nativehen
  • Tasmanian Native-hen –> Tasmanian Nativehen
  • Wilson’s/Common Snipe –> Common/Wilson’s Snipe
  • Crab Plover –> Crab-Plover
  • Thayer’s/Iceland Gull –> Iceland Gull
  • Thayer’s Gull –> Iceland Gull (Thayer’s)
  • Iceland Gull –> Iceland Gull (Iceland)
  • Thayer’s x Iceland Gull (hybrid) –> Iceland Gull (Thayer’s x Iceland)
  • Herring x Thayer’s Gull (hybrid) –> Herring x Iceland Gull (hybrid)
  • Herring/Thayer’s Gull –> Herring/Iceland Gull
  • Friendly Ground-Dove –> Shy Ground-Dove
  • Shining Bronze-Cuckoo (Golden) –> Shining Bronze-Cuckoo (Shining)
  • Shining Bronze-Cuckoo (Shining) –> Shining Bronze-Cuckoo (Golden)
  • Barn Owl (Canary Islands) –> Barn Owl (Canary Is.)
  • Barn Owl (Australian) –> Barn Owl (Eastern)
  • Sjostedt’s Owlet –> Sjöstedt’s Owlet
  • Speckled Hummingbird (inornata –> Speckled Hummingbird (inornata)
  • Magnificent Hummingbird (Rivoli’s) –> Rivoli’s Hummingbird
  • Magnificent Hummingbird (Admirable) –> Talamanca Hummingbird
  • Magnificent x Berylline Hummingbird (hybrid) –> Rivoli’s x Berylline Hummingbird (hybrid)
  • Boehm’s Bee-eater –> Böhm’s Bee-eater
  • Emerald Toucanet (Wagler’s) –> Northern Emerald-Toucanet (Wagler’s)
  • Emerald Toucanet (Emerald) –> Northern Emerald-Toucanet (Emerald)
  • Emerald Toucanet (Blue-throated) –> Northern Emerald-Toucanet (Blue-throated)
  • Emerald Toucanet (Violet-throated) –> Northern Emerald-Toucanet (Violet-throated)
  • Emerald Toucanet (Santa Marta) –> Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Santa Marta)
  • Emerald Toucanet (Gray-throated) –> Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Gray-throated)
  • Emerald Toucanet (Andean) –> Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Andean)
  • Emerald Toucanet (Black-throated) –> Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Black-throated)
  • Golden-fronted Woodpecker (Velasquez’s ) –> Golden-fronted Woodpecker (Velasquez’s)
  • Northern Flicker (Grand Cayman Island) –> Northern Flicker (Grand Cayman I.)
  • Eurasian Kestrel (Canary Islands) –> Eurasian Kestrel (Canary Is.)
  • Newton’s Parrot –> Newton’s Parakeet
  • Horned Parakeet (Horned) –> Horned Parakeet
  • Horned Parakeet (Ouvea) –> Ouvea Parakeet
  • Paradise Parakeet –> Paradise Parrot
  • Psitteuteles/Trichoglossus sp. –> lorikeet sp.
  • Alto Pisones Tapaculo (undescribed form) –> Tatama Tapaculo
  • Araguaia River Spinetail (undescribed species) –> Araguaia River Spinetail (undescribed form)
  • pewee sp. –> pewee sp. (Contopus sp.)
  • Cardinal Myzomela (Samoan) –> Samoan Myzomela
  • Myzomela sp. –> myzomela sp.
  • Gerygone sp. –> gerygone sp.
  • Luehder’s Bushshrike –> Lühder’s Bushshrike
  • Fuelleborn’s Boubou –> Fülleborn’s Boubou
  • Fuelleborn’s Boubou (Usambara) –> Fülleborn’s Boubou (Usambara)
  • Fuelleborn’s Boubou (Fuelleborn’s) –> Fülleborn’s Boubou (Fülleborn’s)
  • Mt. Kupe Bushshrike –> Mount Kupe Bushshrike
  • Gray Whistler (Gray) –> Gray Whistler (Brown)
  • Northern Shrike (European) –> Great Gray Shrike
  • Northern Shrike –> Great Gray/Northern Shrike
  • Silktail (Taveuni) –> Taveuni Silktail
  • Silktail (Natewa) –> Natewa Silktail
  • Northern Fantail (Gray-backed) –> Northern Fantail (Obi)
  • Northern Fantail (Rusty-bellied) –> Northern Fantail (Buru)
  • Northern Fantail (Plain) –> Northern Fantail (Kai)
  • Northern Fantail (Speckle-throated) –> Northern Fantail (Rote)
  • Northern Fantail (Cream-bellied) –> Northern Fantail (Timor)
  • Eurasian Magpie (African) –> Eurasian Magpie (North African)
  • Magnificent Riflebird (Magnificent) –> Magnificent Riflebird
  • Magnificent Riflebird (Growling) –> Growling Riflebird
  • New Zealand Robin (North Island) –> New Zealand Robin (North I.)
  • New Zealand Robin (South Island) –> New Zealand Robin (South I.)
  • Syke’s Short-toed Lark –> Sykes’s Short-toed Lark
  • Thekla Lark –> Thekla’s Lark
  • martin sp. –> martin sp. (Progne sp.)
  • African Blue-Flycatcher –> African Blue Flycatcher
  • White-tailed Blue-Flycatcher –> White-tailed Blue Flycatcher
  • Rock Nuthatch –> Western Rock Nuthatch
  • Persian Nuthatch –> Eastern Rock Nuthatch
  • Bewick’s Wren (bewickii/altus) –> Bewick’s Wren (bewickii)
  • Bewick’s Wren (eremophilus Group) –> Bewick’s Wren (mexicanus Group)
  • Santa Marta Wood-Wren –> Hermit Wood-Wren
  • Sjostedt’s Greenbul –> Sjöstedt’s Greenbul
  • Plain Greenbul (leoninus) –> Plain Greenbul (leonina)
  • Pale-footed Bush-Warbler –> Pale-footed Bush Warbler
  • Chestnut-crowned Bush-Warbler –> Chestnut-crowned Bush Warbler
  • Gray-sided Bush-Warbler –> Gray-sided Bush Warbler
  • Philippine Bush-Warbler –> Philippine Bush Warbler
  • Japanese Bush-Warbler –> Japanese Bush Warbler
  • Manchurian Bush-Warbler –> Manchurian Bush Warbler
  • Japanese/Manchurian Bush-Warbler –> Japanese/Manchurian Bush Warbler
  • Palau Bush-Warbler –> Palau Bush Warbler
  • Tanimbar Bush-Warbler –> Tanimbar Bush Warbler
  • Fiji Bush-Warbler –> Fiji Bush Warbler
  • Brownish-flanked Bush-Warbler –> Brownish-flanked Bush Warbler
  • Hume’s Bush-Warbler –> Hume’s Bush Warbler
  • Yellowish-bellied Bush-Warbler –> Yellowish-bellied Bush Warbler
  • Brownish-flanked/Yellowish-bellied Bush-Warbler –> Brownish-flanked/Yellowish-bellied Bush Warbler
  • Sunda Bush-Warbler –> Sunda Bush Warbler
  • Aberrant Bush-Warbler –> Aberrant Bush Warbler
  • bush-warbler sp. –> bush warbler sp.
  • Common Chiffchaff (collybita) –> Common Chiffchaff (Common)
  • Western Crowned Leaf Warbler –> Western Crowned Warbler
  • Eastern Crowned Leaf Warbler –> Eastern Crowned Warbler
  • Lemon-throated Warbler –> Lemon-throated Leaf Warbler
  • Mountain Warbler –> Mountain Leaf Warbler
  • Mountain Warbler (Mountain) –> Mountain Leaf Warbler (Mountain)
  • Mountain Warbler (Philippines) –> Mountain Leaf Warbler (Philippines)
  • Island Leaf Warbler (Taliabu) (undescribed form) –> Taliabu Leaf Warbler (undescribed form)
  • Island Leaf Warbler (Banggai) (undescribed form) –> Banggai Leaf Warbler (undescribed form)
  • Black-browed Reed-Warbler –> Black-browed Reed Warbler
  • Streaked Reed-Warbler –> Streaked Reed Warbler
  • Manchurian Reed-Warbler –> Manchurian Reed Warbler
  • Blyth’s Reed-Warbler –> Blyth’s Reed Warbler
  • Paddyfield/Blyth’s Reed-Warbler –> Paddyfield/Blyth’s Reed Warbler
  • Large-billed Reed-Warbler –> Large-billed Reed Warbler
  • Eurasian Reed-Warbler –> Eurasian Reed Warbler
  • Eurasian Reed-Warbler (Eurasian) –> Eurasian Reed Warbler (Eurasian)
  • Eurasian Reed-Warbler (Caspian) –> Eurasian Reed Warbler (Caspian)
  • African Reed-Warbler (Mangrove) –> Eurasian Reed Warbler (Mangrove)
  • Marsh Warbler/Eurasian Reed-Warbler –> Marsh Warbler/Eurasian Reed Warbler
  • African Reed-Warbler –> African Reed Warbler
  • Basra Reed-Warbler –> Basra Reed Warbler
  • Lesser Swamp-Warbler –> Lesser Swamp Warbler
  • Greater Swamp-Warbler –> Greater Swamp Warbler
  • Cape Verde Swamp-Warbler –> Cape Verde Swamp Warbler
  • Madagascar Swamp-Warbler –> Madagascar Swamp Warbler
  • Great Reed-Warbler –> Great Reed Warbler
  • Eurasian/Great Reed-Warbler –> Eurasian/Great Reed Warbler
  • Oriental Reed-Warbler –> Oriental Reed Warbler
  • Clamorous Reed-Warbler –> Clamorous Reed Warbler
  • Clamorous Reed-Warbler (Clamorous) –> Clamorous Reed Warbler (Clamorous)
  • Clamorous Reed-Warbler (Brown) –> Clamorous Reed Warbler (Brown)
  • Great/Oriental/Clamorous Reed-Warbler –> Great/Oriental/Clamorous Reed Warbler
  • Nightingale Reed-Warbler –> Nightingale Reed Warbler
  • Saipan Reed-Warbler –> Saipan Reed Warbler
  • Australian Reed-Warbler –> Australian Reed Warbler
  • Caroline Reed-Warbler –> Caroline Reed Warbler
  • Aguiguan Reed-Warbler –> Aguiguan Reed Warbler
  • Kiritimati Reed-Warbler –> Kiritimati Reed Warbler
  • Southern Marquesan Reed-Warbler –> Southern Marquesan Reed Warbler
  • Pagan Reed-Warbler –> Pagan Reed Warbler
  • Nauru Reed-Warbler –> Nauru Reed Warbler
  • Pitcairn Reed-Warbler –> Pitcairn Reed Warbler
  • Henderson Island Reed-Warbler –> Henderson Island Reed Warbler
  • Cook Islands Reed-Warbler –> Cook Islands Reed Warbler
  • Rimitara Reed-Warbler –> Rimitara Reed Warbler
  • Society Islands Reed-Warbler –> Society Islands Reed Warbler
  • Tahiti Reed-Warbler –> Tahiti Reed Warbler
  • Moorea Reed-Warbler –> Moorea Reed Warbler
  • Northern Marquesan Reed-Warbler –> Northern Marquesan Reed Warbler
  • Tuamotu Reed-Warbler –> Tuamotu Reed Warbler
  • Mangareva Reed-Warbler –> Mangareva Reed Warbler
  • Spinifex-bird –> Spinifexbird
  • Brown Emu-tail –> Brown Emutail
  • Grauer’s Swamp-Warbler –> Grauer’s Swamp Warbler
  • Dja River Swamp-Warbler –> Dja River Swamp Warbler
  • White-winged Swamp-Warbler –> White-winged Swamp Warbler
  • Brown Bush-Warbler –> Brown Bush Warbler
  • Chinese Bush-Warbler –> Chinese Bush Warbler
  • Long-billed Bush-Warbler –> Long-billed Bush Warbler
  • Long-tailed Bush-Warbler –> Long-tailed Bush Warbler
  • Chestnut-backed Bush-Warbler –> Chestnut-backed Bush Warbler
  • Baikal Bush-Warbler –> Baikal Bush Warbler
  • Chinese/Baikal Bush-Warbler –> Chinese/Baikal Bush Warbler
  • West Himalayan Bush-Warbler –> West Himalayan Bush Warbler
  • Spotted Bush-Warbler –> Spotted Bush Warbler
  • Baikal/Spotted Bush-Warbler –> Baikal/Spotted Bush Warbler
  • Taiwan Bush-Warbler –> Taiwan Bush Warbler
  • Friendly Bush-Warbler –> Friendly Bush Warbler
  • Russet Bush-Warbler –> Russet Bush Warbler
  • Brown/Russet Bush-Warbler –> Brown/Russet Bush Warbler
  • Sichuan Bush-Warbler –> Sichuan Bush Warbler
  • Benguet Bush-Warbler –> Benguet Bush Warbler
  • Javan Bush-Warbler –> Javan Bush Warbler
  • Timor Bush-Warbler –> Timor Bush Warbler
  • Sri Lanka Bush-Warbler –> Sri Lanka Bush Warbler
  • Gray Emu-tail –> Gray Emutail
  • Japanese White-eye (simplex/haianus) –> Japanese White-eye (simplex/hainanus)
  • Chinese Babax (Mount Victoria) –> Chinese Babax (Mt. Victoria)
  • Black-chinned Laughingthrush (Banasura) –> Banasura Laughingthrush
  • Black-chinned Laughingthrush (Nilgiri) –> Nilgiri Laughingthrush
  • Kerala Laughingthrush (Palani) –> Palani Laughingthrush
  • Kerala Laughingthrush (Travancore) –> Ashambu Laughingthrush
  • Gray-chested Illadopsis –> Gray-chested Babbler
  • Boehm’s Flycatcher –> Böhm’s Flycatcher
  • Nilgiri Shortwing –> Nilgiri Blue Robin
  • White-bellied Shortwing –> White-bellied Blue Robin
  • Timor Blue-Flycatcher –> Timor Blue Flycatcher
  • Rueck’s Blue-Flycatcher –> Rück’s Blue Flycatcher
  • Hainan Blue-Flycatcher –> Hainan Blue Flycatcher
  • White-bellied Blue-Flycatcher –> White-bellied Blue Flycatcher
  • Pale-chinned Blue-Flycatcher –> Pale-chinned Blue Flycatcher
  • Pale Blue-Flycatcher –> Pale Blue Flycatcher
  • Blue-throated Flycatcher (Blue-throated) –> Blue-throated Flycatcher
  • Blue-throated Flycatcher (Chinese) –> Chinese Blue Flycatcher
  • Blue-throated Flycatcher –> Blue-throated/Chinese Blue Flycatcher
  • Large Blue-Flycatcher –> Large Blue Flycatcher
  • Hill Blue-Flycatcher –> Hill Blue Flycatcher
  • Long-billed Blue-Flycatcher –> Sunda Blue Flycatcher
  • Malaysian Blue-Flycatcher –> Malaysian Blue Flycatcher
  • Palawan Blue-Flycatcher –> Palawan Blue Flycatcher
  • Bornean Blue-Flycatcher –> Bornean Blue Flycatcher
  • Tickell’s Blue-Flycatcher –> Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher
  • Mangrove Blue-Flycatcher –> Mangrove Blue Flycatcher
  • Mangrove Blue-Flycatcher (Mangrove) –> Mangrove Blue Flycatcher (Mangrove)
  • Mangrove Blue-Flycatcher (Philippine) –> Mangrove Blue Flycatcher (Philippine)
  • Sulawesi Blue-Flycatcher –> Sulawesi Blue Flycatcher
  • Sulawesi Blue-Flycatcher (Sulawesi) –> Sulawesi Blue Flycatcher (Sulawesi)
  • Sulawesi Blue-Flycatcher (Tanahjampea) –> Sulawesi Blue Flycatcher (Tanahjampea)
  • blue-flycatcher sp. –> blue flycatcher sp.
  • Island Flycatcher –> Turquoise Flycatcher
  • Chestnut-winged Whistling-Thrush –> Sumatran Whistling-Thrush
  • White-tailed Rubythroat –> Himalayan/Chinese Rubythroat (White-tailed Rubythroat)
  • Pygmy Blue-Flycatcher –> Pygmy Flycatcher
  • Russet-tailed Flycatcher –> Cryptic Flycatcher
  • Blue Rock-Thrush (solitarius Group) –> Blue Rock-Thrush (solitarius/longirostris)
  • Island Thrush (Norfolk Island) –> Island Thrush (Norfolk I.)
  • Island Thrush (Lord Howe Island) –> Island Thrush (Lord Howe I.)
  • Le Conte’s Thrasher –> LeConte’s Thrasher
  • Le Conte’s Thrasher (Le Conte’s) –> LeConte’s Thrasher (LeConte’s)
  • Le Conte’s Thrasher (Vizcaino) –> LeConte’s Thrasher (Vizcaino)
  • Eastern Olive Sunbird –> Olive Sunbird
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (Gray-headed) –> Western Yellow Wagtail (thunbergi)
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (Blue-headed) –> Western Yellow Wagtail (flava/beema)
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (Ashy-headed) –> Western Yellow Wagtail (iberiae/cinereocapilla/pygmaea)
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (Black-headed) –> Western Yellow Wagtail (feldegg)
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (White-headed) –> Western Yellow Wagtail (leucocephala)
  • Fuelleborn’s Longclaw –> Fülleborn’s Longclaw
  • Tangara sp. –> Tangara/Ixothraupis sp.
  • Nightingale Finch (Inaccessible Island) –> Nightingale Finch (Inaccessible I.)
  • Nightingale Finch (Nightingale) –> Nightingale Finch (Nightingale I.)
  • Wilkins’s Finch (Inaccessible Island) –> Wilkins’s Finch (Inaccessible I.)
  • Wilkins’s Finch (Nightingale Island) –> Wilkins’s Finch (Nightingale I.)
  • Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (septentrionalis) –> Vampire Ground-Finch
  • Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (acutirostris) –> Genovesa Ground-Finch
  • Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch (difficilis) –> Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch
  • Large Cactus-Finch (conirostris) –> Española Cactus-Finch
  • Le Conte’s Sparrow –> LeConte’s Sparrow
  • Yellow-eyed Junco (Baird’s) –> Baird’s Junco
  • Prevost’s Ground-Sparrow (Prevost’s) –> White-faced Ground-Sparrow
  • Prevost’s Ground-Sparrow (Cabanis’s) –> Cabanis’s Ground-Sparrow
  • Gray-hooded Bunting –> Gray-necked Bunting
  • Red Crossbill (South Hills or type 9) –> Cassia Crossbill
  • Abyssinian Siskin –> Ethiopian Siskin
  • canary sp. –> Serinus sp.
  • Shelley’s Crimson-wing –> Shelley’s Crimsonwing
  • Dusky Crimson-wing –> Dusky Crimsonwing
  • Abyssinian Crimson-wing –> Abyssinian Crimsonwing
  • Red-faced Crimson-wing –> Red-faced Crimsonwing
  • Red-faced Crimson-wing (Western) –> Red-faced Crimsonwing (Western)
  • Red-faced Crimson-wing (Eastern) –> Red-faced Crimsonwing (Eastern)
  • Timor Parrotfinch (undescribed form) –> Mount Mutis Parrotfinch (undescribed form)

SCIENTIFIC NAME CHANGES

See the Clements Checklist updates (to be posted soon here) for full discussion of the reasoning behind these name changes. Note that some relate directly to splits discussed above, since some of the taxa that were formerly species may appear here. For example, if a widespread bird that occurs in North America and Eurasia that is split into unique species on each continent, the population occurring on both continents might be retained here as a “slash” and appear as a name change (also a downgrade from species to slash). We display the primary English name as well, using the 2017 name (thus, the English name would match the revised Scientific Name in instances of a split).

  • Emperor Goose Chen canagica –> Anser canagicus
  • Snow Goose Chen caerulescens –> Anser caerulescens
  • Ross’s Goose Chen rossii –> Anser rossii
  • Snow x Ross’s Goose (hybrid) Chen caerulescens x rossii –> Anser caerulescens x rossii
  • Snow/Ross’s Goose Chen caerulescens/rossii –> Anser caerulescens/rossii
  • Graylag x Swan Goose (Domestic type) (hybrid) Anser cygnoides x anser (Domestic type) –> Anser anser x cygnoides (Domestic type)
  • Bar-headed x Greater White-fronted Goose (hybrid) Anser albifrons x indicus –> Anser indicus x albifrons
  • Snow x Greater White-fronted Goose (hybrid) Anser albifrons x Chen caerulescens –> Anser caerulescens x albifrons
  • Snow Goose x Brant (hybrid) Chen caerulescens x Branta bernicla –> Anser caerulescens x Branta bernicla
  • Emperor x Cackling Goose (hybrid) Chen canagica x Branta hutchinsii –> Anser canagicus x Branta hutchinsii
  • Snow x Cackling Goose (hybrid) Chen caerulescens x Branta hutchinsii –> Anser caerulescens x Branta hutchinsii
  • Ross’s x Cackling Goose (hybrid) Chen rossii x Branta hutchinsii –> Anser rossii x Branta hutchinsii
  • Canada Goose (canadensis Group) Branta canadensis canadensis/interior –> Branta canadensis [canadensis Group]
  • Snow x Canada Goose (hybrid) Chen caerulescens x Branta canadensis –> Anser caerulescens x Branta canadensis
  • Ross’s x Canada Goose (hybrid) Chen rossii x Branta canadensis –> Anser rossii x Branta canadensis
  • Snow/Ross’s x Cackling/Canada Goose (hybrid) Chen caerulescens/rossii x Branta hutchinsii/canadensis –> Anser caerulescens/rossii x Branta hutchinsii/canadensis
  • goose sp. Anser/Chen/Branta sp. –> Anser/Branta sp.
  • Baikal Teal Anas formosa –> Sibirionetta formosa
  • Garganey Anas querquedula –> Spatula querquedula
  • Hottentot Teal Anas hottentota –> Spatula hottentota
  • Silver Teal Anas versicolor –> Spatula versicolor
  • Puna Teal Anas puna –> Spatula puna
  • Blue-winged Teal Anas discors –> Spatula discors
  • Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera –> Spatula cyanoptera
  • Blue-winged x Cinnamon Teal (hybrid) Anas discors x cyanoptera –> Spatula discors x cyanoptera
  • Blue-winged/Cinnamon Teal Anas discors/cyanoptera –> Spatula discors/cyanoptera
  • Red Shoveler Anas platalea –> Spatula platalea
  • Cape Shoveler Anas smithii –> Spatula smithii
  • Australian Shoveler Anas rhynchotis –> Spatula rhynchotis
  • Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata –> Spatula clypeata
  • Garganey x Northern Shoveler (hybrid) Anas clypeata x querquedula –> Spatula querquedula x clypeata
  • Blue-winged Teal x Northern Shoveler (hybrid) Anas discors x clypeata –> Spatula discors x clypeata
  • Cinnamon Teal x Northern Shoveler (hybrid) Anas cyanoptera x clypeata –> Spatula cyanoptera x clypeata
  • Gadwall Anas strepera –> Mareca strepera
  • Gadwall (Common) Anas strepera strepera –> Mareca strepera strepera
  • Gadwall (Coues’s) Anas strepera couesi –> Mareca strepera couesi
  • Northern Shoveler x Gadwall (hybrid) Anas strepera x clypeata –> Spatula clypeata x Mareca strepera
  • Falcated Duck Anas falcata –> Mareca falcata
  • Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope –> Mareca penelope
  • Gadwall x Eurasian Wigeon (hybrid) Anas strepera x penelope –> Mareca strepera x penelope
  • American Wigeon Anas americana –> Mareca americana
  • Northern Shoveler x American Wigeon (hybrid) Anas americana x clypeata –> Spatula clypeata x Mareca americana
  • Gadwall x American Wigeon (hybrid) Anas strepera x americana –> Mareca strepera x americana
  • Eurasian x American Wigeon (hybrid) Anas penelope x americana –> Mareca penelope x americana
  • Eurasian/American Wigeon Anas penelope/americana –> Mareca penelope/americana
  • Chiloe Wigeon Anas sibilatrix –> Mareca sibilatrix
  • Northern Shoveler x Mallard (hybrid) Anas platyrhynchos x clypeata –> Spatula clypeata x Anas platyrhynchos
  • Gadwall x Mallard (hybrid) Anas strepera x platyrhynchos –> Mareca strepera x Anas platyrhynchos
  • Eurasian Wigeon x Mallard (hybrid) Anas penelope x platyrhynchos –> Mareca penelope x Anas platyrhynchos
  • American Wigeon x Mallard (hybrid) Anas americana x platyrhynchos –> Mareca americana x Anas platyrhynchos
  • Mallard x American Black Duck (hybrid) Anas rubripes x platyrhynchos –> Anas platyrhynchos x rubripes
  • Mallard/American Black Duck Anas rubripes/platyrhynchos –> Anas platyrhynchos/rubripes
  • Baikal Teal x Northern Pintail (hybrid) Anas acuta x formosa –> Sibirionetta formosa x Anas acuta
  • Gadwall x Northern Pintail (hybrid) Anas strepera x acuta –> Mareca strepera x Anas acuta
  • Eurasian Wigeon x Northern Pintail (hybrid) Anas penelope x acuta –> Mareca penelope x Anas acuta
  • American Wigeon x Northern Pintail (hybrid) Anas americana x acuta –> Mareca americana x Anas acuta
  • Garganey/Green-winged Teal Anas querquedula/crecca –> Spatula querquedula/Anas crecca
  • Blue-winged x Green-winged Teal (hybrid) Anas discors x crecca –> Spatula discors x Anas crecca
  • Cinnamon x Green-winged Teal (hybrid) Anas cyanoptera x crecca –> Spatula cyanoptera x Anas crecca
  • Gadwall x Green-winged Teal (hybrid) Anas strepera x crecca –> Mareca strepera x Anas crecca
  • American Wigeon x Green-winged Teal (hybrid) Anas americana x crecca –> Mareca americana x Anas crecca
  • Northern Bobwhite x Scaled Quail (hybrid) Callipepla squamata x Colinus virginianus –> Colinus virginianus x Callipepla squamata
  • Malaysian Partridge Arborophila orientalis campbelli –> Arborophila campbelli
  • Roll’s Partridge Arborophila orientalis rolli –> Arborophila rolli
  • Sumatran Partridge Arborophila orientalis sumatrana –> Arborophila sumatrana
  • Gray-breasted Partridge Arborophila orientalis orientalis –> Arborophila orientalis
  • Rock Partridge (European) Alectoris graeca graeca/saxatilis –> Alectoris graeca [graeca Group]
  • Crested Francolin Francolinus sephaena –> Dendroperdix sephaena
  • Crested Francolin (Kirk’s) Francolinus sephaena rovuma –> Dendroperdix sephaena rovuma
  • Crested Francolin (Crested) Francolinus sephaena [sephaena Group] –> Dendroperdix sephaena [sephaena Group]
  • Hazel Grouse Bonasa bonasia –> Tetrastes bonasia
  • Severtzov’s Grouse Bonasa sewerzowi –> Tetrastes sewerzowi
  • Intermediate Egret Mesophoyx intermedia –> Ardea intermedia
  • Intermediate Egret (Intermediate) Mesophoyx intermedia intermedia –> Ardea intermedia intermedia
  • Intermediate Egret (Plumed) Mesophoyx intermedia plumifera –> Ardea intermedia plumifera
  • Intermediate Egret (Yellow-billed) Mesophoyx intermedia brachyrhyncha –> Ardea intermedia brachyrhyncha
  • Great/Intermediate Egret Ardea alba/Mesophoyx intermedia –> Ardea alba/intermedia
  • white egret sp. Egretta/Bubulcus sp. –> Ardea/Egretta/Bubulcus sp.
  • Australian Ibis Threskiornis moluccus –> Threskiornis molucca
  • Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus cyaneus –> Circus cyaneus
  • Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus hudsonius –> Circus hudsonius
  • Hen/Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus –> Circus cyaneus/hudsonius
  • Lesser Fish-Eagle Ichthyophaga humilis –> Haliaeetus humilis
  • Gray-headed Fish-Eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus –> Haliaeetus ichthyaetus
  • Lesser/Gray-headed Fish-Eagle Ichthyophaga humilis/ichthyaetus –> Haliaeetus humilis/ichthyaetus
  • Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinicus –> Porphyrio martinica
  • Common/Wilson’s Snipe Gallinago delicata/gallinago –> Gallinago gallinago/delicata
  • Iceland Gull Larus thayeri/glaucoides –> Larus glaucoides
  • Iceland Gull (Thayer’s) Larus thayeri –> Larus glaucoides thayeri
  • Iceland Gull (Iceland) Larus glaucoides –> Larus glaucoides glaucoides/kumlieni
  • Iceland Gull (Thayer’s x Iceland) Larus thayeri x glaucoides –> Larus glaucoides thayeri x glaucoides/kumlieni
  • Herring x Iceland Gull (hybrid) Larus argentatus x thayeri –> Larus argentatus x glaucoides
  • Herring/Iceland Gull Larus argentatus/thayeri –> Larus argentatus/glaucoides
  • Gray Noddy Procelsterna albivitta –> Anous albivitta
  • Blue-gray Noddy Procelsterna cerulea –> Anous ceruleus
  • Wetar Ground-Dove Gallicolumba hoedtii –> Alopecoenas hoedtii
  • Shy Ground-Dove Gallicolumba stairi –> Alopecoenas stairi
  • Santa Cruz Ground-Dove Gallicolumba sanctaecrucis –> Alopecoenas sanctaecrucis
  • Thick-billed Ground-Dove Gallicolumba salamonis –> Alopecoenas salamonis
  • Bronze Ground-Dove Gallicolumba beccarii –> Alopecoenas beccarii
  • Palau Ground-Dove Gallicolumba canifrons –> Alopecoenas canifrons
  • White-bibbed Ground-Dove Gallicolumba jobiensis –> Alopecoenas jobiensis
  • Marquesas Ground-Dove Gallicolumba rubescens –> Alopecoenas rubescens
  • Caroline Islands Ground-Dove Gallicolumba kubaryi –> Alopecoenas kubaryi
  • Polynesian Ground-Dove Gallicolumba erythroptera –> Alopecoenas erythropterus
  • White-throated Ground-Dove Gallicolumba xanthonura –> Alopecoenas xanthonurus
  • Pinon’s Imperial-Pigeon (Gray-headed) Ducula pinon [pinon Group] –> Ducula pinon pinon/jobiensis
  • Striped Owl Pseudoscops clamator –> Asio clamator
  • Rivoli’s Hummingbird Eugenes fulgens fulgens –> Eugenes fulgens
  • Talamanca Hummingbird Eugenes fulgens spectabilis –> Eugenes spectabilis
  • Violet-bellied Hummingbird Damophila julie –> Juliamyia julie
  • Sooty Barbet Calorhamphus hayii –> Caloramphus hayii
  • Brown Barbet Calorhamphus fuliginosus –> Caloramphus fuliginosus
  • Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Santa Marta) Aulacorhynchus prasinus lautus –> Aulacorhynchus albivitta lautus
  • Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Gray-throated) Aulacorhynchus prasinus griseigularis –> Aulacorhynchus albivitta griseigularis
  • Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Andean) Aulacorhynchus prasinus albivitta/phaeolaemus –> Aulacorhynchus albivitta albivitta/phaeolaemus
  • Southern Emerald-Toucanet (Black-throated) Aulacorhynchus prasinus [atrogularis Group] –> Aulacorhynchus albivitta [atrogularis Group]
  • Golden-spangled Piculet (Buffon’s) Picumnus exilis buffoni –> Picumnus exilis buffonii
  • Horned Parakeet Eunymphicus cornutus cornutus –> Eunymphicus cornutus
  • Ouvea Parakeet Eunymphicus cornutus uvaeensis –> Eunymphicus uvaeensis
  • lorikeet sp. Psitteuteles/Trichoglossus sp. –> Psittaculidae sp. (lorikeet sp.)
  • Golden Parakeet Guaruba guaruba –> Guaruba guarouba
  • Common Scale-backed Antbird (Buff-breasted) Willisornis poecilinotus lepidonotus/duidae –> Willisornis poecilinotus lepidonota/duidae
  • Tatama Tapaculo Scytalopus [undescribed Choco form] –> Scytalopus alvarezlopezi
  • Araguaia River Spinetail (undescribed form) Certhiaxis [undescribed species] –> Certhiaxis [undescribed form]
  • White-bellied Spinetail Synallaxis propinqua –> Mazaria propinqua
  • Samoan Myzomela Myzomela cardinalis nigriventris –> Myzomela nigriventris
  • Northern Wattled-Honeyeater Foulehaio taviuensis –> Foulehaio taviunensis
  • Gray Whistler (Brown) Pachycephala simplex simplex/dubia –> Pachycephala simplex simplex/brunnescens
  • Great Gray Shrike Lanius excubitor [excubitor Group] –> Lanius excubitor
  • Northern Shrike (Asian) Lanius excubitor [mollis Group] –> Lanius borealis [mollis Group]
  • Northern Shrike (American) Lanius excubitor borealis/invictus –> Lanius borealis borealis
  • Loggerhead/Northern Shrike Lanius ludovicianus/excubitor –> Lanius ludovicianus/borealis
  • Great Gray/Northern Shrike Lanius excubitor –> Lanius excubitor/borealis
  • Cassin’s Vireo (San Lucas) Vireo cassinii lucasanas –> Vireo cassinii lucasanus
  • Taveuni Silktail Lamprolia victoriae victoriae –> Lamprolia victoriae
  • Natewa Silktail Lamprolia victoriae klinesmithi –> Lamprolia klinesmithi
  • Northern Fantail (Kai) Rhipidura rufiventris [gularis Group] –> Rhipidura rufiventris assimilis/finitima
  • Northern Fantail (Timor) Rhipidura rufiventris [rufiventris Group] –> Rhipidura rufiventris rufiventris/pallidiceps
  • Eurasian Jay (White-faced) Garrulus glandarius leucotis/barringtoni –> Garrulus glandarius leucotis/oatesi
  • Magnificent Riflebird Ptiloris magnificus magnificus/alberti –> Ptiloris magnificus
  • Growling Riflebird Ptiloris magnificus intercedens –> Ptiloris intercedens
  • Blanford’s Lark (eremica/daaroodensis) Calandrella blandfordi eremica/daaroodensis –> Calandrella blanfordi eremica/daaroodensis
  • Chilean Swallow Tachycineta meyeni –> Tachycineta leucopyga
  • White-rumped/Chilean Swallow Tachycineta leucorrhoa/meyeni –> Tachycineta leucorrhoa/leucopyga
  • Bewick’s Wren (bewickii) Thryomanes bewickii bewickii/altus –> Thryomanes bewickii bewickii
  • Bewick’s Wren (mexicanus Group) Thryomanes bewickii [eremophilus Group] –> Thryomanes bewickii [mexicanus Group]
  • Plain Greenbul (leonina) Eurillas curvirostris leoninus –> Eurillas curvirostris leonina
  • Buff-vented Bulbul Iole olivacea –> Iole crypta
  • Olive Bulbul Iole virescens –> Iole viridescens
  • Firecrest (European) Regulus ignicapilla ignicapilla/balearica –> Regulus ignicapilla ignicapilla/balearicus
  • Common Chiffchaff (Common) Phylloscopus collybita collybita –> Phylloscopus collybita [collybita Group]
  • Taliabu Leaf Warbler (undescribed form) Phylloscopus maforensis [undescribed form 1] –> Phylloscopus [undescribed form 1]
  • Banggai Leaf Warbler (undescribed form) Phylloscopus maforensis [undescribed form 2] –> Phylloscopus [undescribed form 2]
  • Eurasian Reed Warbler (Mangrove) Acrocephalus baeticatus avicenniae –> Acrocephalus scirpaceus avicenniae
  • Anjouan White-eye Zosterops anjouanensis –> Zosterops anjuanensis
  • Japanese White-eye (simplex/hainanus) Zosterops japonicus simplex/haianus –> Zosterops japonicus simplex/hainanus
  • Chevron-breasted Babbler Sphenocichla roberti –> Stachyris roberti
  • Banasura Laughingthrush Trochalopteron cachinnans jerdoni –> Montecincla jerdoni
  • Nilgiri Laughingthrush Trochalopteron cachinnans cachinnans –> Montecincla cachinnans
  • Palani Laughingthrush Trochalopteron fairbanki fairbanki –> Montecincla fairbanki
  • Ashambu Laughingthrush Trochalopteron fairbanki meridionale –> Montecincla meridionale
  • laughingthrush sp. Garrulax/Ianthocincla/Trochalopteron sp. –> Garrulax/Ianthocincla/Trochalopteron/Montecincla sp.
  • Madagascar Magpie-Robin (White-bellied) Copsychus albospecularis inexpectatus –> Copsychus albospecularis inexspectatus
  • Nilgiri Blue Robin Brachypteryx major –> Sholicola major
  • White-bellied Blue Robin Brachypteryx albiventris –> Sholicola albiventris
  • Blue-throated Flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides [rubeculoides Group] –> Cyornis rubeculoides
  • Chinese Blue Flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides glaucicomans –> Cyornis glaucicomans
  • Blue-throated/Chinese Blue Flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides –> Cyornis rubeculoides/glaucicomans
  • Himalayan/Chinese Rubythroat (White-tailed Rubythroat) Calliope pectoralis –> Calliope pectoralis/tschebaiewi
  • White-tailed Robin Cinclidium leucurum –> Myiomela leucura
  • Sunda Robin Cinclidium diana –> Myiomela diana
  • Blue Rock-Thrush (solitarius/longirostris) Monticola solitarius [solitarius Group] –> Monticola solitarius solitarius/longirostris
  • Island Thrush (Ashy) Turdus poliocephalus carbonarius –> Turdus poliocephalus erebus
  • Dusky/Naumann’s Thrush Turdus eunomus/naumanni –> Turdus eunomus/naumanni
  • Black-billed Thrush (Drab) Turdus ignobilis [ignobilis Group] –> Turdus ignobilis ignobilis/goodfellowi
  • Green-headed Sunbird (Blue-headed) Cyanomitra verticalis cyanocephala/boehndorffi –> Cyanomitra verticalis cyanocephala/bohndorffi
  • Golden-crowned Warbler (Golden-crowned) Basileuterus culicivorus [auricapillus Group] –> Basileuterus culicivorus [auricapilla Group]
  • Black-capped Hemispingus Hemispingus atropileus –> Kleinothraupis atropileus
  • Black-capped Hemispingus (Black-capped) Hemispingus atropileus atropileus –> Kleinothraupis atropileus atropileus
  • Black-capped Hemispingus (White-browed) Hemispingus atropileus auricularis –> Kleinothraupis atropileus auricularis
  • Orange-browed Hemispingus Hemispingus calophrys –> Kleinothraupis calophrys
  • Parodi’s Hemispingus Hemispingus parodii –> Kleinothraupis parodii
  • Gray-capped Hemispingus Hemispingus reyi –> Kleinothraupis reyi
  • Oleaginous Hemispingus Hemispingus frontalis –> Sphenopsis frontalis
  • Black-eared Hemispingus Hemispingus melanotis –> Sphenopsis melanotis
  • Black-eared Hemispingus (Black-eared) Hemispingus melanotis [melanotis Group] –> Sphenopsis melanotis [melanotis Group]
  • Black-eared Hemispingus (Western) Hemispingus melanotis ochraceus –> Sphenopsis melanotis ochracea
  • Black-eared Hemispingus (Piura) Hemispingus melanotis piurae/macrophrys –> Sphenopsis melanotis piurae/macrophrys
  • Chestnut-headed Tanager Pyrrhocoma ruficeps –> Thlypopsis pyrrhocoma
  • Superciliaried Hemispingus Hemispingus superciliaris –> Thlypopsis superciliaris
  • Superciliaried Hemispingus (Yellow-browed) Hemispingus superciliaris chrysophrys –> Thlypopsis superciliaris chrysophrys
  • Superciliaried Hemispingus (Superciliaried) Hemispingus superciliaris [superciliaris Group] –> Thlypopsis superciliaris [superciliaris Group]
  • Superciliaried Hemispingus (White-bellied) Hemispingus superciliaris leucogastrus/insignis –> Thlypopsis superciliaris leucogastra/insignis
  • Superciliaried Hemispingus (urubambae) Hemispingus superciliaris urubambae –> Thlypopsis superciliaris urubambae
  • Plain-tailed Warbling-Finch Poospiza alticola –> Microspingus alticola
  • Rusty-browed Warbling-Finch Poospiza erythrophrys –> Microspingus erythrophrys
  • Buff-throated Warbling-Finch Poospiza lateralis –> Microspingus lateralis
  • Gray-throated Warbling-Finch Poospiza cabanisi –> Microspingus cabanisi
  • Ringed Warbling-Finch Poospiza torquata –> Microspingus torquatus
  • Black-capped Warbling-Finch Poospiza melanoleuca –> Microspingus melanoleucus
  • Cinereous Warbling-Finch Poospiza cinerea –> Microspingus cinereus
  • Three-striped Hemispingus Hemispingus trifasciatus –> Microspingus trifasciatus
  • Dotted Tanager Tangara varia –> Ixothraupis varia
  • Rufous-throated Tanager Tangara rufigula –> Ixothraupis rufigula
  • Speckled Tanager Tangara guttata –> Ixothraupis guttata
  • Yellow-bellied Tanager Tangara xanthogastra –> Ixothraupis xanthogastra
  • Spotted Tanager Tangara punctata –> Ixothraupis punctata
  • Tangara/Ixothraupis sp. Tangara sp. –> Tangara/Ixothraupis sp.
  • Giant Conebill Oreomanes fraseri –> Conirostrum binghami
  • White-winged Diuca-Finch Diuca speculifera –> Idiopsar speculifer
  • Plumbeous Sierra-Finch Phrygilus unicolor –> Geospizopsis unicolor
  • Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch Phrygilus plebejus –> Geospizopsis plebejus
  • Slaty Finch Haplospiza rustica –> Spodiornis rusticus
  • Black-headed Hemispingus Hemispingus verticalis –> Pseudospingus verticalis
  • Drab Hemispingus Hemispingus xanthophthalmus –> Pseudospingus xanthophthalmus
  • Bay-chested Warbling-Finch Poospiza thoracica –> Castanozoster thoracicus
  • Slaty-backed Hemispingus Hemispingus goeringi –> Poospiza goeringi
  • Rufous-browed Hemispingus Hemispingus rufosuperciliaris –> Poospiza rufosuperciliaris
  • Cochabamba Mountain-Finch Compsospiza garleppi –> Poospiza garleppi
  • Tucuman Mountain-Finch Compsospiza baeri –> Poospiza baeri
  • warbling-finch sp. Poospiza sp. –> Microspingus/Castanozoster/Poospiza sp.
  • Vampire Ground-Finch Geospiza difficilis septentrionalis –> Geospiza septentrionalis
  • Genovesa Ground-Finch Geospiza difficilis acutirostris –> Geospiza acutirostris
  • Sharp-beaked Ground-Finch Geospiza difficilis difficilis –> Geospiza difficilis
  • Española Cactus-Finch Geospiza conirostris conirostris –> Geospiza conirostris
  • Black-throated Saltator Saltator atricollis –> Saltatricula atricollis
  • Baird’s Junco Junco phaeonotus bairdi –> Junco bairdi
  • White-faced Ground-Sparrow Melozone biarcuata biarcuata/hartwegi –> Melozone biarcuata
  • Cabanis’s Ground-Sparrow Melozone biarcuata cabanisi –> Melozone cabanisi
  • sparrow sp. Emberizidae sp. (sparrow sp.) –> Passerellidae sp. (sparrow sp.)
  • Blue-black Grosbeak Cyanocompsa cyanoides –> Cyanoloxia cyanoides
  • Blue-black Grosbeak (Blue-black) Cyanocompsa cyanoides [cyanoides Group] –> Cyanoloxia cyanoides [cyanoides Group]
  • Blue-black Grosbeak (Amazonian) Cyanocompsa cyanoides rothschildii –> Cyanoloxia cyanoides rothschildii
  • Ultramarine Grosbeak Cyanocompsa brissonii –> Cyanoloxia brissonii
  • Cuban Blackbird Dives atroviolaceus –> Ptiloxena atroviolacea
  • Scarlet Finch Haematospiza sipahi –> Carpodacus sipahi
  • Bonin Grosbeak Chaunoproctus ferreorostris –> Carpodacus ferreorostris
  • Long-tailed Rosefinch Uragus sibiricus –> Carpodacus sibiricus
  • Crimson-browed Finch Pinicola subhimachala –> Carpodacus subhimachalus
  • Blanford’s Rosefinch Carpodacus rubescens –> Agraphospiza rubescens
  • Dark-breasted Rosefinch Carpodacus nipalensis –> Procarduelis nipalensis
  • White-rumped Seedeater Serinus leucopygius –> Crithagra leucopygia
  • Yellow-fronted Canary Serinus mozambicus –> Crithagra mozambica
  • African Citril Serinus citrinelloides –> Crithagra citrinelloides
  • Western Citril Serinus frontalis –> Crithagra frontalis
  • Southern Citril Serinus hypostictus –> Crithagra hyposticta
  • Black-faced Canary Serinus capistratus –> Crithagra capistrata
  • Papyrus Canary Serinus koliensis –> Crithagra koliensis
  • Forest Canary Serinus scotops –> Crithagra scotops
  • Olive-rumped Serin Serinus rothschildi –> Crithagra rothschildi
  • Black-throated Canary Serinus atrogularis –> Crithagra atrogularis
  • Reichenow’s Seedeater Serinus reichenowi –> Crithagra reichenowi
  • Yellow-rumped Serin Serinus xanthopygius –> Crithagra xanthopygia
  • Lemon-breasted Seedeater Serinus citrinipectus –> Crithagra citrinipectus
  • White-bellied Canary Serinus dorsostriatus –> Crithagra dorsostriata
  • Yellow-throated Serin Serinus flavigula –> Crithagra flavigula
  • Salvadori’s Serin Serinus xantholaemus –> Crithagra xantholaema
  • Northern Grosbeak-Canary Serinus donaldsoni –> Crithagra donaldsoni
  • Southern Grosbeak-Canary Serinus buchanani –> Crithagra buchanani
  • Brimstone Canary Serinus sulphuratus –> Crithagra sulphurata
  • Yellow Canary Serinus flaviventris –> Crithagra flaviventris
  • White-throated Canary Serinus albogularis –> Crithagra albogularis
  • Streaky Seedeater Serinus striolatus –> Crithagra striolata
  • Yellow-browed Seedeater Serinus whytii –> Crithagra whytii
  • Thick-billed Seedeater Serinus burtoni –> Crithagra burtoni
  • Tanzania Seedeater Serinus melanochrous –> Crithagra melanochroa
  • Principe Seedeater Serinus rufobrunneus –> Crithagra rufobrunnea
  • Sao Tome Grosbeak Neospiza concolor –> Crithagra concolor
  • Protea Canary Serinus leucopterus –> Crithagra leucoptera
  • Black-eared Seedeater Serinus mennelli –> Crithagra mennelli
  • Streaky-headed Seedeater Serinus gularis –> Crithagra gularis
  • Streaky-headed Seedeater (West African) Serinus gularis [canicapilla Group] –> Crithagra gularis [canicapilla Group]
  • Streaky-headed Seedeater (Streaky-headed) Serinus gularis [gularis Group] –> Crithagra gularis [gularis Group]
  • Reichard’s Seedeater Serinus reichardi –> Crithagra reichardi
  • Brown-rumped Seedeater Serinus tristriatus –> Crithagra tristriata
  • Yemen Serin Serinus menachensis –> Crithagra menachensis
  • Ankober Serin Carduelis ankoberensis –> Crithagra ankoberensis
  • Cape Siskin Pseudochloroptila totta –> Crithagra totta
  • Drakensberg Siskin Pseudochloroptila symonsi –> Crithagra symonsi
  • Twite Carduelis flavirostris –> Linaria flavirostris
  • Eurasian Linnet Carduelis cannabina –> Linaria cannabina
  • Yemen Linnet Carduelis yemenensis –> Linaria yemenensis
  • Warsangli Linnet Carduelis johannis –> Linaria johannis
  • Cassia Crossbill Loxia curvirostra sinesciuris –> Loxia sinesciuris
  • Mountain Serin Serinus estherae –> Chrysocorythus estherae
  • Citril Finch Serinus citrinella –> Carduelis citrinella
  • Corsican Finch Serinus corsicanus –> Carduelis corsicana
  • Black-headed Canary Alario alario –> Serinus alario
  • Damara Canary Alario leucolaemus –> Serinus leucolaemus
  • Tibetan Serin Serinus thibetanus –> Spinus thibetanus

MISC TOPICS

Each year there are a few quirks of the process that are worth explaining.

Iceland Gull taxa: With the lump of Thayer’s Gull, there were some unusual effects on other gull taxa in the eBird taxonomy. Below are the English name changes from the above list:

  • Thayer’s/Iceland Gull –> Iceland Gull
  • Thayer’s Gull –> Iceland Gull (Thayer’s)
  • Iceland Gull –> Iceland Gull (Iceland)
  • Thayer’s x Iceland Gull (hybrid) –> Iceland Gull (Thayer’s x Iceland)
  • Herring x Thayer’s Gull (hybrid) –> Herring x Iceland Gull (hybrid)
  • Herring/Thayer’s Gull –> Herring/Iceland Gull

Note first that Thayer’s/Iceland Gull in eBird’s 2016 taxonomy is exactly equivalent to the species Iceland Gull now. In both cases, the subspecies thayeri, kumlieni, and glaucoides could have been involved. Since thayeri and kumlieni are the darker-winged taxa, many birders have used this in the past to refer to thayeri/kumlieni, but this is not true in all cases. Please do add Species Comments in your observations of Iceland Gull if this is the reason you do not specify your sightings more specifically. Note also that Iceland Gull (Iceland) involves only glaucoides and kumlieni, and is thus an exact match for birds identified as Iceland Gull prior to the 2017 lump. Many of your eBird records will appear this way, so it is important to understand.

Finally, two hybrids and a slash also change their names. The former hybrid Thayer’s x Iceland Gull is now an intergrade, since this is now considered a hybrid between two subspecies. We generally don’t recommend using this, since conclusive identification of this hybrid is nearly impossible. The other two that change, Herring x Thayer’s Gull (hybrid) and Herring/Thayer’s Gull, also change definitions slightly since they are expanded to include glaucoides and kumlieni. We don’t generally have slash and hybrid taxa that refer to a specific subspecies. These gulls have always been a headache, and this is no less true even after they have been lumped!

Desert Whitethroat on the Arabian Peninsula: It has long been believed that Desert Whitethroat occurs on the Arabian Peninsula (e.g., Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates) as an uncommon wintering bird, and birders have routinely identified Desert Whitethroat Sylvia minula by looking for paler birds among Lesser Whitethroats Sylvia curruca. Recent genetic evidence however has revealed that these paler birds in fact seem to pertain (entirely?) to Sylvia curruca halimodendri. Because of this, we now add a subspecies group for halimodendri, which appears to be field identifiable in some circumstances by its paler plumage. We also change all Arabian records of Desert Whitethroat to Lesser Whitethroat (halimodendri) Sylvia curruca halimodendri to match current understanding. We also therefore have anotger subspecies group for “normal” Lesser Whitethroat, which is Lesser Whitethroat (curruca/blythi) Sylvia curruca curruca/blythi. Please also see above for revisions in the subspecies of Desert Whitethroat and Lesser Whitethroat.

Sykes’s Short-toed Lark and Greater Short-toed Lark in India: With last year’s update, we split Sykes’s Short-toed Lark Calandrella dukhunensis and Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla. Although these two species are very distinct genetically, they are one of the toughest field identification problems on the planet and we are still learning about their ranges and field marks. Please document your records as best you can with photos and audio recordings.

Last year’s records from India were converted to Sykes’s based on range assumptions, but this year we are reassessing them and being more conservative with how records are being assigned. Our India editors believe it is safe to assume the identification is Sykes’s Short-toed Lark only in the extreme south (states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Goa, Puducherry, Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh) and extreme east (Assam) of the country. Thus, we have changed all records reported as Greater Short-toed or Sykes’s Short-toed Lark to Greater/Sykes’s Short-toed Lark for all regions other than those above. If you believe you can establish the identification of one of your sightings with certainty, please do submit it under the correct species with documentation that confirms the identification. But if not, we recommend reporting using this option for sightings in India.

  • Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla [map] [media] [my records]
  • Sykes’s Short-toed Lark Calandrella dukhunensis [map] [media] [my records]
  • Greater/Sykes’s Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla/dukhunensis
     [map] [media]

Carduelis sp.: The genus Carduelis has been slowly eroded, with first all New World species being moved to other genera (mostly Spinus) and also Old World taxa mostly being moved (e.g., greenfinches to Chloris, Linnet and Twite to Linaria, etc.). The only remaining species are now European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis, Citril Finch Carduelis citrinella, and Corsican Finch Carduelis corsicana, which are not species that are particularly similar or sources of common confusion. Because of this, the entry for Carduelis sp. is removed. In the New World, records of Carduelis sp. are moved to Spinus sp., but since it is not clear what is intended for European entries, most of these records are moved to finch sp. Fringillidae sp. If you know, for example, that your records refer to Linaria sp., you can move your records to Twite/Eurasian Linnet Linaria flavirostris/cannabina.

Malaysia birds: Records of the following species in Malaysia, all taxonomic errors from past splits, are being corrected in this taxonomic update.

  • Javan Cuckooshrike –> Large Cuckooshrike
  • Collared Scops-Owl –> Sunda Scops-Owl
  • Streaky-breasted Spiderhunter –> Bornean Spiderhunter (Borneo) or Gray-breasted Spiderhunter (Peninsular Malaysia)
  • Purple-throated Sunbird –> Van Hasselt’s Sunbird

APPENDIX A. NEW SUBSPECIES GROUPS
As we mentioned above, a very large number of new subspecies groups were added this year, thanks to a global review of phenotypic characters conducted as part of the Handbook of the Birds of the World project.

  • Yellow-legged Tinamou (zabele) Crypturellus noctivagus zabele
  • Yellow-legged Tinamou (noctivagus) Crypturellus noctivagus noctivagus
  • Bare-faced Curassow (Belem) Crax fasciolata pinima
  • Bare-faced Curassow (Bare-faced) Crax fasciolata fasciolata/grayi
  • Chestnut-necklaced Partridge (Chestnut-necklaced) Arborophila charltonii charltonii/atjenensis
  • Chestnut-necklaced Partridge (Sabah) Arborophila charltonii graydoni
  • Moorland Francolin (Moorland) Scleroptila psilolaema psilolaema
  • Moorland Francolin (Elgon) Scleroptila psilolaema elgonensis
  • Shelley’s Francolin (Shelley’s) Scleroptila shelleyi shelleyi
  • Shelley’s Francolin (Whyte’s) Scleroptila shelleyi whytei
  • Crestless Fireback (Malay) Lophura erythrophthalma erythrophthalma
  • Crestless Fireback (Bornean) Lophura erythrophthalma pyronota
  • Black-shouldered Kite (African) Elanus caeruleus caeruleus
  • Black-shouldered Kite (Asian) Elanus caeruleus [vociferus Group]
  • Variable Goshawk (Lesser Sundas) Accipiter hiogaster sylvestris
  • Variable Goshawk (Variable) Accipiter hiogaster [hiogaster Group]
  • Sharp-shinned Hawk (Madrean) Accipiter striatus madrensis
  • Woodford’s Rail (Bougainville) Nesoclopeus woodfordi tertius
  • Woodford’s Rail (Santa Isabel) Nesoclopeus woodfordi immaculatus
  • Woodford’s Rail (Guadalcanal) Nesoclopeus woodfordi woodfordi
  • Mangrove Rail (Fonseca) Rallus longirostris berryorum
  • Red-breasted Dotterel (Northern) Charadrius obscurus aquilonius
  • Red-breasted Dotterel (Southern) Charadrius obscurus obscurus
  • Three-banded Plover (African) Charadrius tricollaris tricollaris
  • Three-banded Plover (Madagascar) Charadrius tricollaris bifrontatus
  • Painted Buttonquail (New Caledonian) Turnix varius novaecaledoniae
  • Painted Buttonquail (Painted) Turnix varius varius/scintillans
  • Metallic Pigeon (Metallic) Columba vitiensis [vitiensis Group]
  • Metallic Pigeon (Samoan) Columba vitiensis castaneiceps
  • Eurasian Collared-Dove (Eurasian) Streptopelia decaocto decaocto
  • Eurasian Collared-Dove (Burmese) Streptopelia decaocto xanthocycla
  • Bronze Ground-Dove (Western) Alopecoenas beccarii beccarii
  • Bronze Ground-Dove (Eastern) Alopecoenas beccarii [johannae Group]
  • Spinifex Pigeon (Rufous-bellied) Geophaps plumifera ferruginea
  • Spinifex Pigeon (White-bellied) Geophaps plumifera plumifera/leucogaster
  • Pheasant Pigeon (Green-naped) Otidiphaps nobilis nobilis
  • Pheasant Pigeon (White-naped) Otidiphaps nobilis aruensis
  • Pheasant Pigeon (Gray-naped) Otidiphaps nobilis cervicalis
  • Pheasant Pigeon (Black-naped) Otidiphaps nobilis insularis
  • Southern Crowned-Pigeon (Sclater’s) Goura scheepmakeri sclaterii
  • Southern Crowned-Pigeon (Scheepmaker’s) Goura scheepmakeri scheepmakeri
  • African Green-Pigeon (African) Treron calvus [calvus Group]
  • African Green-Pigeon (Gray-breasted) Treron calvus delalandii/granti
  • Red-eared Fruit-Dove (Red-eared) Ptilinopus fischeri fischeri/centralis
  • Red-eared Fruit-Dove (Lompobattang) Ptilinopus fischeri meridionalis
  • Ornate Fruit-Dove (Western) Ptilinopus ornatus ornatus
  • Ornate Fruit-Dove (Eastern) Ptilinopus ornatus gestroi
  • Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove (Tongan) Ptilinopus porphyraceus porphyraceus
  • Crimson-crowned Fruit-Dove (Samoan) Ptilinopus porphyraceus fasciatus
  • Yellow-bibbed Fruit-Dove (Geelvink) Ptilinopus solomonensis speciosus
  • Yellow-bibbed Fruit-Dove (Yellow-banded) Ptilinopus solomonensis [solomonensis Group]
  • Bare-faced Go-away-bird (Brown-faced) Corythaixoides personatus personatus
  • Bare-faced Go-away-bird (Black-faced) Corythaixoides personatus leopoldi
  • Crested Coua (Crested) Coua cristata [cristata Group]
  • Crested Coua (Chestnut-vented) Coua cristata pyropyga
  • Chestnut-breasted Malkoha (Mentawai) Phaenicophaeus curvirostris oeneicaudus
  • Chestnut-breasted Malkoha (Chestnut-breasted) Phaenicophaeus curvirostris [curvirostris Group]
  • Hantu Boobook (Buru) Ninox squamipila hantu
  • Hantu Boobook (Seram) Ninox squamipila squamipila
  • Solomons Boobook (West Solomons) Ninox jacquinoti [jacquinoti Group]
  • Solomons Boobook (Guadalcanal) Ninox jacquinoti granti
  • Solomons Boobook (Malaita) Ninox jacquinoti malaitae
  • Solomons Boobook (Makira) Ninox jacquinoti roseoaxillaris
  • Straight-billed Hermit (bourcieri) Phaethornis bourcieri bourcieri
  • Straight-billed Hermit (major) Phaethornis bourcieri major
  • Gray-chinned Hermit (Gray-chinned) Phaethornis griseogularis griseogularis/zonura
  • Gray-chinned Hermit (Porculla) Phaethornis griseogularis porcullae
  • Wedge-billed Hummingbird (Eastern) Schistes geoffroyi geoffroyi/chapmani
  • Wedge-billed Hummingbird (Western) Schistes geoffroyi albogularis
  • Antillean Mango (Hispaniolan) Anthracothorax dominicus dominicus
  • Antillean Mango (Puerto Rican) Anthracothorax dominicus aurulentus
  • Festive Coquette (Butterfly) Lophornis chalybeus verreauxii/klagesi
  • Festive Coquette (Festive) Lophornis chalybeus chalybeus
  • Bearded Mountaineer (Western) Oreonympha nobilis albolimbata
  • Bearded Mountaineer (Eastern) Oreonympha nobilis nobilis
  • Violet-throated Starfrontlet (Huanuco) Coeligena violifer dichroura
  • Violet-throated Starfrontlet (Apurimac) Coeligena violifer albicaudata
  • Violet-throated Starfrontlet (Cuzco) Coeligena violifer osculans
  • Violet-throated Starfrontlet (Bolivian) Coeligena violifer violifer
  • Booted Racket-tail (White-booted) Ocreatus underwoodii [underwoodii Group]
  • Booted Racket-tail (Peruvian) Ocreatus underwoodii peruanus
  • Booted Racket-tail (Anna’s) Ocreatus underwoodii annae
  • Booted Racket-tail (Adda’s) Ocreatus underwoodii addae
  • White-tailed Hillstar (Rufous-gaped) Urochroa bougueri bougueri
  • White-tailed Hillstar (White-tailed) Urochroa bougueri leucura
  • Black-throated Brilliant (Black-throated) Heliodoxa schreibersii schreibersii
  • Black-throated Brilliant (Black-breasted) Heliodoxa schreibersii whitelyana
  • Brace’s Emerald (Brace’s) Chlorostilbon bracei bracei
  • Brace’s Emerald (Caribbean) Chlorostilbon bracei elegans
  • Gray-breasted Sabrewing (largipennis) Campylopterus largipennis largipennis
  • Gray-breasted Sabrewing (obscurus) Campylopterus largipennis obscurus
  • Gray-breasted Sabrewing (Dry Forest) Campylopterus largipennis calcirupicola
  • Gray-breasted Sabrewing (diamantinensis) Campylopterus largipennis diamantinensis
  • Sapphire-spangled Emerald (Sapphire-spangled) Amazilia lactea lactea/zimmeri
  • Sapphire-spangled Emerald (Spot-vented) Amazilia lactea bartletti
  • Berylline Hummingbird (Northern) Amazilia beryllina beryllina/viola
  • Berylline Hummingbird (Sumichrast’s) Amazilia beryllina [devillei Group]
  • Black Dwarf Hornbill (Western) Horizocerus hartlaubi hartlaubi
  • Black Dwarf Hornbill (Eastern) Horizocerus hartlaubi granti
  • Blue-banded Kingfisher (Malay) Alcedo euryzona peninsulae
  • Blue-banded Kingfisher (Javan) Alcedo euryzona euryzona
  • Banded Kingfisher (Banded) Lacedo pulchella [pulchella Group]
  • Banded Kingfisher (Black-faced) Lacedo pulchella melanops
  • Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher (Sangihe) Cittura cyanotis sanghirensis
  • Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher (Sulawesi) Cittura cyanotis cyanotis
  • Moustached Kingfisher (Bougainville) Actenoides bougainvillei bougainvillei
  • Moustached Kingfisher (Guadalcanal) Actenoides bougainvillei excelsus
  • Green-backed Kingfisher (Blue-headed) Actenoides monachus monachus
  • Green-backed Kingfisher (Black-headed) Actenoides monachus capucinus
  • Scaly-breasted Kingfisher (Scaly-breasted) Actenoides princeps princeps/erythrorhamphus
  • Scaly-breasted Kingfisher (Plain-backed) Actenoides princeps regalis
  • Lilac-breasted Roller (Blue-breasted) Coracias caudatus lorti
  • Lilac-breasted Roller (Lilac-breasted) Coracias caudatus caudatus
  • Pied Puffbird (Lesser) Notharchus tectus subtectus
  • Pied Puffbird (Greater) Notharchus tectus tectus/picatus
  • Crescent-chested Puffbird (Lesser) Malacoptila striata minor
  • Crescent-chested Puffbird (Greater) Malacoptila striata striata
  • Yellow-billed Jacamar (Yellow-billed) Galbula albirostris albirostris
  • Yellow-billed Jacamar (Cerise-crowned) Galbula albirostris chalcocephala
  • Gray-throated Barbet (Gray-throated) Gymnobucco bonapartei bonapartei
  • Gray-throated Barbet (Gray-headed) Gymnobucco bonapartei cinereiceps
  • Naked-faced Barbet (Naked-faced) Gymnobucco calvus calvus/congicus
  • Naked-faced Barbet (Pale-throated) Gymnobucco calvus vernayi
  • White-eared Barbet (White-lined) Stactolaema leucotis leucogrammica
  • White-eared Barbet (White-eared) Stactolaema leucotis leucotis/kilimensis
  • Blue-eared Barbet (Blue-eared) Psilopogon duvaucelii cyanotis/orientalis
  • Blue-eared Barbet (Black-eared) Psilopogon duvaucelii [duvaucelii Group]
  • Lemon-throated Barbet (Lemon-throated) Eubucco richardsoni richardsoni/nigriceps
  • Lemon-throated Barbet (Flame-throated) Eubucco richardsoni aurantiicollis/purusianus
  • Versicolored Barbet (Blue-cowled) Eubucco versicolor steerii
  • Versicolored Barbet (Blue-chinned) Eubucco versicolor glaucogularis
  • Versicolored Barbet (Blue-moustached) Eubucco versicolor versicolor
  • Lettered Aracari (Humboldt’s) Pteroglossus inscriptus humboldti
  • Lettered Aracari (Lettered) Pteroglossus inscriptus inscriptus
  • Red-necked Aracari (Western) Pteroglossus bitorquatus sturmii
  • Red-necked Aracari (Eastern) Pteroglossus bitorquatus bitorquatus/reichenowi
  • Golden-collared Toucanet (Red-billed) Selenidera reinwardtii reinwardtii
  • Golden-collared Toucanet (Green-billed) Selenidera reinwardtii langsdorffii
  • White-throated Toucan (Red-billed) Ramphastos tucanus tucanus
  • White-throated Toucan (Cuvier’s) Ramphastos tucanus cuvieri/inca
  • White-barred Piculet (Marajo) Picumnus cirratus macconnelli/confusus
  • White-barred Piculet (White-barred) Picumnus cirratus [cirratus Group]
  • Crimson-mantled Woodpecker (Crimson-mantled) Colaptes rivolii [rivolii Group]
  • Crimson-mantled Woodpecker (Black-crowned) Colaptes rivolii atriceps
  • Green-barred Woodpecker (Green-barred) Colaptes melanochloros melanochloros/nattereri
  • Green-barred Woodpecker (Golden-breasted) Colaptes melanochloros [melanolaimus Group]
  • Andean Flicker (Northern) Colaptes rupicola cinereicapillus
  • Andean Flicker (Southern) Colaptes rupicola rupicola/puna
  • Lineated Woodpecker (Lineated) Dryocopus lineatus [lineatus Group]
  • Lineated Woodpecker (Dusky-winged) Dryocopus lineatus fuscipennis
  • Checker-throated Woodpecker (Checker-throated) Picus mentalis humii
  • Checker-throated Woodpecker (Javan) Picus mentalis mentalis
  • Buff-rumped Woodpecker (Buff-rumped) Meiglyptes tristis grammithorax
  • Buff-rumped Woodpecker (White-rumped) Meiglyptes tristis tristis
  • Gray-and-buff Woodpecker (Gray-and-buff) Hemicircus concretus sordidus
  • Gray-and-buff Woodpecker (Red-crested) Hemicircus concretus concretus
  • Blue-rumped Parrot (Blue-rumped) Psittinus cyanurus cyanurus/pontius
  • Blue-rumped Parrot (Simeulue) Psittinus cyanurus abbotti
  • Double-eyed Fig-Parrot (Double-eyed) Cyclopsitta diophthalma [diophthalma Group]
  • Double-eyed Fig-Parrot (Coxen’s) Cyclopsitta diophthalma coxeni
  • Large Fig-Parrot (Large) Psittaculirostris desmarestii [desmarestii Group]
  • Large Fig-Parrot (Yellow-naped) Psittaculirostris desmarestii godmani
  • Large Fig-Parrot (Red-faced) Psittaculirostris desmarestii cervicalis
  • Yellow-and-green Lorikeet (Mustard-capped) Trichoglossus flavoviridis meyeri
  • Yellow-and-green Lorikeet (Yellow-and-green) Trichoglossus flavoviridis flavoviridis
  • Festive Parrot (Northern) Amazona festiva bodini
  • Festive Parrot (Southern) Amazona festiva festiva
  • Mealy Parrot (Northern) Amazona farinosa guatemalae/virenticeps
  • Mealy Parrot (Southern) Amazona farinosa farinosa
  • White-bellied Parrot (Black-legged) Pionites leucogaster xanthomerius
  • White-bellied Parrot (Yellow-tailed) Pionites leucogaster xanthurus
  • White-bellied Parrot (Green-thighed) Pionites leucogaster leucogaster
  • Red-shouldered Macaw (Northern) Diopsittaca nobilis nobilis
  • Red-shouldered Macaw (Southern) Diopsittaca nobilis cumanensis/longipennis
  • Black-and-red Broadbill (Irrawaddy) Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos affinis
  • Black-and-red Broadbill (Black-and-red) Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos [macrorhynchos Group]
  • Silver-breasted Broadbill (Gray-browed) Serilophus lunatus rubropygius
  • Silver-breasted Broadbill (Silver-breasted) Serilophus lunatus [lunatus Group]
  • Banded Broadbill (Banded) Eurylaimus javanicus [harterti Group]
  • Banded Broadbill (Javan) Eurylaimus javanicus javanicus
  • Ivory-breasted Pitta (Ivory-breasted) Pitta maxima maxima
  • Ivory-breasted Pitta (Morotai) Pitta maxima morotaiensis
  • Black-crested Antshrike (Streak-fronted) Sakesphorus canadensis pulchellus
  • Black-crested Antshrike (Black-crested) Sakesphorus canadensis [canadensis Group]
  • Rufous-capped Antshrike (Northern) Thamnophilus ruficapillus [subfasciatus Group]
  • Rufous-capped Antshrike (Southern) Thamnophilus ruficapillus ruficapillus/cochabambae
  • Ornate Antwren (Western) Epinecrophylla ornata [ornata Group]
  • Ornate Antwren (Eastern) Epinecrophylla ornata hoffmannsi
  • Rufous-winged Antwren (Northern) Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus [scapularis Group]
  • Rufous-winged Antwren (Southern) Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus rufimarginatus
  • Dusky Antbird (tyrannina/crepera) Cercomacroides tyrannina tyrannina/crepera
  • Dusky Antbird (saturatior/vicina) Cercomacroides tyrannina saturatior/vicina
  • Chestnut-backed Antbird (Chestnut-backed) Poliocrania exsul [exsul Group]
  • Chestnut-backed Antbird (Short-tailed) Poliocrania exsul maculifer/cassini
  • Collared Crescentchest (Double-collared) Melanopareia torquata bitorquata
  • Collared Crescentchest (Collared) Melanopareia torquata torquata/rufescens
  • Tawny Antpitta (Northern) Grallaria quitensis alticola
  • Tawny Antpitta (Western) Grallaria quitensis quitensis
  • Tawny Antpitta (Southern) Grallaria quitensis atuensis
  • Long-tailed Woodcreeper (Little) Deconychura longicauda [typica Group]
  • Long-tailed Woodcreeper (Northern) Deconychura longicauda longicauda
  • Long-tailed Woodcreeper (Southern) Deconychura longicauda [pallida Group]
  • Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (pectoralis Group) Glyphorynchus spirurus [pectoralis Group]
  • Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (spirurus Group) Glyphorynchus spirurus [spirurus Group]
  • Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (albigularis) Glyphorynchus spirurus albigularis
  • Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (cuneatus Group) Glyphorynchus spirurus [cuneatus Group]
  • Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper (devillei) Dendrexetastes rufigula devillei
  • Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper (rufigula) Dendrexetastes rufigula rufigula
  • Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper (paraensis/moniliger) Dendrexetastes rufigula paraensis/moniliger
  • Spot-crowned Woodcreeper (Northern) Lepidocolaptes affinis affinis/lignicida
  • Spot-crowned Woodcreeper (Southern) Lepidocolaptes affinis neglectus
  • Plain Xenops (mexicanus Group) Xenops minutus [mexicanus Group]
  • Plain Xenops (genibarbis Group) Xenops minutus [genibarbis Group]
  • Plain Xenops (White-throated) Xenops minutus minutus
  • Blackish Cinclodes (Black) Cinclodes antarcticus maculirostris
  • Blackish Cinclodes (Blackish) Cinclodes antarcticus antarcticus
  • Pale-browed Treehunter (Pale-tailed) Cichlocolaptes leucophrus leucophrus
  • Pale-browed Treehunter (Rufous-tailed) Cichlocolaptes leucophrus holti
  • Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (turdinus) Automolus ochrolaemus turdinus
  • Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (ochrolaemus) Automolus ochrolaemus ochrolaemus
  • Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (auricularis) Automolus ochrolaemus auricularis
  • White-throated Barbtail (White-throated) Premnoplex tatei tatei
  • White-throated Barbtail (Paria) Premnoplex tatei pariae
  • Marcapata Spinetail (Pale-crowned) Cranioleuca marcapatae weskei
  • Marcapata Spinetail (Rufous-crowned) Cranioleuca marcapatae marcapatae
  • Light-crowned Spinetail (White-crowned) Cranioleuca albiceps albiceps
  • Light-crowned Spinetail (Buffy-crowned) Cranioleuca albiceps discolor
  • Greater Antillean Elaenia (Jamaican) Elaenia fallax fallax
  • Greater Antillean Elaenia (Hispaniolan) Elaenia fallax cherriei
  • Highland Elaenia (Highland) Elaenia obscura obscura
  • Highland Elaenia (Brazilian) Elaenia obscura sordida
  • Olive-striped Flycatcher (Olive-streaked) Mionectes olivaceus olivaceus
  • Olive-striped Flycatcher (Olive-striped) Mionectes olivaceus [galbinus Group]
  • Slaty-capped Flycatcher (transandinus) Leptopogon superciliaris transandinus
  • Ornate Flycatcher (Western) Myiotriccus ornatus ornatus/stellatus
  • Ornate Flycatcher (Eastern) Myiotriccus ornatus phoenicurus/aureiventris
  • Bronze-olive Pygmy-Tyrant (annectens/berlepschi) Pseudotriccus pelzelni annectens/berlepschi
  • Bronze-olive Pygmy-Tyrant (pelzelni/peruvianus) Pseudotriccus pelzelni pelzelni/peruvianus
  • Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant (Tawny-crowned) Euscarthmus meloryphus meloryphus/paulus
  • Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant (Tawny-fronted) Euscarthmus meloryphus fulviceps
  • Olivaceous Flatbill (Western) Rhynchocyclus olivaceus [aequinoctialis Group]
  • Olivaceous Flatbill (Eastern) Rhynchocyclus olivaceus [olivaceus Group]
  • White-throated Spadebill (Western) Platyrinchus mystaceus [albogularis Group]
  • White-throated Spadebill (Eastern) Platyrinchus mystaceus [mystaceus Group]
  • Cliff Flycatcher (Cliff) Hirundinea ferruginea ferruginea/sclateri
  • Cliff Flycatcher (Swallow) Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa/pallidior
  • Greater Pewee (Mexican) Contopus pertinax pertinax
  • Greater Pewee (Central American) Contopus pertinax minor
  • Riverside Tyrant (Riverside) Knipolegus orenocensis orenocensis/xinguensis
  • Riverside Tyrant (Sclater’s) Knipolegus orenocensis sclateri
  • White-winged Black-Tyrant (White-rumped) Knipolegus aterrimus heterogyna
  • White-winged Black-Tyrant (White-winged) Knipolegus aterrimus aterrimus/anthracinus
  • Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant (Brown-backed) Ochthoeca fumicolor [fumicolor Group]
  • Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant (Rufous-browed) Ochthoeca fumicolor superciliosa
  • Green Manakin (Choco) Cryptopipo holochlora litae/suffusa
  • Green Manakin (Green) Cryptopipo holochlora holochlora/viridior
  • Black-tailed Tityra (Eastern) Tityra cayana braziliensis
  • Black-tailed Tityra (Western) Tityra cayana cayana
  • Gray-collared Becard (Eastern) Pachyramphus major [major Group]
  • Gray-collared Becard (Western) Pachyramphus major uropygialis
  • Dusky Myzomela (Red-brown) Myzomela obscura rubrobrunnea
  • Dusky Myzomela (Obi) Myzomela obscura rubrotincta
  • Dusky Myzomela (Moluccan) Myzomela obscura simplex/mortyana
  • Dusky Myzomela (Dusky) Myzomela obscura [obscura Group]
  • Red Myzomela (Red) Myzomela cruentata cruentata/coccinea
  • Red Myzomela (Reddish) Myzomela cruentata [erythrina Group]
  • Sulawesi Myzomela (Sulawesi) Myzomela chloroptera [chloroptera Group]
  • Sulawesi Myzomela (Bacan) Myzomela chloroptera batjanensis
  • Wakolo Myzomela (Seram) Myzomela wakoloensis elisabethae
  • Wakolo Myzomela (Buru) Myzomela wakoloensis wakoloensis
  • Red-collared Myzomela (Red-collared) Myzomela rosenbergii rosenbergii/wahgiensis
  • Red-collared Myzomela (Long-billed) Myzomela rosenbergii longirostris
  • Blue-faced Honeyeater (White-quilled) Entomyzon cyanotis albipennis
  • Blue-faced Honeyeater (Blue-faced) Entomyzon cyanotis [cyanotis Group]
  • Fan-tailed Gerygone (Fan-tailed) Gerygone flavolateralis [flavolateralis Group]
  • Fan-tailed Gerygone (Rennell) Gerygone flavolateralis citrina
  • Crested Satinbird (Red) Cnemophilus macgregorii sanguineus
  • Crested Satinbird (Yellow) Cnemophilus macgregorii macgregorii
  • Spotted Berrypecker (Thick-billed) Melanocharis crassirostris crassirostris
  • Spotted Berrypecker (Spotted) Melanocharis crassirostris piperata/viridescens
  • Crested Berrypecker (Eastern) Paramythia montium montium/brevicauda
  • Crested Berrypecker (Western) Paramythia montium olivacea/alpina
  • Western Whipbird (Black-throated) Psophodes nigrogularis nigrogularis/oberon
  • Western Whipbird (White-bellied) Psophodes nigrogularis leucogaster/lashmari
  • Gray-chinned Minivet (Gray-chinned) Pericrocotus solaris [solaris Group]
  • Gray-chinned Minivet (Gray-throated) Pericrocotus solaris montanus/cinereigula
  • Large Cuckooshrike (Indian) Coracina macei macei/layardi
  • Large Cuckooshrike (Large) Coracina macei [nipalensis Group]
  • Large Cuckooshrike (Malay) Coracina macei larutensis
  • Bar-bellied Cuckooshrike (Bar-bellied) Coracina striata [striata Group]
  • Bar-bellied Cuckooshrike (Visayan) Coracina striata panayensis
  • Black-and-white Triller (Northern) Lalage melanoleuca melanoleuca
  • Black-and-white Triller (Southern) Lalage melanoleuca minor
  • Solomons Cuckooshrike (Solomon) Edolisoma holopolium holopolium/tricolor
  • Solomons Cuckooshrike (New Georgia) Edolisoma holopolium pygmaeum
  • Rusty-breasted Whistler (Salayar) Pachycephala fulvotincta teysmanni
  • Rusty-breasted Whistler (Rusty-breasted) Pachycephala fulvotincta [fulvotincta Group]
  • Chinese Gray Shrike (Chinese) Lanius sphenocercus sphenocercus
  • Chinese Gray Shrike (Giant) Lanius sphenocercus giganteus
  • Scrub Greenlet (Yellow-green) Hylophilus flavipes viridiflavus/xuthus
  • Scrub Greenlet (Scrub) Hylophilus flavipes [flavipes Group]
  • Scrub Greenlet (Tobago) Hylophilus flavipes insularis
  • Lemon-chested Greenlet (Lemon-chested) Hylophilus thoracicus griseiventris/aemulus
  • Lemon-chested Greenlet (Rio de Janeiro) Hylophilus thoracicus thoracicus
  • Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo (Pale-legged) Vireolanius leucotis mikettae
  • Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo (Slaty-capped) Vireolanius leucotis [leucotis Group]
  • Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Rufous-fronted) Tunchiornis ochraceiceps ferrugineifrons/viridior
  • Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Olive-crowned) Tunchiornis ochraceiceps luteifrons
  • Timor Oriole (Timor) Oriolus melanotis melanotis
  • Timor Oriole (Wetar) Oriolus melanotis finschi
  • Black-and-crimson Oriole (Black-and-crimson) Oriolus cruentus [consanguineus Group]
  • Black-and-crimson Oriole (Javan) Oriolus cruentus cruentus
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Hair-crested) Dicrurus hottentottus [hottentottus Group]
  • Hair-crested Drongo (Short-tailed) Dicrurus hottentottus striatus/samarensis
  • Northern Fantail (Seram) Rhipidura rufiventris cinerea
  • Northern Fantail (Banda Sea) Rhipidura rufiventris hoedti
  • Northern Fantail (Biak) Rhipidura rufiventris kordensis
  • Northern Fantail (Northern) Rhipidura rufiventris isura
  • Rusty-bellied Fantail (Sulawesi) Rhipidura teysmanni teysmanni/toradja
  • Rusty-bellied Fantail (Taliabu) Rhipidura teysmanni sulaensis
  • Arafura Fantail (Supertramp) Rhipidura dryas [semicollaris Group]
  • Arafura Fantail (Arafura) Rhipidura dryas dryas
  • Brown Fantail (Bougainville) Rhipidura drownei drownei
  • Brown Fantail (Guadalcanal) Rhipidura drownei ocularis
  • Streaked Fantail (Vanuatu) Rhipidura verreauxi spilodera
  • Streaked Fantail (Fiji) Rhipidura verreauxi layardi/erythronota
  • Streaked Fantail (Taveuni) Rhipidura verreauxi rufilateralis
  • Streaked Fantail (New Caledonia) Rhipidura verreauxi verreauxi
  • African Crested-Flycatcher (Eastern) Trochocercus cyanomelas [bivittatus Group]
  • African Crested-Flycatcher (Southern) Trochocercus cyanomelas cyanomelas/segregus
  • Rufous Paradise-Flycatcher (Northern) Terpsiphone cinnamomea unirufa
  • Rufous Paradise-Flycatcher (Southern) Terpsiphone cinnamomea cinnamomea/talautensis
  • Black-tailed Monarch (Djaul) Symposiachrus verticalis ateralbus
  • Black-tailed Monarch (Black-tailed) Symposiachrus verticalis verticalis
  • Dull Flycatcher (Mussau) Myiagra hebetior hebetior
  • Dull Flycatcher (Velvet) Myiagra hebetior eichhorni
  • Dull Flycatcher (Djaul) Myiagra hebetior cervinicolor
  • Black Magpie (Malay) Platysmurus leucopterus leucopterus
  • Black Magpie (Bornean) Platysmurus leucopterus aterrimus
  • Black-collared Jay (Black-collared) Cyanolyca armillata armillata/meridana
  • Black-collared Jay (Quindio) Cyanolyca armillata quindiuna
  • Paradise-crow (Halmahera) Lycocorax pyrrhopterus pyrrhopterus/morotensis
  • Paradise-crow (Obi) Lycocorax pyrrhopterus obiensis
  • Torrent Flycatcher (Torrent) Monachella muelleriana muelleriana
  • Torrent Flycatcher (New Britain) Monachella muelleriana coultasi
  • Lemon-bellied Flycatcher (Lemon-bellied) Microeca flavigaster [flavigaster Group]
  • Lemon-bellied Flycatcher (Kimberley) Microeca flavigaster tormenti
  • Pacific Robin (Pacific) Petroica multicolor [pusilla Group]
  • Pacific Robin (Norfolk) Petroica multicolor multicolor
  • Dunn’s Lark (African) Eremalauda dunni dunni
  • Dunn’s Lark (Arabian) Eremalauda dunni eremodites
  • Common House-Martin (Western) Delichon urbicum urbicum/meridionale
  • Common House-Martin (Eastern) Delichon urbicum lagopodum
  • Plain-tailed Wren (Plain-tailed) Pheugopedius euophrys [euophrys Group]
  • Plain-tailed Wren (Gray-browed) Pheugopedius euophrys schulenbergi
  • Chestnut-breasted Wren (Northern) Cyphorhinus thoracicus dichrous
  • Chestnut-breasted Wren (Southern) Cyphorhinus thoracicus thoracicus
  • Musician Wren (Imeri) Cyphorhinus arada transfluvialis
  • Musician Wren (Gray-eared) Cyphorhinus arada salvini
  • Musician Wren (Musician) Cyphorhinus arada arada
  • Musician Wren (Gray-flanked) Cyphorhinus arada griseolateralis
  • Musician Wren (Rondonia) Cyphorhinus arada interpositus
  • Musician Wren (Ferruginous) Cyphorhinus arada modulator
  • Stripe-throated Bulbul (Pale-eyed) Pycnonotus finlaysoni davisoni
  • Stripe-throated Bulbul (Stripe-throated) Pycnonotus finlaysoni finlaysoni/eous
  • Puff-throated Bulbul (Gray-crowned) Alophoixus pallidus griseiceps
  • Puff-throated Bulbul (Puff-throated) Alophoixus pallidus [pallidus Group]
  • Ochraceous Bulbul (Ochraceous) Alophoixus ochraceus [ochraceus Group]
  • Ochraceous Bulbul (Chestnut-vented) Alophoixus ochraceus ruficrissus/fowleri
  • Gray-cheeked Bulbul (Gray-cheeked) Alophoixus bres tephrogenys/gutturalis
  • Gray-cheeked Bulbul (Brown-cheeked) Alophoixus bres bres/balicus
  • Sula Golden-Bulbul (Banggai) Alophoixus longirostris harterti
  • Sula Golden-Bulbul (Sula) Alophoixus longirostris longirostris
  • Gray-eyed Bulbul (Gray-eyed) Iole propinqua [propinqua Group]
  • Gray-eyed Bulbul (innectens) Iole propinqua innectens
  • Olive Bulbul (Olive) Iole viridescens viridescens/lekhakuni
  • Olive Bulbul (Baker’s) Iole viridescens cinnamomeoventris
  • Yellowish Bulbul (Yellowish) Hypsipetes everetti everetti/samarensis
  • Yellowish Bulbul (Sulu) Hypsipetes everetti haynaldi
  • Yellowish Bulbul (Camiguin) Hypsipetes everetti catarmanensis
  • Ashy Bulbul (Cinereous) Hemixos flavala cinereus
  • Ashy Bulbul (Green-winged) Hemixos flavala connectens
  • Sunda Bulbul (Sumatran) Ixos virescens sumatranus
  • Sunda Bulbul (Javan) Ixos virescens virescens
  • Scrub Warbler (Western) Scotocerca inquieta saharae/theresae
  • Scrub Warbler (Eastern) Scotocerca inquieta [inquieta Group]
  • Brownish-flanked Bush Warbler (Brownish-flanked) Horornis fortipes [fortipes Group]
  • Brownish-flanked Bush Warbler (Taiwan) Horornis fortipes robustipes
  • Aberrant Bush Warbler (Aberrant) Horornis flavolivaceus [flavolivaceus Group]
  • Aberrant Bush Warbler (Perplexing) Horornis flavolivaceus intricatus/oblitus
  • Sulawesi Leaf Warbler (Sulawesi) Phylloscopus sarasinorum nesophilus
  • Sulawesi Leaf Warbler (Lompobattang) Phylloscopus sarasinorum sarasinorum
  • Timor Leaf Warbler (Flores) Phylloscopus presbytes floris
  • Timor Leaf Warbler (Timor) Phylloscopus presbytes presbytes
  • Sunda Warbler (Sumatran) Seicercus grammiceps sumatrensis
  • Sunda Warbler (Javan) Seicercus grammiceps grammiceps
  • Papyrus Yellow-Warbler (Papyrus) Calamonastides gracilirostris gracilirostris
  • Papyrus Yellow-Warbler (Zambian) Calamonastides gracilirostris bensoni
  • Eurasian Reed Warbler (Siwa) Acrocephalus scirpaceus ammon
  • Fernbird (New Zealand) Megalurus punctatus [punctatus Group]
  • Fernbird (Snares) Megalurus punctatus caudatus
  • Chestnut-backed Bush Warbler (Sulawesi) Locustella castanea castanea
  • Chestnut-backed Bush Warbler (Buru) Locustella castanea disturbans
  • Chestnut-backed Bush Warbler (Seram) Locustella castanea musculus
  • Guadalcanal Thicketbird (Santo) Megalurulus whitneyi whitneyi
  • Guadalcanal Thicketbird (Guadalcanal) Megalurulus whitneyi turipavae
  • Black-throated Prinia (Black-throated) Prinia atrogularis atrogularis
  • Black-throated Prinia (Rufous-crowned) Prinia atrogularis khasiana
  • Yellow-bellied Prinia (Yellow-bellied) Prinia flaviventris [flaviventris Group]
  • Yellow-bellied Prinia (Chinese) Prinia flaviventris sonitans
  • Lesser Whitethroat (curruca/blythi) Sylvia curruca curruca/blythi
  • Lesser Whitethroat (halimodendri) Sylvia curruca halimodendri
  • Brown-winged Parrotbill (Yunnan) Sinosuthora brunnea ricketti
  • Brown-winged Parrotbill (Brown-winged) Sinosuthora brunnea brunnea/styani
  • White-breasted White-eye (Abyssinian) Zosterops abyssinicus [abyssinicus Group]
  • White-breasted White-eye (Kenya) Zosterops abyssinicus flavilateralis/jubaensis
  • Bridled White-eye (Bridled) Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus
  • Bridled White-eye (Saipan) Zosterops conspicillatus saypani
  • Cream-throated White-eye (Morotai) Zosterops atriceps dehaani
  • Cream-throated White-eye (Helmahera) Zosterops atriceps fuscifrons
  • Cream-throated White-eye (Bacan) Zosterops atriceps atriceps
  • Black-fronted White-eye (Black-fronted) Zosterops minor [chrysolaemus Group]
  • Black-fronted White-eye (Green-fronted) Zosterops minor minor/rothschildi
  • Gray-throated White-eye (Bougainville) Zosterops ugiensis hamlini
  • Gray-throated White-eye (Gray-throated) Zosterops ugiensis ugiensis/oblitus
  • Gray-cheeked Tit-Babbler (Gray-cheeked) Mixornis flavicollis flavicollis
  • Gray-cheeked Tit-Babbler (Kangean) Mixornis flavicollis prillwitzi
  • Chestnut-winged Babbler (Chestnut-winged) Cyanoderma erythropterum [erythropterum Group]
  • Chestnut-winged Babbler (Gray-hooded) Cyanoderma erythropterum bicolor/rufum
  • Pale-breasted Illadopsis (Pale-breasted) Illadopsis rufipennis rufipennis/extrema
  • Pale-breasted Illadopsis (Gray-breasted) Illadopsis rufipennis distans/pugensis
  • Black-capped Babbler (Black-capped) Pellorneum capistratum [nigrocapitatum Group]
  • Black-capped Babbler (Rufous-browed) Pellorneum capistratum capistratum
  • Limestone Wren-Babbler (Grayish) Turdinus crispifrons crispifrons/annamensis
  • Limestone Wren-Babbler (Rufous) Turdinus crispifrons calcicola
  • Jungle Babbler (Jungle) Turdoides striata [striata Group]
  • Jungle Babbler (Black-winged) Turdoides striata somervillei
  • Moustached Laughingthrush (Western) Ianthocincla cineracea cineracea/strenua
  • Moustached Laughingthrush (Eastern) Ianthocincla cineracea cinereiceps
  • Black-throated Laughingthrush (Black-throated) Ianthocincla chinensis [chinensis Group]
  • Black-throated Laughingthrush (Hainan) Ianthocincla chinensis monachus
  • Silver-eared Mesia (Silver-eared) Leiothrix argentauris [argentauris Group]
  • Silver-eared Mesia (Sumatran) Leiothrix argentauris laurinae/rookmakeri
  • Spectacled Barwing (Eastern) Actinodura ramsayi radcliffei/yunnanensis
  • Spectacled Barwing (Western) Actinodura ramsayi ramsayi
  • Asian Fairy-bluebird (Asian) Irena puella [puella Group]
  • Asian Fairy-bluebird (Palawan) Irena puella tweeddalii
  • Brown-streaked Flycatcher (Brown-streaked) Muscicapa williamsoni williamsoni
  • Brown-streaked Flycatcher (Umber) Muscicapa williamsoni umbrosa
  • Oriental Magpie-Robin (Oriental) Copsychus saularis [saularis Group]
  • Oriental Magpie-Robin (Black) Copsychus saularis [amoenus Group]
  • White-rumped Shama (Barusan) Copsychus malabaricus [melanurus Group]
  • Blue-breasted Flycatcher (Blue-breasted) Cyornis herioti herioti
  • Blue-breasted Flycatcher (Rufous-breasted) Cyornis herioti camarinensis
  • Pale Blue Flycatcher (Unicolored) Cyornis unicolor unicolor
  • Pale Blue Flycatcher (Diao Luo) Cyornis unicolor diaoluoensis
  • Pale Blue Flycatcher (Hartert’s) Cyornis unicolor harterti
  • Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher (Tickell’s) Cyornis tickelliae tickelliae/jerdoni
  • Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher (Indochinese) Cyornis tickelliae [sumatrensis Group]
  • Flores Jungle-Flycatcher (Russet-backed) Cyornis oscillans oscillans
  • Flores Jungle-Flycatcher (Sumba) Cyornis oscillans stresemanni
  • Chestnut-tailed Jungle-Flycatcher (Philippine) Cyornis ruficauda [ruficauda Group]
  • Chestnut-tailed Jungle-Flycatcher (Sulu) Cyornis ruficauda ocularis
  • Chestnut-tailed Jungle-Flycatcher (Crocker) Cyornis ruficauda ruficrissa/isola
  • Vivid Niltava (Large) Niltava vivida oatesi
  • Vivid Niltava (Small) Niltava vivida vivida
  • Indigo Flycatcher (Rufous-vented) Eumyias indigo ruficrissa/cerviniventris
  • Indigo Flycatcher (Javan) Eumyias indigo indigo
  • Great Shortwing (Minahasa) Heinrichia calligyna simplex
  • Great Shortwing (Great) Heinrichia calligyna calligyna/picta
  • White-browed Shortwing (Himalayan) Brachypteryx montana cruralis
  • White-browed Shortwing (Chinese) Brachypteryx montana sinensis
  • White-browed Shortwing (Taiwan) Brachypteryx montana goodfellowi
  • White-browed Shortwing (Philippine) Brachypteryx montana [poliogyna Group]
  • White-browed Shortwing (Bornean) Brachypteryx montana erythrogyna
  • White-browed Shortwing (Sumatran) Brachypteryx montana saturata
  • White-browed Shortwing (Javan) Brachypteryx montana montana
  • White-browed Shortwing (Flores) Brachypteryx montana floris
  • Japanese Robin (Japanese) Larvivora akahige akahige/rishirensis
  • Japanese Robin (Izu) Larvivora akahige tanensis
  • Ryukyu Robin (Ryukyu) Larvivora komadori komadori/subrufus
  • Ryukyu Robin (Okinawa) Larvivora komadori namiyei
  • White-crowned Forktail (White-crowned) Enicurus leschenaulti [frontalis Group]
  • White-crowned Forktail (Javan) Enicurus leschenaulti leschenaulti
  • White-tailed Robin (White-tailed) Myiomela leucura leucura/montium
  • White-tailed Robin (Cambodian) Myiomela leucura cambodiana
  • Sunda Robin (Sumatran) Myiomela diana sumatrana
  • Sunda Robin (Javan) Myiomela diana diana
  • Red-breasted Wheatear (Buff-breasted) Oenanthe bottae bottae
  • Red-breasted Wheatear (Rusty-breasted) Oenanthe bottae frenata
  • Orange-headed Thrush (Orange-headed) Geokichla citrina [citrina Group]
  • Orange-headed Thrush (White-throated) Geokichla citrina cyanota
  • Orange-headed Thrush (Plain-winged) Geokichla citrina albogularis/andamanensis
  • Orange-headed Thrush (Buff-throated) Geokichla citrina [aurimacula Group]
  • Andean Solitaire (plumbeiceps) Myadestes ralloides plumbeiceps
  • Andean Solitaire (venezuelensis/candelae) Myadestes ralloides venezuelensis/candelae
  • Andean Solitaire (ralloides) Myadestes ralloides ralloides
  • Spotted Nightingale-Thrush (Gould’s) Catharus dryas dryas/ovandensis
  • Spotted Nightingale-Thrush (Sclater’s) Catharus dryas maculatus/blakei
  • Rufous-brown Solitaire (Chestnut-throated) Cichlopsis leucogenys chubbi
  • Rufous-brown Solitaire (Peruvian) Cichlopsis leucogenys peruviana
  • Rufous-brown Solitaire (Guianan) Cichlopsis leucogenys gularis
  • Rufous-brown Solitaire (Rufous-brown) Cichlopsis leucogenys leucogenys
  • Black-billed Thrush (Pantepui) Turdus ignobilis murinus
  • White-necked Myna (Northern) Streptocitta albicollis torquata
  • White-necked Myna (Southern) Streptocitta albicollis albicollis
  • Asian Pied Starling (Asian) Gracupica contra [contra Group]
  • Asian Pied Starling (Javan) Gracupica contra jalla
  • Vinous-breasted Starling (Burmese) Acridotheres burmannicus burmannicus
  • Vinous-breasted Starling (Vinous-breasted) Acridotheres burmannicus leucocephalus
  • Black-winged Starling (Black-winged) Acridotheres melanopterus melanopterus
  • Black-winged Starling (Gray-backed) Acridotheres melanopterus tricolor
  • Black-winged Starling (Gray-rumped) Acridotheres melanopterus tertius
  • Blue-winged Leafbird (Blue-winged) Chloropsis cochinchinensis [moluccensis Group]
  • Blue-winged Leafbird (Javan) Chloropsis cochinchinensis cochinchinensis
  • Orange-bellied Leafbird (Orange-bellied) Chloropsis hardwickii hardwickii/malayana
  • Orange-bellied Leafbird (Grayish-crowned) Chloropsis hardwickii lazulina/melliana
  • Flame-crowned Flowerpecker (Yellow-crowned) Dicaeum anthonyi anthonyi
  • Flame-crowned Flowerpecker (Flame-crowned) Dicaeum anthonyi kampalili/masawan
  • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Fire-breasted) Dicaeum ignipectus [ignipectus Group]
  • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Cambodian) Dicaeum ignipectus cambodianum
  • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Fire-throated) Dicaeum ignipectus [luzoniense Group]
  • Fire-breasted Flowerpecker (Sumatran) Dicaeum ignipectus beccarii
  • Blood-breasted Flowerpecker (Blood-breasted) Dicaeum sanguinolentum sanguinolentum/rhodopygiale
  • Blood-breasted Flowerpecker (Sumba) Dicaeum sanguinolentum wilhelminae
  • Blood-breasted Flowerpecker (Timor) Dicaeum sanguinolentum hanieli
  • Mistletoebird (Pink-breasted) Dicaeum hirundinaceum keiense/fulgidum
  • Mistletoebird (Aru) Dicaeum hirundinaceum ignicolle
  • Mistletoebird (Mistletoebird) Dicaeum hirundinaceum hirundinaceum
  • Purple-throated Sunbird (Purple-throated) Leptocoma sperata [sperata Group]
  • Purple-throated Sunbird (Orange-lined) Leptocoma sperata juliae
  • Miombo Sunbird (Western) Cinnyris manoensis pintoi
  • Miombo Sunbird (Eastern) Cinnyris manoensis manoensis/amicorum
  • Beautiful Sunbird (Beautiful) Cinnyris pulchellus pulchellus
  • Beautiful Sunbird (Gorgeous) Cinnyris pulchellus melanogastrus
  • Shining Sunbird (Shining) Cinnyris habessinicus [habessinicus Group]
  • Shining Sunbird (Arabian) Cinnyris habessinicus hellmayri/kinneari
  • Madagascar Sunbird (Grand Comoro) Cinnyris notatus moebii
  • Madagascar Sunbird (Moheli) Cinnyris notatus voeltzkowi
  • Madagascar Sunbird (Long-billed) Cinnyris notatus notatus
  • Fork-tailed Sunbird (Fork-tailed) Aethopyga christinae latouchii/sokolovi
  • Fork-tailed Sunbird (Hainan) Aethopyga christinae christinae
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (flavissima) Motacilla flava flavissima
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (lutea) Motacilla flava lutea
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (flava) Motacilla flava flava
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (beema) Motacilla flava beema
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (iberiae) Motacilla flava iberiae
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (cinereocapilla) Motacilla flava cinereocapilla
  • Western Yellow Wagtail (pygmaea) Motacilla flava pygmaea
  • Hylocitrea (Northern) Hylocitrea bonensis bonensis
  • Hylocitrea (Southern) Hylocitrea bonensis bonthaina
  • Olive-crowned Yellowthroat (Baird’s) Geothlypis semiflava bairdi
  • Olive-crowned Yellowthroat (Olive-crowned) Geothlypis semiflava semiflava
  • Citrine Warbler (Northern) Myiothlypis luteoviridis [luteoviridis Group]
  • Citrine Warbler (Peruvian) Myiothlypis luteoviridis striaticeps
  • Citrine Warbler (Bolivian) Myiothlypis luteoviridis euophrys
  • Golden-fronted Redstart (Golden-fronted) Myioborus ornatus chrysops
  • Golden-fronted Redstart (Yellow-fronted) Myioborus ornatus ornatus
  • Ringed Warbling-Finch (Ringed) Microspingus torquatus torquatus
  • Ringed Warbling-Finch (Black-breasted) Microspingus torquatus pectoralis
  • Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager (Scarlet-bellied) Anisognathus igniventris [lunulatus Group]
  • Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager (Fire-bellied) Anisognathus igniventris igniventris
  • Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager (Blue-winged) Anisognathus somptuosus [somptuosus Group]
  • Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager (Bolivian) Anisognathus somptuosus flavinucha
  • Blue-and-yellow Tanager (Green-mantled) Pipraeidea bonariensis darwinii
  • Blue-and-yellow Tanager (Blue-and-yellow) Pipraeidea bonariensis [bonariensis Group]
  • Orange-eared Tanager (Orange-eared) Chlorochrysa calliparaea calliparaea/bourcieri
  • Orange-eared Tanager (Blue-throated) Chlorochrysa calliparaea fulgentissima
  • Golden-naped Tanager (Golden-naped) Tangara ruficervix [ruficervix Group]
  • Golden-naped Tanager (Rusty-naped) Tangara ruficervix [fulvicervix Group]
  • Black-headed Tanager (Black-headed) Tangara cyanoptera cyanoptera
  • Black-headed Tanager (Black-hooded) Tangara cyanoptera whitelyi
  • Lesser Antillean Tanager (St. Vincent) Tangara cucullata versicolor
  • Lesser Antillean Tanager (Grenada) Tangara cucullata cucullata
  • Blue-and-black Tanager (Blue-and-black) Tangara vassorii vassorii/branickii
  • Blue-and-black Tanager (Spot-bellied) Tangara vassorii atrocoerulea
  • Flame-faced Tanager (Flame-faced) Tangara parzudakii parzudakii/urubambae
  • Flame-faced Tanager (Yellow-faced) Tangara parzudakii lunigera
  • Cinereous Conebill (Ochraceous) Conirostrum cinereum fraseri
  • Cinereous Conebill (Cinereous) Conirostrum cinereum cinereum/littorale
  • Orange-billed Sparrow (aurantiirostris Group) Arremon aurantiirostris [aurantiirostris Group]
  • Orange-billed Sparrow (erythrorhynchus) Arremon aurantiirostris erythrorhynchus
  • Orange-billed Sparrow (spectabilis) Arremon aurantiirostris spectabilis
  • Black-capped Sparrow (Black-capped) Arremon abeillei abeillei
  • Black-capped Sparrow (Marañon) Arremon abeillei nigriceps
  • Pectoral Sparrow (Yellow-mandibled) Arremon taciturnus axillaris
  • Pectoral Sparrow (Pectoral) Arremon taciturnus taciturnus/nigrirostris
  • White-eared Ground-Sparrow (Gray-crowned) Melozone leucotis occipitalis
  • White-eared Ground-Sparrow (White-eared) Melozone leucotis leucotis/nigrior
  • Rose-breasted Chat (Rose-breasted) Granatellus pelzelni pelzelni
  • Rose-breasted Chat (Rose-bellied) Granatellus pelzelni paraensis
  • Russet-backed Oropendola (Russet-backed) Psarocolius angustifrons [angustifrons Group]
  • Russet-backed Oropendola (Green-billed) Psarocolius angustifrons oleagineus
  • Olive Oropendola (Amazonian) Psarocolius bifasciatus yuracares/neivae
  • Olive Oropendola (Para) Psarocolius bifasciatus bifasciatus
  • Blue Chaffinch (Tenerife) Fringilla teydea teydea
  • Blue Chaffinch (Gran Canaria) Fringilla teydea polatzeki
  • Antillean Euphonia (Hispaniolan) Euphonia musica musica
  • Antillean Euphonia (Puerto Rican) Euphonia musica sclateri
  • Antillean Euphonia (Lesser) Euphonia musica flavifrons
  • Brown Bullfinch (Brown) Pyrrhula nipalensis [nipalensis Group]
  • Brown Bullfinch (Malay) Pyrrhula nipalensis waterstradti
  • Reichard’s Seedeater (Stripe-breasted) Crithagra reichardi striatipectus
  • Reichard’s Seedeater (Reichard’s) Crithagra reichardi reichardi
  • Mountain Serin (Mountain) Chrysocorythus estherae [estherae Group]
  • Mountain Serin (Mindanao) Chrysocorythus estherae mindanensis
  • European Goldfinch (European) Carduelis carduelis [carduelis Group]
  • European Goldfinch (Eastern) Carduelis carduelis [caniceps Group]
  • Red-headed Weaver (Northern) Anaplectes rubriceps leuconotos
  • Red-headed Weaver (Red) Anaplectes rubriceps jubaensis
  • Red-headed Weaver (Southern) Anaplectes rubriceps rubriceps
  • Katanga Masked-Weaver (Upemba) Ploceus katangae upembae
  • Katanga Masked-Weaver (Katanga) Ploceus katangae katangae
  • Red-collared Widowbird (Red-cowled) Euplectes ardens laticauda/suahelicus
  • Red-collared Widowbird (Red-collared) Euplectes ardens ardens
  • Crimson Finch (White-bellied) Neochmia phaeton evangelinae
  • Crimson Finch (Black-bellied) Neochmia phaeton phaeton

DOWNLOAD TAXONOMY

You can download full 2017 taxonomy (v2017) from the links at the bottom of our Taxonomy Page, including XLSX and CSV formats for a clean version and one with the changes annotated (four files).